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Full text of "Urbis Romae viri illustres. Selections from Viri Romae, with notes, exercises, and vocabulary"

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Selections from Viri Romae 

Notejs, lExrrctses, antr iTocaliulars 



University of Michigan 








By john c. rolfe. 

Typography by J. S. Cushing & Co,, Boston. 
Presswork by Berwick & Smith, Boston. 


?|rofesiSor 3ofjn amilltams Wfjite 






The transition from the introductory Latin books to the first 
Latin author, whether he be Caesar or Nepos, is undeniably 
a difficult one, and various means of bridging the gap have 
been tried. In France and Germany the ViRi Romae is ex- 
tensively used to meet the difficulty, and in many ways is 
admirably adapted to the purpose. It does not, indeed, prepare 
the pupil especially to read Caesar, but it teaches him to read 
Latin. It has the advantage over a simpUfied Caesar in being 
full of variety and interest, and in giving the pupil a sketch of 
Roman History from Romulus to Augustus in an attractive form, 
which is likely to make a permanent impression on his memory. 
A pupil who has read the ViRi Romae should have little diffi- 
culty with Caesar. 

The ViRi Romae was compiled by Charles Frangois Lhomond, 
Professor Emeritus of the University of Paris, who Hved from 
1727 to 1794. Lhomond was an enthusiastic teacher of younger 
pupils, and refused many brilliant positions in order to devote 
himself to his chosen work. His ViRi Romae was a labor of 
love, especially designed to meet the difficulties of the early 
stages of Latin study. It is not manufactured Latin, but a com- 
pilation from Cicero, Livy, Valerius Maximus, and other Roman 
writers. In his preface he tells us that he shortened sentences 
which were too long, and sHghtly changed the order of the Latin 
words in some cases ; that in the selection of his material he 
aimed to stimulate the curiosity and influence the character of 
his pupils by giving the preference to acts of valor, of mercy, of 
unselfishness, of nobiHty of character, and of kindness. 

Of the twenty-five selections given in this edition twenty are 
annotated with grammatical and explanatory notes. These notes 

vi Pi^eface 

are at the end of the book. The other five selections are pre- 
pared for sight-reading, the meanings of all new words, unless 
they can readily be inferred, being given at the bottom of the 
page. Some exercises for translation into Latin, based on the 
text, have also been provided. 

The text is mainly that of the tenth edition of C. Holzer 
(Stuttgart, 1889), with a few changes in orthography and punct- 
uation. Holzer revised Lhomond's original text by following 
more closely the phraseology of the Latin authors from whom 
the selections are made. He also omitted some passages and 
inserted others, mainly interesting anecdotes. 

Throughout the book the quantity of all long vowels has been 
marked. This is due to a suggestion made some years ago by 
Professor William Gardner Hale of the University of Chicago 
(at that time of Cornell University), who has been kind enough 
to read the proofs of the text and vocabulary, but witli reference 
to quantities only. Except in the case of a few obvious misprints, 
Lewis's " Latin Dictionary for Schools " and " Elementary Latin 
Dictionary" have been followed, the latter as the more recent 
work being given the preference in the cases where the two 
books do not agree. While reserving his opinion on several 
points of acknowledged difficulty, Professor Hale has agreed 
with me that it would be unwise, in a volume intended for school 
use, to run the risk of confusion by differing from the books 
which seem likely to be the standard for some years to come. 

Thanks are also due for assistance to Professor Francis W. 
Kelsey and Mr. W. K. Clement, of the University of Michigan. 
Besides many helpful suggestions Professor Kelsey has allowed 
the use of the advance sheets of his vocabulary to Cicero, from 
which a few definitions have been taken. 

A few Hints on Method are given on p. ix, in which the plan 

of the book is more fully explained. 


Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
March i, 1892. 



HiNTS ON Method ix 


I. Romani imperii exordium i 

II. Romulus, Romanorum rex prfmus 2 

III. Numa Pompilius, Romanorum rex secundus . . 5 

IV. Tullus Hostilius, Romanorum rex tertius ... 6 
V. Ancus Marcius, Romanorum rex quartus ... 9 

VI. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Romanorum rex 

quTntus 10 

VII. Servius Tullius, Rdmanorum rex sextus ... 12 
VIII. Tarquinius Superbus, R6man5rum rex septimus 

et ultimus 14 

IX. Horatius Cocles 15 

X. Gaius Marcius Coriolanus . 16 

XI. Publius Valerius Laevlnus et Pyrrhus, rex Epirl . 17 

XII. Gaius Fabricius 20 

XIII. Manius Curius 23 

XIV. Marcus Atllius Regulus 24 

XV. Qulntus Fabius Maximus 27 


viii Contenfs 


XVI. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varro 31 

XVII. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus 34 

XVIII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus .... 45 

XIX. Gaius Marius 48 

XX. LiJcius Cornelius Sulla 54 

XXI. Ouintus Sertorius 57 

XXII. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 60 

XXIII. Gaius lulius Caesar 67 

XXIV. Marcus TulHus Cicero 77 

XXV. Caesar Octavianus Augustus 84 

NoTES 97 




1. Pronunciation and Reading of the Latin. Pupils 
should be taught to pronounce Latin accurately, indicating 
clearly the distinction between long and short vowels. This 
end may be attained in various ways. The rules of quantity 
should be learned gradually with the declensions and conjuga- 
tions. To acquire them in this way adds little to the pupil's 
daily task ; while for one who has been allowed to pronounce 
carelessly until he enters college to attempt to reform his pro- 
nunciation is an enormously difficult and discouraging labor ; it 
is really well-nigh hopeless. There is a close analogy in this 
respect with the use of correct EngHsh. 

As not all quantities are determined by mle, but a great many 
must be learned from memory and practice, it would seem a 
time-saving device to provide the pupil in the earUer stages of 
his reading with a text in which the quantities are marked. 
Having once learned to pronounce a word correctly, and having 
never been allowed to mispronojince it^ he is likely to continue 
to pronounce correctly when his texts are no longer marked, and 
to be led to look up for himself the quantity of words which are 
new to him. It is in this behef that, throughout the book, the 
quantity of all long vowels has been marked, including ' hidden 

Pupils should also be taught to read Latin aloud with such 
expression that it is evident without translation whether or not 

1 In correcting an error, the teacher should not repeat the faulty pronun- 
ciation. If possible, let the pttpil 7iever hear a Latin word mispronounced. 

2 See the Preface. 

Hints on MetJiod 

they understand the meaning of what they have read. They 
should acquire the habit of doing this without traiistating^ even 
in the jnind. Reading the Latin, therefore, should not be an 
occasional exercise, but a regular and important part of each 
and every recitation, and of the pupil's preparation for recitation. 
In this connection, as well as an important aid in writing Latin, 
the practice of committing to memory selected passages of Latin, 
and reciting them with correctness and expression, is a most 
helpful exercise which is too often wholly neglected. 

The ViRi RoMAE is particularly rich in anecdotes which may 
be used in this way. 

2. Translatioii. Translation into EngHsh should be insisted 
on. To comprehend the meaning of a Latin sentence, and to 
express that meaning in idiomatic English, are two distinct and 
equally valuable arts. They should be made as distinct as 
possible. The pupil should learn to grasp the meaning of a 
Latin sentence iti the original., fottowing the order of the Latin 
words. He should also learn to express that meaning in idio- 
matic EngHsh. A Hteral translation should never be aHowed, 
unless it happen to be also idiomatic. The charge is often 
seriously made that the study of Latin ruins one's English style, 
and a real danger undoubtedly exists. If, however, the pupil be 
trained from the outset to thiiik in Latinj bad EngHsh need 
never be used to explain the meaning of difficult sentences. 

The ear should be trained as weH as the eye. Therefore the 
pupil should occasionaHy be called on to translate, without the 
text before him, passages read to him by his teacher. Often 
pupils who have acquired some faciHty in translating are unable 
to comprehend smiple sentences when read to them, or even to 
write them in Latin from dictation. 

Pupils should acquire the abOity to understand and trans- 
late any Latin in which the words and the constructions are 
familiar to them ; that is to say, to translate at sight. To this 
end they should master all new constructions, and should learn 

Hints 011 MetJiod xi 

once for all the meanings of new words. They may be greatly 
helped in the latter regard by having their attention called to the 
derivation of new words, and to the force and meaning of suffixes 
and prefixes. The force of particles should also be carefully 

For further suggestions about reading and translating Latin, 

see Hale's 'Art of Reading Latin.'! 

3. Latin Writing and Latin Composition. The ability 
to write idiomatic Latin, and to express oneself orally in Latin, 
is of the highest value ; not for its own sake, but because in no 
other way can a knowledge of forms and constructions, and a 
feeling for the idioms of the language, be so easily acquired. 
Constant practice of this kind in the earlier years of a pupiPs 
course gives an accuracy of expression which can be acquired 
only with great difficulty later. 

A number of sentences and passages based on the text will 
be found on pp. 143 foL Tlie pupil should begin as soon as 
possible to translate continuous passages into Latin, and to 
write short compositions in Latin on such subjects as Romulus, 
Marius, Caesar, etc. 

The translation of detached sentences, while of little value as 
a means of learning to write Latin, may be made a valuable 
preparation for writing Latin, and a generally helpful exercise, 
provided the work be done orally and very rapidly. For sug- 
gestions about this kind of work, see the Prefatory Note to the 


Sentences of this kind may be supplemented by turning direct 
discourse into indirect, and vice versa, — an exercise which is 
frequently suggested in the Notes ; or by asking questions in 
Latin on the subject-matter of the lessons in translation, the 
replies being, of course, in Latin. The latter exercise is strongly 
recommended, since it also gives the pupil practice in transla- 
tion at hearing. 

1 Ginn & Co., Boston. 

xii Hints on Method 

Rapid oral translation into Latin in some form should be a 
daily exercise, and practice in the writing of Latin should be as 
frequent as possible. Time spent in this way will tell ; while 
at first the amount of translation into Enghsh may be less on 
account of the time given to translation into Latin, in the long 
run it will surely be greater, and it will be done with greater 
ease than if Latin composition be neglected or made an occa- 
sional exercise only. 

4. History, Geography, Mythology, and Antiquities. 

In order to be prepared on his entrance to college to read the 
Latin authors rapidly, easily, and appreciatively, which we may 
assume to be the chief aim of the preparatory Latin course, the 
student must not only have the ability to understand and trans- 
late Latin of moderate difficulty at sight, but he must also have 
such a knowledge of the historical environment, and of the 
conditions of Roman life, as to be able to assume an attitude 
of sympathy towards the author, and to look at things to some 
extent from the Roman point of view ; in other words, he must 
know something of ancient history and geography, of mythology, 
and of the Hfe of the Romans in all its aspects ; and the richer 
this knowledge is, the easier and more interesting will be his 
work. This knowledge he must, of course, acquire gradually, 
and to a great extent from his Latin reading. 

The selections from the ViRi Romae are especially adapted to 
the study of Roman history. The pupil should look up all 
proper names in the Vocabulary, and should consult, if possible, 
the dictionaries of geography, antiquities, biography, and mythol- 
ogy. It is easy to interest pupils in work of this kind, especially 
if graphic illustrations are given by means of photographs, maps, 
engravings, etc, and it is, therefore, the more to be wondered at 
that most pupils who enter college, even from the best schools, 
are so lamentably weak in this respect. 

5. Parallel Reading in English. Pupils should be encour- 
aged to read in EngUsh on the iines of their work in Latin. A 

Hints on Method xiii 

stirring poem or an interesting historical novel will often make 
an impression, when the formal wori< of the class-room has failed 
to do so, and most young people are readily interested in reading 
of this kind. Especially adapted to the purpose are Macaulay's 
'Lays of Ancient Rome' and parts of Byron^s ^Childe Harold.' 
For a selected list of historical novels see Kelsey's ' Fifty Topics 
69, 70. 

Allyn & Bacon, Boston. 



I. Momanl imperil exordium, 

Proca, rex Albanorum, Numitorem et Amulium fllios 
habuit. Numitori, qul natu maior erat, regnum rellquit ; 
sed Amulius, pulso fratre, regnavit et, ut eum subole prl- 
varet, Rheam Silviam, eius flHam, Vestae sacerdotem 
fecit, quae tamen Romulum et Remum geminos edidit. 5 
Ea re cognita AmuHus ipsam in vincula coniecit, parvu- 
los alveo impositos abiecit in Tiberim, qul tunc forte 
super rlpas erat effiisus ; sed relabente flumine eos aqua 
in sicco rellquit. Vastae tum in els locls solitudines 
erant. Lupa, ut fama traditum est, ad vagltum accur- 10 
rit, Infantes lingua lambit, iibera eorum ori admovit 
matremque se gessit. 

Cum lupa saepius ad parvulos velutl ad catulos rever- 
teretur, Faustulus, pastor regius, re animadversa eos tuHt 
in casam et Accae Larentiae coniugi dedit educandos. 15 
Adultl deinde hl inter pastores prlmo ludicris certamini- 
bus vlres auxere, deinde venando saltus peragrare et 
latrones a raplna pecorum arcere coeperunt. Qua re 
cum els Insidiatl essent latrones, Remus captus est, 
Romulus vl se defendit. Tum Faustulus, necessitate 20 
compulsus, indicavit Romulo, quis esset eorum avus, 

Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

quae mater. Romulus statim armatis pastoribus Albam 

Interea Remum latrones ad Amulium regejm perduxe- 
runt, eum accusantes, quasi Numitoris agros infestare 

5 solitus esset ; itaque Remus a rege Numitori ad suppli- 
cium traditus est ; at cum Numitor, adulescentis vultum 
considerans, aetatem minimeque servilem indolem com- 
pararet, haud procul erat quin nepotem agnosceret. 
Nam Remus oris lineamentis erat matri simillimus aetas- 

10 que expositionis temporibus congruebat. Ea res dum 
Numitoris animum anxium tenet, repente Romulus su- 
pervenit, fratrem liberat, interempto Amiilio avum Numi- 
torem in regnum restituit. 

Deinde Romulus et Remus urbem in eisdem locis, ubi 

15 expositi ubique educati erant, condiderunt ; sed orta 
inter eos contentione, uter nomen novae urbi daret 
eamque imperio regeret, auspicia decreverunt adhibere. 
Remus prior sex vultures, Romulus postea duodecim 
vidit. Sic Romulus, victor augurio, urbem Romam 

20 vocavit. Deinde novae urbi miiros circumdedit. Quos 
inridens cum Remus saltii traiecisset, eum iratus Romu- 
lus interfecit his increpans verbis : " Sic deinde, quicum- 
que alius transiliet moenia mea ! " Ita solus potitus 
est imperio Romulus. 

II. Romulus, Mdmdnorum rex primus. 

753-715 B.C. 

25 Romulus imaginem urbis magis quam urbem fecerat ; 
incolae deerant. Erat in proximo liicus ; hunc asylum 


fecit. Et statim eo mlra vis latronum pastorumque 
confugit. Cum vero uxores ipse populusque non habe- 
rent, legatos circa viclnas gentes misit, qul societatem 
conubiumque novo populo peterent. Nusquam benlgne 
audlta legatio est ; ludibrium etiam additum : " CHr non 5 
feminls quoque asylum aperuistis? Id enim compar 
foret conubium." Romulus, aegritudinem animl dis- 
simulans, ludos parat; indlcl deinde flnitimis spectacu- 
lum iubet. Multl convenere studio etiam videndae 
novae urbis, maxime Sabini cum Ilberls et coniugibus. 10 
Ubi spectacull tempus venit eoque conversae mentes 
cum oculls erant, tum slgno dato iuvenes Romani dis- 
currunt, virgines rapiunt. 

Haec fuit statim causa belll. Sablnl enim ob virgines 
raptas bellum adversus Romanos siimpserunt, et cum 15 
Romae approplnquarent, Tarpeiam virginem nactl sunt, 
quae aquam forte extra moenia petitum ierat. Hilius 
pater Romanae praeerat arcl. Titus Tatius, Sablnorum 
dux, Tarpeiae optionem muneris dedit, sl exercitum 
suum in Capitolium perdiixisset. Illa petiit, quod Sa- 20 
blnl in sinistrls manibus gererent, videlicet aureos anulos 
et armillas. Quibus dolose promlssls, Tarpeia Sabinos in 
arcem perdiixit, ubi Tatius scOtls eam obrul iussit ; nam 
et ea in laevls habuerant. Slc impia proditio celerl 
poena vindicata est. 25 

Deinde Romulus ad certamen processit, et in eo 
loco, ubi nunc Romanum Forum est, pugnam conseruit. 
Prlmo impetii vir inter Romanos Inslgnis, nomine Hos- 
tUius^ fortissime dimicans cecidit ; ciiius interitii conster- 

Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

nati Romani fugere coeperunt. lam Sablnl clamitabant : 
" Vicimus perfidos hospites, imbelles hostes. Nunc sci- 
unt, longe aliud esse virgines rapere, aliud pugnare cum 
viris." Tunc Romulus, arma ad caelum tollens, lovi 

5 aedem vovit, et exercitus seu forte seu divinitus restitit. 
Itaque proelium redintegratur ; sed raptae mulieres cri- 
nibus passis ausae sunt se inter tela volantia inferre et 
hinc patres, hinc viros orantes, pacem conciliarunt. 

Romulus foedere cum Tatio icto et Sabinos in urbem 

10 recepit et regnum cum Tatio sociavit. Verum haud ita 
multo post occiso Tatio ad Romulum potentatus omnis 
recidit. Centum deinde ex senioribus elegit, quorum 
consilio omnia ageret, quos senatores nominavit propter 
senectiitem. Tres equitum centurias constituit, populum 

15 in triginta ciirias distribuit. His ita ordinatis cum ad 
exercitum liistrandum contionem in campo ad Caprae 
paliidem haberet, subito coorta est tempestas cum magno 
fragore tonitribusque et Romulus e conspectu ablatus 
est. Ad deos transisse vulgo creditus est ; cui rei fidem 

20 fecit liilius Proculus, vir nobilis. Orta enim inter patres 
et plebem seditione, in contionem processit iiireiiirando 
adfirmans, visum a se Romulum augustiore forma, eun- 
demque praecipere, ut seditionibus abstinerent et rem 
mihtarem colerent ; futilrum, ut omnium gentium domini 

25 exsisterent. Aedes in colle Quirinali Romulo constitiita, 
ipse pro deo cultus et Quirinus est appellatus. 

Nitma Ponipiliiis 

III. Numa PoniplliuSf Romanorum rex 

715-673 B.C. 

Successit Romulo Numa Pompilius, vir inclita iiistitia 
et religione. Is Curibus, ex oppido Sabinorum, accitus 
est. Qui cum Romam venisset, ut populum ferum re- 
ligione mitigaret, sacra plurima Instituit. Aram Vestae 
consecravit, et ignem in ara perpetuo alendum virginibus 5 
dedit. Flaminem lovis sacerdotem creavit eumque in- 
sTgni veste et curuli sella adornavit. Dicitur quondam 
ipsum lovem e caelo elicuisse. Hic ingentibus fulmini- 
bus in urbem demissTs descendit in nemus AventTnum, 
ubi Numam docuit, quibus sacrTs fulmina essent procii- 10 
randa, et praeterea imperil certa plgnora populo Romano 
datiirum se esse promlsit. Numa laetus rem populo 
niintiavit. Postridie omnes ad aedes regias convenerunt 
silentesque exspectabant, quid futiirum esset. Atque 
sole orto delabitur e caelo scisso sciitum, quod ancTle 15 
appellavit Numa. Id ne fiirto auferrl posset, Mamurium 
fabrum iandecim sciita eadem forma fabricare iussit. 
Duodecim autem Salios Martis sacerdotes legit, qui 
ancTlia, secreta illa imperii pTgnora, custodlrent et Ka- 
lendis MartiTs per urbem canentes et rite saltantes fer- 20 
rent. Annum in duodecim menses ad cursum liinae 
descripsit ; nefastos fastosque dies fecit ; portas lano 
gemino aedificavit, ut esset index pacis et bellT; nam 
apertus, in armTs esse cTvitatem, clausus, pacatos circa 
omnes populos, significabat. 

Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

Leges quoque plurimas et utiles tulit Numa. Ut vero 
maiorem institiitis suis auctoritatem conciliaret, simula- 
vit, sibi cum dea Egeria esse conloquia nocturna, eiusque 
monitii se omnia, quae ageret, facere. Liicus erat, quem 
5 medium fons perenni rigabat aqua ; eo saepe Numa sine 
arbitris se inferebat, velut ad congressum deae ; ita om- 
nium animos ea pietate imbuit, ut fides ac iiisiiirandum 
non minus quam legum et poenarum metus cives con- 
tineret. Bellum quidem niillum gessit, sed non minus 
10 civitati profuit quam Romulus. Morbo exstinctus in 
laniculo monte sepultus est. Ita duo deinceps reges, 
ille bello, hic pace, civitatem auxerunt. Romulus sep- 
tem et triginta regnavit annos, Numa tres et quadraginta. 

IV. Tullus Hostlliusy Momdndrum rex tertius, 

673-641 B.C. 

Mortuo Numa Tullus Hostilius rex creatus est. Hic 
15 non solum proximo regi dissimilis, sed ferocior etiam 
Romulo fuit. Eo regnante bellum inter Albanos et 
Romanos exortum est. Ducibus Hostilio et Fiifetio 
placuit, paucorum certamine fata utriusque populi de- 
cerni. Erant apud Romanos trigemini fratres HoratiT, 
20 tres apud Albanos Ciiriatii. Cum eis agunt reges, ut pro 
sua quisque patria dimicent ferro. Foedus ictum est ea 
lege, ut, unde victoria, ibi imperium esset. 

Icto foedere trigemini arma capiunt et in medium 

inter duas acies procedunt. Consederant utrimque duo 

25 exercitiis. Datur signum, infestisque armis temi iuvenes, 

Tidlus Hostilius 

magnorum exercituum animos gerentes, concurrunt. Ut 
prlmo concursu increpuere arma micantesque fulsere 
gladii, horror ingens spectantes perstringit. Consertls 
deinde manibus statim duo Romanl alius super alium 
exspirantes ceciderunt ; tres Albanl vulneratl. Ad casum 5 
Romanorum conclamavit gaudio exercitus Albanus. Ro- 
manos iam spes tota deserebat. Unum Horatium tres 
Curiatii circumsteterant. Forte is integer fuit ; sed quia 
tribus impar erat, ut distraheret hostes, fugam capesslvit, 
singulos per intervalla secuturos esse ratus. lam ahquan- 10 
tum spatil ex eo loco, ubi pugnatum est, aufugerat, cum 
respiciens videt unum e Cilriatils haud procul ab sese 
abesse. In eum magno impetu redit, et dum Albanus 
exercitus inclamat Ciiriatils, ut opem ferant fratrl, iam 
Horatius eum occlderat. Alterum deinde, priusquam 15 
tertius posset consequl, interfecit. 

lam singuh supererant, sed nec spe nec viribus pares. 
Alter erat intactus ferro et geminata victoria ferox ; alter 
fessum vulnere, fessum cursil trahebat corpus. Nec illud 
proehum fuit. Romanus exsultans male sustinentem 20 
arma Cilriatium conficit, iacentem spohat. Romanl 
ovantes ac gratulantes Horatium accipiunt et domum 
dediicunt. Prlnceps Ibat Horatius, trium fratrum spoha 
prae se gerens. Cui obvia fuit soror, quae desponsa 
fuerat iinl ex Ciiriatils, vlsoque super umeros fratris 25 
paliidamento sponsl, quod ipsa confecerat, flere et crlnes 
solvere coepit. Movet ferocl iuvenl animum complora- 
tio sororis in tanto gaudio piibhco ; itaque stricto gladio 
transfigit pueUam, simul eam verbls increpans : " Abi 

8 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

hinc cum immaturo amore ad sponsum, oblita fratrum, 
oblita patriae. Sic eat, quaecumque Romana lugebit 

Atrox id visum est facinus patribus plebique; qua re 
5 raptus est in iiis Horatius et apud iiidices condemnatus. 
lam accesserat lictor iniciebatque laqueum. Tum Hora- 
tius ad populum provocavit. Interea pater Horatii senex 
proclamabat, filiam suam iiire caesam esse ; et iuvenem 
amplexus spoliaque Ciiriatiorum ostentans, orabat popu- 

lo lum, ne se, quem paulo ante cum egregia stirpe conspex- 
issent, orbum liberis faceret. Non tulit populus patris 
lacrimas iuvenemque absolvit admiratione magis virtiitis 
quam iiire causae. Ut tamen caedes manifesta expiare- 
tur, pater quibusdam sacrificiis peractis transmisit per 

15 viam tigillum et filium capite adoperto velut sub iugum 
misit ; quod tigillum sororium appellatum est. 

Non diii pax Albana mansit ; nam Mettius Fiifetius, 
dux Albanorum, cum se invidiosum apud cives videret, 
quod bellum iino paucorum certamine finisset, ut rem 

20 corrigeret, Veientes Fidenatesque adversus Romanos 
concitavit. Ipse, a Tullo in auxilium arcessitus, aciem in 
collem subdiixit, ut fortiinam belli exspectaret et seque- 
retur. Qua re Tullus intellecta magna voce ait, suo illud 
iiissii Mettium facere, ut hostes a tergo circumvenirentur. 

25 Quo audito hostes territi et vTcti sunt. Postero die Met- 
tius cum ad gratulandum Tullo venisset, iiissii ihius qua- 
drigis rehgatus et in diversa distractus est. Deinde 
Tulkis Albam propter ducis perfidiam diruit et Albanos 
Romam transire iussit. 

Aiicus Marciiis 9 

Roma interim crevit Albae ruTnis ; duplicatus est 
clvium numerus ; mons Caelius urbi additus et, quo fre- 
quentius habitaretur, eam sedem Tullus regiae cepit 
ibique deinde habitavit. Auctarum virium fiducia elatus 
bellum Sabinls indixit. Pestilentia inseciita est ; nulla 5 
tamen ab armls quies dabatur. Credebat enim rex 
belHcosus saliibriora mlHtiae quam domi esse iuvenum 
corpora, sed ipse quoque diuturno morbo est impHcitus. 
Tunc vero adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spIritOs 
illl feroces, ut niilH rel posthac nisi sacris operam 10 
daret. Memorant, TuHum fulmine ictum cum domo 
conflagrasse. Tullus magna gloria beUi regnavit annos 
duos et trlginta. 

V. Ancus Mdrcius, Rdmdndrum rex quartus* 

641-616 B.C. 

TuHo mortuo Ancum Marcium regem populus creavit. 
Numae Pompilil nepos Ancus Marcius erat, aequitate et 15 
religione avo simiHs. Tunc Latlnl, cum quibus Tullo 
regnante ictum foedus erat, sustulerant animos, et incur- 
sionem in agrum Romanum fecerunt. Ancus, priusquam 
els bellum indlceret, legatum mlsit, qul res repeteret, 
eumque morem posterl acceperunt. Id autem hoc modo 20 
fiebat. Legatus, ubi ad flnes eorum venit, a quibus res 
repetuntur, capite velato, ''Audl, luppiter," inquit, " au- 
dlte, flnes hiiius popuH. Ego sum piibHcus nuntius 
popuH Romanl ; verbls mels fides sit." Deinde peragit 
postulata. Sl non deduntur res, quas exposcit, hastam 25 

lO Urbis Roinae Viri Ilhistres 

in fines hostium emittit bellumque ita indlcit. Legatus, 
qui ea de re mittitur, f etialis ritusque belll indlcendi ius 
fetiale appellatur. 

Legato Romano res repetenti superbe responsum est a 

5 Latlnls ; qua re bellum hoc modo eis indictum est. Ancus 
exercitii conscripto profectus Latinos fiidit et compliiri- 
bus oppidis deletls cives Romam tradiixit. Cum autem 
in tanta hominum multitiidine facinora clandestlna fie- 
rent, Ancus carcerem in media urbe ad terrorem incre- 

10 scentis audaciae aedificavit. Idem nova moenia urbl 
circumdedit, laniculum montem ponte subHcio in Tiberl 
facto urbi coniiinxit, in ore Tiberis Ostiam urbem con- 
didit. Pliiribus ahls rebus intra paucos annos confectis, 
immatiira morte praereptus obiit. 

VI. Lucius Tarquinius Prlscus, Momdnorum 
rex qulutus, 

616-578 B.C. 

15 Anco regnante Liicius Tarquinius, Tarquinils, ex Etru- 
riae urbe, profectus, cum coniuge et fortiinls omnibus 
Romam commigravit. Additur haec fabula : advenienti 
aquila pilleum sustuHt et super carpentum, cul Tarquinius 
insidebat, cum magno clangore voHtans riirsus capiti apte 

20 reposuit ; inde subHmis abiit. Tanaquil coniux, caeles- 
tium prodigiorum perlta, regnum el portendi intehexit ; 
itaque, virum complexa, excelsa et aha sperare eum iussit. 
Has spes cogitationesque secum portantes urbem ingressi 
sunt, domiciHoque ibi comparato Tarquinius pecilnia et 

L^icius Tarquiiiiits 1 1 

industria dignitatem atque etiam Anci regis familiaritatem 
consecutus est ; a quo tiitor liberis relictus regnum inter- 
cepit et ita administravit, quasi iiire adeptus esset. 

Tarquinius Priscus Latinos bello domuit; Circum Maxi- 
mum aedificavit ; de Sabinis triumphavit; miirum lapi- 
deum urbi circumdedit. Equitum centurias duplicavit, 
nomina miitare non potuit, deterritus, ut ferunt, Atti 
Navii auctoritate. Attus enim, ea tempestate augur 
inclitus, id fieri posse negabat, nisi aves addixissent ; 
iratus rex in experimentum artis eum interrogavit, fierine 
posset, quod ipse mente concepisset ; Attus augurio acto 
iieri posse respondit. " Atqui hoc," inquit rex, " agita- 
bam, num cotem illam secare novacula possem." " Potes 
ergo," inquit augur, et rex secuisse dicitur. Tarquinius 
filium tredecim annorum, quod in proeHo hostem per- 
cussisset, praetexta bullaque donavit ; unde haec ingenu- 
orum puerorum insignia esse coeperunt. 

Supererant duo Anci fihi, qui, aegre ferentes se paterno 
regno fraudatos esse, regi insidias paraverunt. Ex pasto- 
ribus duos ferocissimos deUgunt ad patrandum facinus. 
Ei simulata rixa in vestibulo regiae tumultuantur. Quo- 
rum clamor cum penitus in regiam pervenisset, vocati ad 
regem pergunt. Primo uterque vociferari coepit et cer- 
tatim alter alteri obstrepere. Cum vero iiissi essent invi- 
cem dicere, iinus ex composito rem orditur; dumque 
intentus in eum se rex totus avertit, alter elatam seciirim 
in eius caput deiecit, et relicto in vulnere telo ambo foras 
se proripiunt. 

12 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhtsti^es 

VII. Servius TulUuSf Romdnorum rex sextus. 

578-534 B.C. 

Post hunc Servius TuUius suscepit imperium genitus 
ex nobill femina, captiva tamen et famula. Qui cum in 
domo Tarquinii Prisci educaretur, ferunt prodigium vlsii 
eventiique mlrabile accidisse. Flammae species pueri 

5 dormientis caput amplexa est. Hoc vlsii Tanaquil sum- 
mam el dlgnitatem portendi intellexit coniuglque suasit, 
ut eum haud secus ac suos liberos educaret. Is post- 
quam adolevit, et fortitiidine et consiHo Insignis fuit. In 
proeho quodam, in quo rex Tarquinius adversus Sablnos 

10 confllxit, mllitibus segnius dimicantibus, raptum signum 
in hostem misit. Ciiius recipiendi gratia Romani tam 
acriter pHgnaverunt, ut et signum et victoriam referrent. 
Qua re a Tarquinio gener adsiimptus est ; et cum Tar- 
quinius occisus esset, Tanaquil, Tarquinil uxor, mortem 

15 eius celavit, populumque ex superiore parte aedium adlo- 
cuta ait, regem grave quidem, sed non letale vuhius acce- 
pisse, eumque petere, ut interim, dum convalesceret, 
Servio Tullio dicto audientes essent. Sic Servius Tulhus 
regnare coepit, sed recte imperium administravit. Sabi- 

20 nos subegit ; montes tres, Quirlnalem, Vlminalem, Esqui- 
linum urbl adiiinxit ; fossas circa miirum diixit. Idem 
censum ordinavit, et populum in classes et centurias dis- 

Servius Tulhus ahquod urbl decus addere volebat. 

25 lam tum inchtum erat Dianae Ephesiae fanum. Id 
commiiniter a civitatibus Asiae factum fama ferebat. 

Servms Ttillius 13 

Itaque Latinorum populis suasit, ut et ipsi fanum Dianae 
cum populo Romano Romae in Aventino monte aedifica- 
rent. Quo facto bos mirae magnitiidinis cuidam Latino 
nata dicitur, et responsum somnio datum, eum populum 
summam imperii habitiirum, ciiius civis bovem illam 5 
Dianae immolasset. Latinus bovem ad fanum Dianae 
egit et causam sacerdoti Romano exposuit. Ille callidus 
dixit, prius eum vivo flumine maniis abluere debere. 
Latinus dum ad Tiberim descendit, sacerdos bovem 
immolavit. Ita imperium civibus sibique gloriam ad- 10 

Servius Tullius filiam alteram ferocem, mitem alteram 
habens, cum Tarquinii fiUos pari esse animo videret, fero- 
cem miti, mitem feroci in matrimonium dedit, ne duo 
violenta ingenia matrimonio iungerentur. Sed mites seu 15 
forte seu fraude perierunt ; feroces morum simiUtiido 
coniiinxit. Statim Tarquinius a TuUia incitatus advocato 
senatii regnum paternum repetere coepit. Qua re audita 
Servius dum ad ciiriam contendit, iiissii Tarquinii per 
gradus deiectus et domum refugiens interfectus est. Tul- 20 
Ua carpento vecta in Forum properavit et coniugem e 
ciiria evocatum prima regem saliitavit ; ciiius iiissii cum 
e turba ac tumuUii decessisset domumque rediret, viso 
patris corpore eum qui equos agebat cunctantem et frena 
inhibentem super ipsum corpus carpentum agere iussit. 25 
Unde vicus Ule sceleratus dictus est. Servius TuUius 
regnavit annos quattuor et quadraginta. 

14 U7'bis Romae Viri Illustres 

VIII. Tarquinius Superbus, Homanorum rex 
septimus et ultimus. 

534-510 B.C. 

Tarquinius Superbus regnum sceleste occupavit. Ta- 
men bello strenuus Latinos Sabinosque domuit. Urbem 
Gabios in potestatem redegit fraude Sextl filii. Is cum 
indigne ferret, eam urbem a patre expugnari non posse, 

5 ad Gablnos se contulit, patris saevitiam in se conquerens. 
Benigne a Gablnls exceptus paulatim eorum benevolen- 
tiam consequitur, flctls blanditils ita eos adliciens, ut 
apud omnes pliirimum posset, et ad postremum dux belli 
eligeretur. Tum e suls linum ad patrem mittit sclscita- 

10 tum, quidnam se facere vellet. Pater niintio fllil nihil 
respondit, sed velut dellberabundus in hortum transiit 
ibique inambulans sequente niintio altissima papaverum 
capita baculo decussit. Nuntius, fessus exspectando, 
rediit Gabios. Sextus cognito silentio patris et facto 

15 intellexit, quid vellet pater. Prlmores clvitatis interemit 
patrlque urbem sine iilla dlmicatione tradidit. 

Postea rex Ardeam urbem obsidebat. Ibi cum in cas- 
trls essent, Tarquinius Collatlnus, sorore regis natus, forte 
cenabat apud Sextum Tarquinium cum iuvenibus regiis. 

20 Incidit de uxoribus mentio ; cum suam iinusquisque lau- 
daret, placuit experlrl. Itaque citatls equis Romam avo- 
lant; regias nuriis in convlvio et liixii deprehendunt. 
Pergunt inde Collatiam ; Lucretiam, Collatlnl uxorem, 
inter ancillas lanae deditam inveniunt. Ea ergo ceterls 

25 praestare iHdicatur. Paucls interiectls diebus Sextus Col- 

Horatiiis Cocles 15 

latiam rediit et Lucretiae vim attulit. Illa postero die 
advocatis patre et coniuge rem exposuit et se cultro, 
quem sub veste abditum habebat, occidit. Conclamant 
vir paterque et in exitium regum coniurant. Tarquinio 
Romam redeuntl clausae sunt urbis portae et exsilium 5 
indictum. Expulsis regibus duo consules creati sunt, 
liinius Brutus et Tarquinius Collatlnus Lucretiae maritus. 

IX, Hordtius Cocles, 

Porsena, rex Etruscorum, ad restituendos in regnum 
Tarquinios infesto exercitii Romam venit. Primo impetii 
laniculum cepit. Non umquam alias ante tantus terror 10 
Romanos invasit ; adeo valida res tum Cliisina erat mag- 
numque Porsenae nomen. Ex agris in urbem demigrant ; 
urbem ipsam saepiunt praesidiis. Alia urbis pars miiris, 
alia Tiberi obiecto tiita videbatur. Pons sublicius iter 
paene hostibus dedit, nisi iinus vir fuisset Horatius Co- 15 
cles, illo cognomine appellatus, quod in alio proelio 
oculum amisejat. Is extrema pontis parte occupata 
aciem hostium solus sustinuit, donec pons a tergo inter- 
rumperetur. Ipsa audacia obstupefecit hostes ; ponte 
rescisso armatus in Tiberim desiluit et multis superinci- 20 
dentibus telis incolumis ad suos tranavit. Grata erga 
tantam virtiitem civitas fuit ; ei tantum agri piibHce da- 
tum est, quantum iino die circumaravit. Statua quoque 
ei in Comitio posita. 

i6 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

X. Gaius 3Im'cius Coriolanus, 

Gaius Marcius, gentis patriciae, captis Coriolis, urbe 
Volscorum, Coriolanus dictus est. Patre puer orbatus 
sub matris tutela adolevit. Cum prima stipendia facere 
coepisset adulescens, e proeliis, quibus interfuit, numquam 

5 rediit nisi corona aliove militari praemio donatus. In 
omni vitae ratione nihil aliud sibi proponebat nisi ut 
matri placeret ; cumque illa audiebat filium laudarl aut 
corona donari videbat, tum demum felicem ipse se 

lo Coriolanus cum a Postumo Cominio consule omnibus 
donis militaribus et agri centum iiigeribus et decem capti- 
vorum electione et totidem ornatis equis, centum boum 
grege argentoque, quantum sustinere potuisset, donare- 
tur; nihil ex his praeter iinius hospitis captivl saliitem 

15 equumque, quo in acie literetur, accipere voluit. 

Consul factus gravi annona advectum e Sicilia frumen- 
tum magno pretio dandum populo ciiravit, ut plebs agros, 
non seditiones coleret. Qua de causa damnatus ad Vol- 
scos infestos tunc Romanis confiigit. Magno ublque 

20 pretio virtiis aestimatur. Itaque quo latebras quaesitum 
venerat, ibi brevi summum adeptus est imperium. Im- 
perator a Volscis factus castris ad quartum ab urbe lapi- 
dem positis agrum Romanum populatur. 

Missi de pace ad Marcium oratores atrox responsum 

25 rettulerunt. Iterum deinde eidem missi non recipiuntur 
in castra. Sacerdotes quoque cum infulis missi re infecta 
redierunt. Stupebat senatus ; trepidabat populus ; viri 

Publius Valerius Laevinus et Pyrrhus 17 

pariter ac mulieres exitium imminens lamentabantur. 
Tum Veturia, Coriolani mater, et Volumnia uxor, duos 
parvos filios secum trahens, castra Volscorum petierunt, 
ut, quoniam armis viri defendere urbem non possent, 
mulieres lacrimis precibusque defenderent. Ubi matrem 
adspexit Coriolanus, " Vicisti," inquit, " iram meam, 
patria, precibus hiiius admotls ; cui tuam in me iniiiriam 
condono." Complexus inde suos castra movit et exerci- 
tum ex agro Romano abdiixit. Coriolanus postea a 
Volscis, ut proditor, occisus esse fertur; alil usque ad 
senectiitem vixisse eundem tradunt. 

XI. Puhlius Valerius Laevlnus et PyrrhuSf 
rex Eplrl, 

281 B.C. 

Tarentlnls, quod Romanorum legatls iniiiriam fecissent, 
bellum indictum est. Hl Pyrrhum, Eplrl regem, contra 
Romanos auxihum poposcerunt, qul ex genere AchilHs 
orlginem trahebat. Is paulo post in ItaHam venit tum- 15 
que prlmum Romanl cum transmarino hoste dlmicave- 
runt. Mlssus est contra eum consul PiibHus Valerius 
Laevlnus, qul cum exploratores Pyrrhi cepisset, iussit eos 
per castra diicl, ostendl omnem exercitum tumque dimitti, 
ut reniintiarent Pyrrho, quaecumque a Romanls agerentur. 20 
Commlssa mox piigna cum iam Pyrrhi exercitus pedem 
referret, rex elephantos in Romanorum aciem agi iussit ; 
tumque miitata est proeHi fortiina. Romanos vastorum 
corporum moles terribiHsque superadstantium armatorum 

Urhis Romae Viri Illustres 

species turbavit. Equl etiam, conspectu et odore belua- 
rum exterriti, equites vel excutiebant vel secum in fugam 
abripiebant. Nox proelio flnem dedit. 

Pyrrhus captivos Romanos summo honore habuit, occi- 

5 sos sepellvit. Quos cum adverso vulnere et trucl vultu 
etiam mortuos iacentes vldisset, tuhsse ad caelum manus 
dlcitur cum hac voce : se totlus orbis dominum esse 
potuisse, sl tales sibi mlHtes contigissent. Amlcls gra- 
tulantibus, " Quid mihi cum tall victoria," inquit, " ubi 

10 exercitus robur amittam? Sl iterum eodem modo vlcero, 
sine iallo mlhte in Eplrum revertar." Deinde ad urbem 
Romam magnls itineribus contendit ; omnia ferro Ignlque 
vastavit ; ad vlcesimum ab urbe lapidem castra posuit. 
Pyrrho obviam venit Laevlnus cum novo exercitii. Quo 

15 vlso rex ait, sibi eandem adversus Romanos esse fortilnam 
quam Hercull adversus hydram, cul tot capita renasce- 
bantur quot praeclsa erant ; deinde in Campaniam se 
recepit. Mlssos a senatii de redimendls captlvls legatos 
honorifice excepit ; captlvos sine pretio reddidit, ut Ro- 

20 manl, cognita iam virtute sua, cognoscerent etiam llberah- 

Erat Pyrrhus mltl ac placabili animo ; solet enim magni 
animi comes esse clementia. Eius humanitatem expertl 
sunt Tarentlnl. Qul cum sero intellexissent, se pro socio 

25 dominum accepisse, sortem suam miserabantur idque 
ahquanto llberius, ubi vlno incaluerant. Neque deerant, 
qui ad Pyrrhum deferrent, arcessltlque nonnuUi, quod 
inter convivium parum honorifice de rege lociitl essent ; 
sed periculum simplex confessio culpae discussit. Nam 

Publms ValeruLS Laevmics et PyrrJnis 19 

cum rex percontatus esset, num ea, quae pervenissent ad 
aures suas, dlxissent , " Et haec diximus," inquiunt, " rex, 
et nisi vinum defecisset, multo plura et graviora dictiirl 
fuimus." Pyrrhus, qul malebat vinl quam hominum eam 
culpam viderl, subrldens eos dlmlsit. 5 

Pyrrhus igitur cum putaret sibi gloriosum fore, pacem 
et foedus cum Romanls post victoriam facere, Romam 
mlsit legatum Cineam, qul pacem aequls condicionibus 
proponeret. Erat is regl famiharis multumque apud eum 
gratia valebat. Dlcere solebat Pyrrhus, se plures urbes 10 
Clneae eloquentia quam vl et armls expiignasse. Clneas 
tamen regis cupiditatem non adulabatur ; nam cum in 
sermone Pyrrhus el consiha sua aperlret dlxissetque se 
velle ItaHam dicionl suae subicere, Clneas , " Superatls 
Romanls," inquit, " quid agere destinas, o rex?" "Ita- 15 
hae vlclna est Sicilia," inquit Pyrrhus, " nec difficile erit 
eam armls occupare." Tunc Clneas : " Occupata Siciha 
quid postea actilrus es?" Rex, qul nondum Clneae 
mentem perspiciebat , ^' In Africam," inquit, "traicere 
mihi in animo est." Cui ihe : " Quid deinde, o rex?" 20 
"Tum denique, ml Clneas," inquit Pyrrhus, "nos quieti 
dabimus dulclque otio fruemur." Tum Clneas : "At 
quid impedit, quominus isto otio iam nunc fruaris?" 

Romam cum venisset Clneas, domos prlncipum cum 
ingentibus donls circumibat. Nusquam vero receptus est. 25 
Non a virls solum, sed etiam a muheribus spreta eius mu- 
nera. Introductus deinde in ciiriam cum regis virtiitem 
propensumque in Romanos animum verbls extoheret et 
de condicionum aequitate dissereret et sententia senatiis 

20 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

ad pacem et foedus faciendum inclinare videretur, tum 
Appius Claudius ob senectutem et caecitatem abstinere 
ciiria olim solitus confestim in senatum lectica deferri se 
iussit ibique gravissima oratione pacem dissuasit, itaque 

5 responsum Pyrrho a senatu est, eum, donec Italia exces- 
sisset, pacem cum Romanis habere non posse. Praeterea 
Romanl captivos omnes, quos Pyrrhus reddiderat, in- 
fames haberi iusserunt, quod armati capi potuissent, 
neque ante eos ad veterem statum reverti quam sl binum 

10 hostium occlsorum spoHa rettuHssent. Ita legatus ad 
regem revertit ; a quo cum Pyrrhus quaereret, qualem 
Romam comperisset, Cineas respondit, urbem sibi tem- 
plum, senatum vero consessum regum esse vlsum. 

XII. Gaius Fahrncius, 

278 B.C. 

Ex legatis, qul ad Pyrrhum de captlvis redimendis 
15 venerant, fuit C. Fabricius. Ciiius postquam audivit 
Pyrrhus magnum esse apud Romanos nomen, ut viri 
bonl et bello egregil, sed admodum pauperis, eum prae 
ceteris honorifice ac liberaUter habuit eique miinera at- 
que aurum obtuUt ; quae omnia repudiavit Fabricius. 
20 Postero die cum iUum Pyrrhus veUet exterrere conspectii 
subito elephantl, imperavit suls ut Fabricio secum conlo- 
quente belua post aulaeum admoveretur. Quod ubi 
factum est, slgno dato remotoque aulaeo repente belua 
strldorem horrendum emisit et proboscidem super Fabri- 

Gaiiis Fabriciiis 21 

cii caput demlsit. Sed ille subridens : " Neque heri me 
aurum tuum pellexit, neque hodie perterrefecit Ipelua." 

Fabricii admiratus virtiitem Pyrrhus illum secreto invi- 
tavit, ut patriam desereret secumque vellet vivere, quarta 
etiam regni sul parte oblata ; cui Fabricius ita respondit : 5 
*' Si me virum bonum iudicas, cilr me vis corrumpere ? 
sin vero malum, ciir me ambis?" Anno interiecto, omni 
spe pacis inter Pyrrhum et Romanos concihandae ablata, 
Fabricius consul factus contra eum missus est. Cumque 
vicina castra ipse et rex haberent, medicus regis nocte 10 
ad Fabricium venit eique poUicitus est, si praemium sibi 
proposuisset, se Pyrrhum veneno necatiirum. Hunc Fa- 
bricius vinctum rediici iussit ad dominum et Pyrrho dicl, 
quae contra caput eius medicus spopondisset. Tunc rex 
admiratus eum dlxisse fertur : " Ille est Fabricius, qui 15 
difficilius ab honestate quam sol a suo cursii potest 

Fabricius cum apud Pyrrhum regem legatus esset, Cl- 
neam audivit narrantem esse quendam Athenis, qul se 
sapientem profiteretur, eumque dicere, omnia quae face- 20 
remus, ad voluptatem esse referenda. Tunc Fabricium 
exclamasse ferunt : " Utinam id hostibus nostrls persua- 
deatur, quo facilius vincl possint, cum se voluptatibus 
dederint ! " Nihil magis ab eius vlta ahenum erat quam 
voluptas et liixus. Tota eius supellex argentea sallno iino 25 
constabat et patella ad iisum sacrorum, quae corneo pe- 
diculo sustinebatur. Cenabat ad focum radlces et herbas, 
cum legatl Samnltium ad eum venerunt magnamque ei 
peciiniam obtulerunt ; quibus slc respondit : " Quam diii 

22 Urbis Romae Viri Illiistres 

cupiditatibus imperare potero, nihil mihi deeritj vos 
autem pecuniam ad eos, qui hac indigent, reportate." 

Gaius Fabricius cum Rufino, viro nobili, simultatem 
gerebat ob morum dissimihtudinem, cum ipse peciiniae 
5 contemptor esset, hlc avarus et fiirax existimaretur. Quia 
tamen Riiflnus industrius ac bonus imperator erat, mag- 
numque et grave bellum imminere videbatur, Fabricius 
auctor fuit, ut Riiflnus consul crearetur, cumque is deinde 
Fabricio gratias ageret, quod se homo inimicus consulem 

10 fecisset, hlc respondit, non esse mlrandum, sl compllari 
quam venlre maluisset. Eundem postea Fabricius censor 
factus senatii movit, quod argenti factl decem pondo ha- 
beret. Fabricius omnem vltam in gloriosa paupertate 
exegit adeoque inops decessit, ut, unde dos flharum ex- 

15 pedlretur, non rehnqueret. Senatus patris sibi partes 
desumpsit et datls ex aerario dotibus filias conlocavit. 

Pyrrhus cum adversus Romanos parum profectiirum se 
intehegeret, Siciham dicionis suae facere statuit. Inde 
rediens cum Locros classe praeterveheretur, thesauros 

20 fanl Proserpinae intactos ad eam diem spohavit ; atque 
ita peciinia in naves imposita ipse terra est profectus. 
Quid ergo evenit? Classis postero die foedissima tem- 
pestate lacerata omnesque naves, quae sacram peciiniam 
habebant, in htora Locrorum eiectae sunt. Qua tanta 

25 clade edoctus tandem deos esse, superbissimus rex pecii- 
niam omnem conqulsltam in fanum Proserpinae referri 
iussit. Nec tamen ihi umquam prosperl quidquam evenit, 
pulsusque Itaha Ignobih morte occubuit. 

Maniiis Ciiriiis 23 

XIII. Manius Curius, 

Manius Curius contra Samnites profectus eos ingenti- 
bus proeliis vlcit. In quo bello cum permultum agrl 
liominumque maximam vim cepisset, ipse inde dltarl 
adeo noluit, ut, cum interversae pecuniae argueretur, 
catillo ligneo, quo utl ad sacrificia consueverat, in me- 5 
dium prolato iuraret, se nihil amplius de praeda hostlll 
in domum suam convertisse. Curio ad focum sedentl in 
agrestl scamno et ex llgneo catillo cenantl cum magnum 
aurl pondus Samnltes attuHssent, repudiatl ab eo sunt ; 
non enim aurum habere sibi praeclarum viderl dlxit, sed 10 
els, qul haberent aurum, imperare. Quo responso Curius 
Samnltibus ostendit, se neque acie vincl neque pecunia 
corrumpl posse. Agrl captl septena iugera populo virltim 
dlvlsit ; cumque ipsl senatus iugera qulnquaginta adslgna- 
ret, plus accipere noluit, quam singulls clvibus erat da- 15 
tum, dlxitque perniciosum esse clvem, qul eo, quod 
rehquls tribueretur, contentus non esset. 

Postea, consul creatus, adversus Pyrrhum mlssus est ; 
cumque in CapitoHo delectum haberet et iuniores taedio 
beUl nomina non darent, coniectls in urnam omnium tri- 20 
buum nominibus prlmum nomen urna extractum citarl 
iussit, et cum adulescens non responderet, bona eius 
hastae subiecit ; deinde, cum is questus de iniuria con- 
suHs tribunos plebis appeHasset, ipsum quoque vendidit, 
nihil opus esse relpiibHcae eo clve, qul nesclret parere, 25 
dlcens. Neque tribunl plebis adulescentl auxHio fuerunt ; 
posteaque res in consuetudinem abiit, ut delectii rlte 

24 Urbis Romae l/iid Illustres 

acto, qui militiam detrectaret, in servitiitem venderetur. 
Hoc terrore ceteri adacti nomina promptius dederunt. 

His copiis Curius Pyrrhi exercitum cecidit deque eo 
rege triumphavit. InsTgnem triumphum fecerunt quat- 
5 tuor elephanti cum turribus suis, tum primum Romae 
vlsi. Victus rex relicto Tarenti praesidio in Epirum 
revertit. Cum autem bellum renovatiirus putaretur, Ma- 
nium Curium iterum consulem fieri placuit. Sed inopi- 
nata mors regis Romanos metil llberavit. Pyrrhus enim, 

lo dum Argos oppiignat, urbem iam ingressus a iuvene quo- 
dam Arglvo lancea leviter vulneratus est. Mater adules- 
centis, anus paupercula, cum alils mulieribus e tecto 
domiis proelium spectabat ; quae cum vldisset Pyrrhum 
in auctorem vulneris sul magno impetii ferrl, perlculo 

15 fUil sul commota protinus tegulam corripuit et utraque 
manii libratam in caput regis deiecit. 

XIV. Marciis AtUlus Reguliis, 

256 B.C. 

Marcus Regulus cum Poenos magna clade adfecisset, 
Hanno Carthaginiensis ad eum venit, quasi de pace actii- 
rus, re vera ut tempus extraheret, doncc novae copiae ex 

20 Africa advenlrent. Is ubi ad consulem accessit, exortus 
est mllitum clamor audltaque vox, idem huic faciendum 
esse, quod paucls ante annls Cornelio consull a Poenls 
factum esset. CorneHus enim velut in conloquium per 
fraudem evocatus a Poenls comprehensus erat et in 

25 vincula coniectus. lam Hanno timere incipiebat, sed 

Marcus Atiliiis Rcguliis 25 

periculum astiito responso avertit. " Hoc vero," inquit, 
" si feceritis, nihilo eritis Afris meliores." Consul tacere 
iussit eos, qui par pari referri volebant, et conveniens 
gravitati Romanae responsum dedit : " Isto te metu, 
Hanno, fides Romana liberat." De pace, quia neque 5 
Poenus serio agebat et consul vlctoriam quam pacem 
malebat, non convenit. 

Regulus deinde in Africam primus Romanorum ducum 
traiecit. Clypeam urbem et trecenta castella expiignavit, 
neque cum hominibus tantum, sed etiam cum monstris 10 
dimicavit. Nam cum ad fliimen Bagradam castra habe- 
ret, anguis mira magnitijdine exercitum Romanorum 
vexabat ; multos milites ingenti ore corripuit ; pliires 
caudae verbere elisit ; nonniillos ipso pestilentis haUtiis 
adflatil exanimavit. Neque is telorum ictii perforari 15 
poterat, diirissima squamarum lorica omnia tela facile 
repellente. Confugiendum fuit ad machinas advectisque 
ballistis et catapultis, velut arx quaedam miinlta, deicien- 
dus hostis fuit. Tandem saxorum pondere oppressus 
iacuit, sed cruore suo fliimen corporisque pestifero ad- 20 
flatii vicina loca infecit Romanosque castra inde submo- 
vere coegit. Corium beluae, centum et viginti pedes 
longum, Romam misit Regulus. 

Huic ob res bene gestas imperium in annum proxi- 
mum prorogatum est. Quod ubi cognovit Regulus, 25 
scripsit senatui, vilicum suum in agello, quem septem 
iiigeriim habebat, mortuum esse et servum occasionem 
nactum aufiigisse ablato instriimento riistico, ideoque 
petere se, ut sibi successor in Africam mitteretur, ne, 

26 U7'bis Roinae Viri Illustres 

deserto agro, non esset unde uxor et liberi alerentur. 
Senatus acceptis litterls res, quas Regulus amlserat, 
publica peciinia redimi iussit, agellum colendum locavit, 
alimenta coniugT ac liberis praebuit. 

5 Regulus deinde multis proeliis Carthaginiensium opes 
contudit eosque pacem petere coegit. Quam cum Re- 
gulus noUet, nisi diirissimis condicionibus, dare, a Lace- 
daemoniis illi auxilium petierunt. 

Lacedaemonii Xanthippum, virum belli peritissimum, 

lo ad Carthaginienses miserunt, a quo Regulus victus est 
iiltima pernicie ; nam duo tantum mlha hominum ex 
omni Romano exercitii refiigerunt et Regulus ipse cap- 
tus et in carcerem coniectus est. Lide Romam de per- 
miitandls captivis missus est dato iiireiiirando, ut, si non 

15 impetrasset, rediret ipse Carthaginem. Qui cum Romam 
venisset, inductus in senatum mandata exposuit ; senten- 
tiam ne diceret, reciisavit ; quam diii iiireiiirando hostium 
teneretur, se non esse senatorem. liissus tamen senten- 
tiam dicere, negavit esse iitile, captivos Poenos reddi, 

20 illos enim adulescentes esse et bonos duces, se iam con- 
fectum senectiite. Ciiius cum valuisset auctoritas, cap- 
tivi retenti sunt, ipse, cum retineretur a propinquis et 
amicis, tamen Carthaginem rediit ; neque vero tunc igno- 
rabat, se ad criidehssimum hostem et ad exquislta supph- 

25 cia proficisci, sed iiisiiirandum conservandum putavit. 
Reversum Carthaginienses omni cruciatii necaverunt ; 
palpebris enim resectis ahquamdiii in loco tenebricoso 
tenuerunt ; deinde cum sol esset ardentissimus, repente 
eductum intueri caelum coegerunt ; postremo in arcam 

Qieijitns Fabitis Maximus 27 

ligneam, undique clavls praeacutTs horrentem et tam 
angustam, ut erectus perpetuo manere cogeretur, inclu- 
serunt. Ita dum fessum corpus, quocumque inclinabat, 
stimulTs ferreTs confoditur, vigiliTs et dolore continuo 
interemptus est. Hic fuit AtTliT Reguli exitus, ipsa vTta 5 
clarior et inlustrior. 

XV. Qulntus Fahius Mdxlmus. 

218-203 B.C. 

Hannibal, Hamilcaris fTlius, noveni annos natus, a 
patre arTs admotus, odium in Romanos perenne iuravit. 
Quae res maxime videtur concitasse secundum Punicum 
bellum. Nam mortuo Hamilcare Hannibal, causam bellT 10 
quaerens, Saguntum, cTvitatem Hispaniae RomanTs foede- 
ratam, evertit. Quapropter Roma mTssT sunt Carthagi- 
nem legatT, quT Hannibalem, mali auctorem, exposcerent. 
Tergiversantibus PoenTs QuTntus Fabius, legationis prTn- 
ceps, sinTT ex toga facto, " HTc," inquit, " vobis bellum 15 
et pacem portamus ; utrum placet, sTimite." PoenTs 
daret utrum vellet succlamantibus, Fabius excussa toga 
bellum se dare dTxit. Poenl accipere se responderunt et, 
quibus acciperent animTs, eTsdem se gestiiros. 

Hannibal superatTs PyrenaeT et Alpium iugls in Itaham 20 
venit. PiibHum ScTpionem apud TTcTnum amnem, Sem- 
pronium apud Trebiam, Flaminium apud Trasumenum 
lacum profllgavit. 

Adversus hostem totiens vTctorem mTssus QuTntus Fa- 
bius dictator Hannibahs impetum mora fregit ; namque 25 

28 Ui'bis Romae Viri Illustres 

priorum ducum cladibus edoctus, belli rationem mutare 
et tuerl tantummodo Italiam constituit. Per loca alta 
agmen diicebat modico ab hoste intervallo, ut neque 
omitteret eum neque cum eo congrederetur ; castris, nisi 

5 quantum necessitas cogeret, miles tenebatur. Dux neque 
occasioni rei bene gerendae deerat, si qua ab hoste dare- 
tur, neque iillam ipse hosti dabat. Itaque cum ex levi- 
bus proeHis superior discederet, miUtem minus iam coepit 
aut virtiitis suae aut fortiinae paenitere, et ipse Cuncta- 

10 toris nomen et laudem summT ducis meruit. 

His artibus cum Hannibalem Fabius in agro Falerno 
locorum angustiis clausisset, ille sine iillo exercitiis detri- 
mento se expedivit. Namque arida sarmenta in boum 
cornibus deligata prlncipio noctis incendl bovesque ad 

15 montes, quos Romani insederant, agl iussit. Qul cum 
accensls cornibus per montes, per silvas hiic illiic discur- 
rerent, Romanl mlraculo attonitl constiterunt ; ipse Fa- 
bius, Insidias esse ratus, mllitem extra vallum egredi 
vetuit. Interea Hannibal ex angustils evasit. 

20 Dein Hannibal, ut Fabio apud suos conflaret invidiam, 
agrum eius, omnibus circa vastatls, intactum rellquit. At 
Fabius mlsso Romam Qulnto fiho inviolatum ab hoste 
agrum vendidit eiusque pretio captlvos Romanos re- 

25 Haud grata tamen Romanls erat Fabil cunctatio ; eum- 
que pro cauto timidum, pro cunctatore segnem vocita- 
bant. Augebat invidiam Minucius, magister equitum, 
dictatorem crlminando ; illum in dilcendo bello sedulo 
tempus terere, quo diiitius in magistratii esset solusque 

Qiiintus Fabius Maximus 29 

et Romae et in exercitu imperium haberet. His sermo- 
nibus accensa, plebs dictatori magistrum equitum imperio 
aequavit. Hanc iniuriam aequo animo tulit Fabius exer- 
citumque suum cum Minucio divisit. Cum autem Minu- 
cius temere proelium commisisset, ei periclitanti auxilio 5 
venit Fabius. Ciiius subito adventii repressus Hannibal 
receptui cecinit, palam confessus, ab se Minucium, se a 
Fabio victum esse. Redeuntem ex acie dixisse eum 
ferunt, tandem eam niibem, quae sedere in iugis mon- 
tium solita esset, cum procella imbrem dedisse. Minu- 10 
cius autem periculo liberatus castra cum Fabio iiinxit et 
patrem eum appellavit idemque facere milites iussit. 

Postea Hannibal Tarento per proditionem potitus est. 
Hanc urbem ut Poenis traderent, tredecim fere nobiles 
iuvenes Tarentini coniiiraverant. Hi nocte per speciem 15 
venandi urbe egressi ad Hannibalem, qui haud procul 
castra habebat, venerunt. Cui cum, quid pararent, ex- 
posuissent, conlaudavit eos Hannibal monuitque, ut rede- 
untes pecora Carthaginiensium, quae pastum propulsa 
essent, ad urbem agerent, et veluti praedam ex hoste 20 
factam aut praefecto aut custodibus portarum donarent. 
Id iterum ac saepius ab eis factum eoque consuetiidinis 
adducta res est, ut, quocumque noctis tempore sibilo 
dedissent signum, porta urbis aperiretur. Tunc Han- 
nibal eos nocte media cum decem mihbus hominum 25 
delectorum seciitus est. Ubi portae appropinquarunt, 
nota iuvenum vox et famihare signum vigilem excitavit. 
Duo primi inferebant aprum vasti corporis. Vigil incau- 
tus dum beluae magnitiidinem miratur, venabulo occisus 

30 Urbis Romae Viri Illnstres 

est. Ingressi proditores ceteros vigiles sopitos obtrun- 
cant. Tum Hannibal cum suo agmine ingreditur; Ro- 
mani passim trucidantur. Livius Salinator, Romanorum 
praefectus, cum eis, qui caedi superfuerunt, in arcem 

5 confiigit. 

Profectus igitur Fabius ad recipiendum Tarentum ur- 
bem obsidione cinxit, quem leve dictii momentum ad 
rem ingentem perficiendam adiiivit. Praefectus prae- 
sidii Tarentini deperibat amore mulierculae, ciiius frater 

lo in exercitii Fabii erat. Miles iiissus a Fabio pro perfuga 
Tarentum transiit ac per sororem praefectum ad traden- 
dam urbem perpulit. Fabius vigilia prima accessit ad 
eam partem miiri, quam praefectus custodiebat. Adiu- 
vantibus recipientibusque eius militibus Romani in urbem 

15 transcenderunt. Inde, proxima porta refracta, Fabius 
cum exercitii intravit. Hannibal niintiata Tarenti oppiig- 
natione cum ad opem ferendam festinans captam urbem 
esse audivisset, " Et Romani," inquit, *' suum Hanni- 
balem habent ; eadem, qua ceperamus, arte Tarentum 

20 amisimus." 

Cum postea Livius Salinator coram Fabio gloriaretur, 
quod arcem Tarentinam retinuisset, dixissetque eum sua 
opera Tarentum recepisse, *' Certe," inquit Fabius ri- 
dens, " nam nisi tii amisisses, ego numquam recepissem." 

25 Quintus Fabius iam senex filio suo consuli legatus fuit ; 
cumque in eius castra veniret, filius obviam patri progres- 
sus est, duodecim lictoribus pro more antecedentibus. 
Equo vehebatur senex neque appropinquante consule 
descendit. lam ex lictoribus iindecim verecundia pater- 

Aemilms Pmdtcs 31 

nae maiestatis taciti praeterierant. Quod cum consul 
animadvertisset, proximum lictorem iussit inclamare Fa- 
bio patri, ut ex equo descenderet. Pater tum desiliens, 
" Non ego, flll," inquit, " tuum imperium contempsl, sed 
experlrl volul, num sclres consulem te esse." Ad sum- 5 
mam senectiatem vlxit Fabius Maximus, dlgnus tanto 
cognomine. Cautior quam promptior habitus est, sed 
Insita eius ingenio prudentia el bello, quod tum gere- 
batur, proprie apta erat. Neminl dubium est, quln rem 
Romanam cunctando restituerit. 10 

XVI. Aemilitis JPaulus et Terentius Varro, 

216 B.C. 

Cum Hannibal in Apuliam pervenisset, adversus eum 
Roma profectl sunt duo consules, L. Aemilius Paulus et 
C. Terentius Varro. Paulo Fabii cunctatio magis place- 
bat ; Varro autem, ferox et temerarius, acriora sequeba- 
tur consilia. Cum ambo ad vlcum, qul Cannae appellaba- 15 
tur, castra posuissent, Varro invlto conlega aciem instriixit 
et slgnum pugnae dedit. Hannibal autem ita constituerat 
aciem, ut Romanls et solis radil et ventus ab oriente pul- 
verem adflans adversi essent. Vlctus caesusque est Ro- 
manus exercitus ; nusquam graviore vulnere adfllcta est 20 
res publica. Paulus tells obrutus cecidit ; quem cum 
media in piigna sedentem in saxo oppletum cruore 
conspexisset quidam tribunus mllitum, " Cape," inquit, 
" hunc equum et fuge, Aemill. Etiam sine tua morte 
lacrimarum satis liictusque est." Ad ea consul : "Tu 25 

32 Urbis Romae Viri Illiistres 

quidem macte virtute esto ! Sed cave, exiguum tempus 
e manibus hostium evadendl perdas I Abl, nuntia patri- 
bus, ut urbem milniant ac priusquam hostis vlctor ad- 
veniat, praesidiis flrment. Me in hac strage meorum 

5 mlhtum patere exsplrare." Alter consul cum paucls 
equitibus Venusiam perfOgit. Consulares aut praetorii 
occiderunt vlgintl, senatores captl aut occlsl trlginta, 
nobiles virl trecentl, mlUtum quadraginta mlUa, equitum 
tria mllia et qulngentl. Hannibal in testimonium vlcto- 

10 riae suae tres modios aureorum anulorum Carthaginem 
mlsit, quos de manibus equitum Romanorum et senato- 
rum detraxerat. 

Hannibali vlctori cum ceterl gratularentur suaderent- 
que, ut quietem iam ipse sumeret et fessls mlHtibus daret, 

15 unus ex eius praefectls, Maharbal, minime cessandum 
ratus, Hanniballque suadens, ut statim Romam pergeret, 
" Die qulnto," inquit, '^ victor in Capitoho epulaberis." 
Cumque Hannibal illud non probasset, Maharbal, " Non 
omnia nimlrum," inquit, " eldem dil dedere. Vincere scls, 

20 Hannibal; vlctoria litl nescls." Mora huius diei satis 
creditur salutl fuisse urbl et imperio. Hannibal cum vlc- 
toria posset utl, frul maluit, rellctaque Roma in Campa- 
niam devertit, ciiius dehcils mox coercitus ardor elanguit ; 
adeo ut vere dictum sit, Capuam Hanniball Cannas fu- 

25 isse. 

Numquam tantum pavoris Romae fuit, quantum ubi 
acceptae cladis niintius advenit. Neque tamen nila pacis 
mentio facta est ; quln etiam animo clvitas adeo magno 
fuit, ut Varronl ex tanta clade redeuntl cuius ipse causa 

Aemilius Paulus 33 

maxima fuisset obviam ab omnibus ordinibus itum sit et 
gratiae actae, quod de repiiblica non desperasset ; qui, si 
Poenorum dux fuisset, temeritatis poenas omni supplicio 

Dum Hannibal segniter et otiose agebat, Romani inte- 5 
rim respirare coeperunt. Arma non erant ; detracta sunt 
templis vetera hostium spolia. Deerat iuventus ; servi 
maniimissi et armati sunt. Egebat aerarium ; opes suas 
libens senatus in medium protulit, nec praeter quod in 
bullis singulisque anulis erat, quidquam sibi auri relique- 10 
runt. Patrum exemplum secutl sunt equites imitataeque 
equites omnes tribiis. Denique vix suffecere tabulae, vix 
scribarum maniis, cum omnes privatae opes in piiblicum 

Cum Hannibal redimendi sui copiam captivis Romanis 15 
fecisset, decem ex ipsis Romam ea de re missi sunt ; nec 
plgnus aliud fidel ab els postulatum est, quam ut iiirarent, 
se, sl non impetrassent, in castra esse reditiiros. Eos 
senatus non redimendos censuit responditque, eos cives 
non esse necessarios, qul, cum armatl essent, capl potuis- 20 
sent. Unus ex eis legatls e castris Poenorum egressus, 
velutl aliquid oblitus, paulo post in castra erat regressus, 
deinde comites ante noctem adseciltus erat. Is ergo, re 
non impetrata, domum abiit Reditii enim in castra se 
llberatum esse iiireiiirando interpretabatur. Quod ubi in- 25 
notuit, iussit senatus illum comprehendl et vinctum diici 
ad Hannibalem. Ea res HannibaHs audaciam maxime 
fregit, quod senatus populusque Romanus rebus adflictls 
tam excelso esset animo. 

34 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

XVII. Puhlius Cotmelius Sclpio Africdnus. 

218-183 B.C. 

Publius Cornelius Scipio virill toga nondum sumpta 
patrem singulari virtute servavit ; qui cum pugna apud 
Ticinum contra Hannibalem commissa graviter vulnera- 
tus in hostium manus iam nunc ventiirus esset, filius inter- 
5 iecto corpore Poenis inruentibus se opposuit et patrem 
periculo liberavit. Quae pietas Scipioni postea aedilita- 
tem petenti favorem populi conciliavit. Cum obsisterent 
tribiini plebis, negantes rationem eius esse habendam, 
quod nondum ad petendum legitima aetas esset, *'Si 

10 me," inquit Scipio, " omnes Quirites aedilem facere vo- 
lunt, satis annorum habeo." Tanto inde favore ad suf- 
fragia itum est, ut tribiini incepto destiterint. 

Post cladem Cannensem Romani exercitiis rehquiae 
Canusium perfiigerant ; cumque ibi tribiini mihtum quat- 

15 tuor essent, tamen omnium consensii ad Piibhum Scipi- 
onem, admodum adulescentem, et ad Appium Claudium 
summa imperii delata est. Quibus consuhantibus niintiat 
Piibhus Fiirius Philus, consularis viri fihus, nobiles quos- 
dam iuvenes de re piibhca desperantes consihum de Itaha 

20 deserenda inire. Statim in hospitium Metehi, qui con- 
iiirationis erat princeps, se contuht Scipio ; et cum conci- 
hum ibi iuvenum, de quibus adlatum erat, invenisset, 
stricto super capita consuhantium gladio, " liirate," in- 
quit, "vos neque ipsos rem piibhcam popuh Romani 

25 desertiiros, neque ahum civem Romanum deserere pas- 

Publius Cornelius Scipio 35 

suros ; qui noii iuraverit, in se hunc gladium strictum 
esse sciat." Haud secus pavidl, quam si victorem Han- 
nibalem cernerent, iurant omnes custodiendosque semet 
ipsos Scipioni tradunt. 

Cum Romani duas clades in Hispania accepissent duo- 5 
que ibi summi imperatores intra dies triginta cecidissent, 
placuit exercitum augeri eoque proconsulem mitti; nec 
tamen quem mitterent, satis constabat. Ea de re indicta 
sunt comitia. Primo populus exspectabat, ut, qui se tanto 
dignos imperio crederent, nomina profiterentur ; sed nemo 10 
audebat illud imperium suscipere. Maesta igitur civitas 
ac prope inops consilii comitiorum die in campum de- 
scendit. Subito P. Cornelius Scipio, quattuor et viginti 
ferme annos natus, professus se petere, in superiore, unde 
conspici posset, loco constitit. In quem postquam om- 15 
nium ora conversa sunt, ad iinum omnes Scipionem in 
Hispania proconsulem esse iusserunt. At postquam ani- 
morum impetus resedit, populum Romanum coepit facti 
paenitere ; aetati Scipionis maxime diffidebant. Quod 
ubi animadvertit Scipio, advocata contione ita magno 20 
elatoque animo de bello, quod gerendum esset, disseruit, 
ut homines ciira liberaret speque certissima impleret. 

Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem No- 
vam, quo die venit, expiignavit. Eo congestae erant 
omnes paene Africae et Hispaniae opes, ibi arma, ibi 25 
peciinia, ibi totius Hispaniae obsides erant ; quibus omni- 
bus potitus est Scipio. Inter captivos ad eum adducta 
est eximiae formae adulta virgo. Quam ubi comperit 
inliistri loco inter Celtiberos natam principique eius gentis 

36 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhistres 

adulescenti desponsam esse, arcessitis parentibus et sponso 
eam reddidit. Parentes virginis, qul ad eam redimendam 
satis magnum aurl pondus attulerant, Scipionem orabant, 
ut id a se donum acciperet. Scipio aurum ante pedes 
5 ponl iussit vocatoque ad se virginis sponso, "Super 
dotem," inquit, '' quam accepturus a socero es, haec 
tibi a me dotalia dona accedent," aurumque tollere ac 
sibi habere iussit. Ille domum reversus ad referendam 
Sclpionl gratiam Celtiberos Romanls conciHavit. 

10 Deinde Sclpio Hasdrubalem vlctum ex Hispania expu- 
lit. Castrls hostium potltus omnem praedam mlHtibus 
concessit, captlvos Hispanos sine pretio domum dlmlsit ; 
Afros vero vendl iussit. Erat inter eos puer adultus regii 
generis, forma Inslgnl; quem cum percontaretur Sclpio, 

15 quis et cuias esset, et ciar id aetatis in castrls fuisset, 
" Numida sum," inquit puer, ^' Masslvam populares vo- 
cant ; orbus a patre reHctus, apud avum maternum, 
Numidiae regem, educatus sum. Cum avunculo Masi- 
nissa, qul nuper subsidio Carthaginiensibus venit, in His- 

20 paniam traiecl; prohibitus propter aetatem a Masinissa 
numquam ante proeHum inil. Eo die, quo pugnatum 
est cum Romanis, Inscio avunculo clam armls equoque 
sumpto in aciem exil; ibi prolapso equo captus sum a 
Romanls." Sclpio eum interrogat, veHetne ad avunculum 

25 revertl. Cum effusls gaudio lacrimls id vero se cupere 
puer dlceret, tum Sclpio puero anulum aureum equumque 
ornatum donat datlsque, qul tuto deducerent, equitibus 

Cum PubHus Cornelius Sclpio se erga Hispanos cle- 

Publuis Corneliiis Scipio 37 

menter gessisset, circumfusa multitudo eum regem ingenti 
consensii appellavit ; at Sclpio silentio per praeconem 
facto, *' Nomen imperatoris/' inquit, " quo me mei mi- 
lites appellarunt, mihi maximum est ; regium nomen, 
alibi magnum, Romae intolerabile est. Si id amplissi- 5 
mum iiidicatis, quod regale est, vobTs licet existimare 
regalem in me esse animum ; sed oro vos, ut a regis 
appellatione abstineatis." Sensere etiam barbarl magni- 
tiidinem animl, qua Scipio id aspernabatur, quod ceterl 
mortales admlrantur et concuplscunt. 10 

Sclpio recepta Hispania cum iam bellum in ipsam 
Africam transferre meditaretur, conciliandos prius regum 
et gentium animos exlstimavit. Syphacem, Maurorum re- 
gem, opulentissimum totlus Africae regem, quem magno 
iisul sibi fore speraret, prlmum tentare statuit. Itaque 15 
legatum cum donls ad eum mlsit C. Laehum, quocum 
intima familiaritate vlvebat. Syphax amlcitiam Roma- 
norum se accipere adnuit, sed fidem nec dare nec acci- 
pere, nisi cum ipso coram duce Romano, voluit. Sclpio 
igitur in Africam traiecit. Forte ita incidit, ut eo ipso 20 
tempore Hasdrubal pulsus Hispania ad eundem portum 
appelleret, Syphacis amlcitiam pariter petlturus. Uter- 
que a rege in hospitium invltatus. Cenatum simul apud 
regem est, eodem etiam lecto Sclpio atque Hasdrubal 
accubuerunt. Tanta autem inerat comitas in Sclpione, 25 
ut non Syphacem modo, sed etiam hostem Infestissimum 
Hasdrubalem sibi conciliaret. Sclpio foedere icto cum 
Syphace in Hispaniam ad exercitum rediit. 

Masinissa quoque amlcitiam cum Sclpione iungere iam- 

38 Urbis Romae Viri Illtistres 

dudum cupiebat. Qua re ad eum tres Numidarum prin- 
cipes mlsit ad tempus locumque conloquio statuendum. 
Duos pro obsidibus retineri a Scipione iubet ; remisso 
tertio, qui Masinissam ad locum constitiitum addiiceret, 

5 Scipio et Masinissa cum paucis in conloquium venerunt. 
Ceperat iam ante Numidam ex fama rerum gestarum 
admiratio virl, sed maior praesentis veneratio cepit ; erat 
enim in vultii maiestas summa ; accedebat promlssa cae- 
saries habitusque corporis, non cultus munditils, sed virllis 

10 vere ac mllitaris, et florens iuventa. Prope attonitus ipso 
congressii Numida gratias de filio fratris remlsso agit; 
adflrmat se ex eo tempore eam quaeslvisse occasionem, 
quam tandem oblatam non omlserit ; cupere se illl et 
populo Romano operam navare. Laetus eum Sclpio 

15 audlvit atque in societatem recepit. 

Sclpio deinde Romam rediit et ante annos consul 
factus est. Sicilia el provincia decreta est permlssum- 
que, ut in Africam inde traiceret. Qul cum vellet ex 
fortissimls peditibus Romanls trecentorum equitum nu- 

20 merum complere, nec posset illos subito armls et equls 
instruere, id priidentl consilio perfecit. Namque ex 
omnl Sicilia trecentos iuvenes nobilissimos et dltissimos, 
qul equls mllitarent et secum in Africam traicerent, legit 
diemque eis edlxit, qua equls armlsque Instructl atque 

25 ornatl adessent. Gravis ea mllitia, procul domo, terra 
marlque multos labores, magna perlcula adlatura videba- 
tur ; neque ipsos modo, sed parentes cognatosque eorum 
ea ciira angebat. Ubi dies, quae dicta erat, advenit, 
arma equosque ostenderunt, sed omnes fere longlnquum 

Publius Cornelius Scipio 39 

et grave bellum horrere apparebat. Tunc Sclpio militiam 
eis se remissurum ait, si arma et equos militibus Roma- 
nis voluissent tradere. Laeti condicionem acceperunt 
iuvenes Siculi. Ita Scipio sine piiblica impensa suos 
instriixit ornavitque equites. 5 

Tunc Scipio ex Sicilia in Africam vento secundo pro- 
fectus est tanto militum ardore, ut non ad bellum diici 
viderentur, sed ad certa victoriae praemia. Celeriter 
naves e conspectii Siciliae ablatae sunt conspectaque 
brevi Africae litora. Scipio cum egrediens ad terram 10 
navi prolapsus esset et ob hoc attonitos mihtes cerneret, 
id, quod trepidationem adferebat, in hortationem conver- 
tens, " Africam oppressi," inquit, " mihtes ! " Expositis 
copiis in proximis tumuHs castra metatus est. Ibi spe- 
culatores hostium in castris deprehensos et ad se per- 15 
ductos nec supphcio adfecit nec de consihis ac viribus 
Poenorum percontatus est, sed circa omnes Romani ex- 
ercitiis manipulos ciiravit dediicendos ; dein interroga- 
tos, num ea satis considerassent, quae speculari erant 
iiissi, prandio dato incolumes dimisit. 20 

Scipioni in Africam advenienti Masinissa s'e coniiinxit 
cum parva equitum turma. Syphax vero a Romanis ad 
Poenos defecerat. Hasdrubal, Poenorum dux, Syphax- 
que Scipioni se opposuerunt ; qui utriusque castra iina 
nocte perriipit et incendit. Syphax ipse captus et vivus 25 
ad Scipionem pertractus est. Syphacem in castra addiici 
cum esset niintiatum, omnis velut ad spectaculum tri- 
umphi multitiido effusa est ; praecedebat ipse vinctus ; 
sequebatur grex nobihum Maurorum. Movebat omnes 

40 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

fortiina viri, ciiius amicitiam olim Scipio petierat. Regem 
aliosque captivos Romam misit Scipio ; Masinissam, qui 
egregie rem Romanam adiiiverat, aurea corona donavit. 
Haec et aliae, quae sequebantur, clades Carthaginien- 

5 sibus tantum terroris intulerunt, ut Hannibalem ex Italia 
ad tuendam patriam revocarent. Frendens gemensque 
ac vix lacrimis temperans, is dicitur legatorum verba 
audisse mandatisque paruisse. Respexit saepe Italiae 
litora, semet accusans, quod non victorem exercitum sta- 

10 tim ab Cannensi piigna Romam diixisset. Zamam vene- 
rat Hannibal, quae urbs quinque dierum iter a Carthagine 
abest, et niintium ad Scipionem misit, ut conloquendi 
secum potestatem faceret. Scipio cum conloquium haud 
abnuisset, dies locusque constituitur. Itaque congressi 

15 sunt duo clarissimi suae aetatis duces. Steterunt ali- 
quamdiii taciti miituaque admiratione defixi. Cum vero 
de condicionibus pacis inter eos non convenisset, ad 
suos se receperunt reniintiantes, armis decernendum 
esse. Commisso deinde proeho Hannibal victus cum 

20 quattuor equitibus fiigit. Ceterum constat, utrumque 
de altero confessum esse, nec melius instrui aciem nec 
acrius potuisse piignari. 

Carthaginienses metii perculsi ad petendam pacem 
oratores mittunt triginta civitatis principes. Qui ubi in 

25 castra Romana venerunt, veniam civitati petebant non 
culpam piirgantes, sed initium culpae in Hannibalem 
transferentes. Victis leges imposuit Scipio. Legati, cum 
niillas condiciones reciisarent, Romam profecti sunt, ut, 
quae a Scipione pacta essent, ea patrum ac populi aucto- 

Publms Comelms Scipio 41 

ritate confirmarentur. Ita pace terra mariqiie parta Scipio 
exercitii in naves imposito Romam revertit. Ad quem 
advenientem concursus ingens factus est ; effusa non ex 
urbibus modo, sed etiam ex agris multitudo viam obsi- 
debat. Sclpio inter gratulantium plausils triumpho om- 5 
nium clarissimo urbem est invectus primusque nomine 
vlctae a se gentis est nobilitatus Africanusque appel- 

Ex hls rebus gestls virum eum esse virtiitis dlvlnae 
vulgo creditum est. Id etiam dlcere haud piget, quod 10 
scrlptores de eo litterls mandaverunt, Sclpionem consue- 
visse, priusquam dlliicesceret, in CapitoHum ventitare ac 
iubere aperlrl cellam lovis atque ibi solum diil demorarl, 
quasi consultantem de re piiblica cum love ; aedituosque 
eius templl saepe esse mlratos, quod eum id temporis in 15 
Capitolium ingredientem canes, semper in alios saevi- 
entes, non latrarent. Has vulgl de Sclpione oplniones 
conflrmare atque approbare videbantur dicta factaque 
eius pleraque admlranda, ex quibus est iinum hiiiusce- 
modl ; adsidebat oppiignabatque oppidum in Hispania, 20 
sitii moenibusque ac defensoribus validum et miinltum, 
re etiam cibaria copiosum, neque illla eius potiundl spes 
erat. Quodam die iiis in castrls sedens dlcebat Sclpio 
atque ex eo loco id oppidum procul videbatur. Tum 
e mlHtibus, qul in iilre apud eum stabant, interrogavit 25 
quispiam ex more, in quem diem locumque vades sistl 
iuberet. Et Sclpio manum ad ipsam oppidl, quod obsi- 
debatur, arcem protendens, " Perendie," inquit, "sese 
sistant iHo in loco." Atque ita factum ; die tertia, in 

42 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

quam vades sisti iusserat, oppidum captum est. Eodem 
die in arce eius oppidi ius dixit. 

Hannibal a Scipione victus suisque invisus, ad Antio- 
chum^ Syriae regem, confugit eumque hostem Romanis 
5 fecit. Missi sunt Roma legati ad Antiochum ; in quibus 
erat Sclpio Africanus ; qui cum Hannibale Ephesi conlo- 
cutus ab eo quaesivit, quem fuisse maximum imperatorem 
crederet. Respondit Hannibal, Alexandrum, Macedo- 
num regem, maximum sibi videri, quod parva manii innu- 

10 merabiles exercitiis fildisset. Quaerenti deinde, quem 
secundum poneret, " Pyrrhum," inquit, "■ quod prlmus 
castra metarl docuit nemoque illo elegantius loca cepit 
et praesidia disposuit." Sclscitanti denique, quem ter- 
tium diiceret, semet ipsum dlxit. Tum ridens Scipio, 

15 " Quidnam tii dlceres," inquit, "sl me vlcisses? " " Tum 
me vero," respondit Hannibal, " et ante Alexandrum et 
ante Pyrrhum et ante omnes ahos imperatores posuis- 
sem." Ita improvlso adsentationis genere Sclpionem e 
grege imperatorum velut inaestimabilem secernebat. 

20 Sclpio ipse fertur quondam dlxisse, cum eum quldam 
parum piignacem dlcerent, " Imperatorem me mater, 
non bellatorem peperit." Idem dlcere sohtus est, non 
solum dandam esse viam fugientibus, sed etiam milni- 

25 Decreto adversus Antiochum bello cum Syria provincia 
obvenisset Liicio Sclpionl, quia parum in eo putabatur 
esse animl, parum roboris, senatus gerendi hiiius belll 
curam mandarl volebat collegae eius C. Laeho. Surgens 
tunc Sclpio Africanus, frater maior Liicii Sclpionis, illam 

Publiiis Cornelius Scipio 43 

fomiliae ignominiam deprecatus est ; dixit, in fratre suo 
summam esse virtutem, summum consilium seque el lega- 
tum fore promlsit. Quod cum ab eo esset dictum, nihil 
est de Lucil Scipionis provincia commutatum ; itaque 
frater natii maior minori legatus in Asiam profectus est 5 
et tamdiu eum consilio operaque adiuvit, donec trium- 
phum ille et cognomen Asiaticl peperisset. 

Eodem bello flUus Sclpionis Africanl captus est et ad 
Antiochum deductus. Benlgne et llberahter adulescen- 
tem rex habuit, quamquam ab eius patre tum maxime 10 
finibus imperil pehebatur. Cum deinde pacem Antio- 
chus a Romanls peteret, legatus eius Piibhum Sclpionem 
adiit elque flhum sine pretio redditiirum regem dlxit, 
sl per eum pacem impetrasset. Cul Sclpio respondit : 
''Abl, niintia regl, me pro tanto miinere gratias agere ; 15 
sed nunc aham gratiam non possum referre, quam ut 
el suadeam, ut bello absistat et pacis condicionem niil- 
lam reciiset." Pax non convenit ; tamen Antiochus Scl- 
pioni fllium remlsit tantlque virl maiestatem venerarl, 
quam dolorem suum ulclscl makiit. 20 

Victo Antiocho cum praedae ratio a L. Scipione repos- 
ceretur, Africanus prolatum ab eo librum, quo acceptae 
et expensae summae continebantur et refehi inimicorum 
acciisatio poterat, discerpsit, indlgnatus, de ea re dubi- 
tarl, quae sub ipso legato administrata esset. Quln 25 
etiam hunc in modum verba fecit : " Non est, quod 
quaeratis, patres conscriptl, num parvam peciiniam in 
aerarium rettulerim, qul antea ihud Piinico auro reple- 
verim, neque mea innocentia potest in dubium vocarl. 

44 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhistres 

Cum Africam totam potestati vestrae subiecerim, nihil 
ex ea praeter cognomen rettulL Non igitur me Piini- 
cae, non fratrem meum Asiaticae gazae avarum reddi- 
derunt ; sed uterque nostriim invidia quam peciinia est 

5 locupletior." Tam constantem defensionem Scipionis 
iiniversus senatus comprobavit. 

Deinde Scipioni Africano duo tribiini plebis diem 
dixerunt, quod praeda ex Antiocho capta aerarium frau- 
dasset. Ubi causae dicendae dies venit, Scipio magna 

10 hominum frequentia in Forum est deductus. liissus cau- 
sam dicere rostra conscendit et corona triumphall capiti 
suo imposita, "Hoc ego die," inquit, "Hannibalem Poe- 
num, imperio nostro inimicissimum, magno proeUo vici 
in terra Africa pacemque nobls et vlctoriam peperl in- 

15 sperabilem. Ne igitur slmus adversus deos ingratl, sed 
censeo rehnquamus nebulones hos eamusque nunc pro- 
tinus in CapitoHum lovl optimo maximo suppUcatum." 
A rostrls in CapitoHum ascendit ; simul se iiniversa con- 
tio ab acciisatoribus avertit et seciita Scipionem est, 

20 nec quisquam praeter praeconem, qui reum citabat, 
cum tribiinls remansit. Celebratior is dies favore ho- 
minum fuit, quam quo triumphans de Syphace rege et 
Carthaginiensibus urbem est ingressus. Inde, ne ampHus 
tribiinicils iniiirils vexaretur, in Llternlnum concessit, ubi 

25 rehquam egit aetatem sine urbis deslderio. 

Cum in Llternlna vllla se contineret, compliires prae- 
donum duces ad eum videndum forte confluxerunt. 
Quos cum ad vim faciendam venlre exlstimasset, prae- 
sidium servorum in tecto conlocavit aHaque parabat, quae 

Tiberitis GraccJms et Gaiiis Gracchus 45 

ad eos repellendos opus erant. Quod ubi praedones ani- 
madverterunt, abiectis armis ianuae appropinquant et clara 
voce niintiant Scipioni, se non vitae eius hostes, sed vir- 
tiitis admiratores venisse, conspectum tanti viri, quasi 
caeleste aliquod beneficium, expetentes ; proinde ne gra- 
varetur se spectandum praebere. Haec postquam audi- 
vit Scipio, fores reserari eosque introdiicT iussit. Illi 
postes ianuae tamquam religiosissimam aram venerati, 
cupide Scipionis dextram apprehenderunt ac diii deoscu- 
lati sunt ; deinde positls ante vestibuhim donis laeti, quod 
sibi, ScTpionem ut viderent, contigisset, domum reverte- 
runt. Paulo post mortuus est ScTpio moriensque ab uxore 
petiit, ne corpus suum Romam referretur. 

XVIII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus, 

Tiberius et Gaius GracchT ScTpionis AfricanT ex fiha 
nepotes erant. Horum adulescentia bonTs artibus et 15 
magna omnium spe exacta est ; ad egregiam enim indo- 
lem optima accedebat educatio. Erant enim dihgenda 
Cornehae matris a puerTs doctT et GraecTs htterTs erudTtT. 
Maximum matronis ornamentum esse iTberos bene Tnsti- 
tiitos merito putabat mater iha sapientissima. Cum Cam- 20 
pana matrona, apud iUam hospita, ornamenta sua, iho 
saeculo pulcherrima, ostentaret ei muhebriter, Corneha 
traxit eam sermone, quousque e schola redirent HberT. 
Quos reversos hospitae ostendens, '' Haec," inquit, " mea 
ornamenta sunt." Nihil quidem his adulescentibus neque 25 

46 Urbis Romae Viid Illiistres 

a natura neque a doctrlna defuit ; sed ambo rem publi- 
cam, quam tueri poterant, perturbare maluerunt. 

Tiberius Gracchus, tribunus plebis creatus, a senatu 
desclvit ; popull favorem profusls largltionibus sibi con- 

5 ciliavit ; agros plebl dlvidebat, provincias novls colonils 
replebat. Cum autem tribuniciam potestatem sibi pro- 
rogarl vellet et palam dictitasset, interempto senatii omnia 
per plebem agl debere, viam sibi ad regnum parare vide- 
batur. Qua re cum convocatl patres dellberarent, quid- 

10 nam faciendum esset, statim Tiberius Capitolium petit, 
manum ad caput referens, quo slgno salutem suam populo 
commendabat. Hoc nobilitas ita accepit, quasi diadema 
posceret, segniterque cessante consule, Sclpio Naslca, 
cum esset consobrlnus Tiberil Gracchl, patriam cogna- 

15 tioni praeferens sublata dextra proclamavit : " Qui rem 
pubUcam salvam esse volunt, me sequantur ! " Dein 
optimates, senatus atque equestris ordinis pars maior, in 
Gracchum inruunt, qul fugiens decurrensque cllvo Capi- 
tollno fragmento subseUil ictus vltam, quam gloriosissime 

20 degere potuerat, immatura morte flnlvit. Mortul Tiberil 
corpus in flumen proiectum est. 

Gaium Gracchum Idem furor, qul fratrem Tiberium, 
occupavit. Tribunatum enim adeptus, seu vindicandae 
fraternae necis, seu comparandae regiae potentiae causa, 

25 pessima coepit inlre consiha ; maximas largltiones fecit ; 
aerarium effudit ; legem de frumento plebl dlvidendo 
tuht ; civitatem omnibus ItaUcis dabat. Hls Gracchi 
consiUls quanta poterant contentione, obsistebant omnes 
boni, in quibus maxime PIso, vir consularis. Is cum 

Tibcrius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus 47 

miilta contra legem frumentariam dixisset, lege tamen 
lata, ad frumentum cum ceteris accipiendum venit. 
Gracchus ubi animadvertit in contione Pisonem stantem 
eum sic compellavit audiente populo Romano : " Qui 
tibi constas, PIso, cum ea lege frumentum petas, quam 5 
dissuasisti?" Cui Piso, " Nolim quidem, Gracche," in- 
quit, " mea bona tibi viritim dividere hceat ; sed si facies, 
partem petam." Quo responso aperte declaravit vir gra- 
vis et sapiens, lege, quam tulerat Gracchus, patrimonium 
pilbhcum dissipari. 10 

Decretum a senatu est, ut videret consul Opimius, ne 
quid detrimenti res pubhca caperet ; quod nisi in maximo 
discrimine decerni non solebat. Gaius Gracchus, armata 
famiha, Aventinum occupavit. Consul, vocato ad arma 
populo, Gaium aggressus est, qui pulsus profugit et, 15 
cum iam comprehenderetur, iugulum servo praebuit, 
qui dominum et mox semet ipsum super domini corpus 
interemit. Ut Tiberii Gracchl antea corpus, ita Gai 
mlra crudehtate victorum in Tiberim deiectum est, 
caput autem a Septimuleio, amico Gracchi, ad Opim- 20 
ium relatum auro repensum fertur. Sunt qui tradant, 
infuso plumbo eum partem capitis, quo gravius effice- 
retur, explesse. 

Occlso Tiberio Graccho cum senatus consuhbus man- 
dasset, ut in eos, qui cum Graccho consenserant, ani- 25 
madverteretur, Blossius quidam, Tiberii amicus, pro se 
deprecatum venit, hanc, ut sibi Ignosceretur, causam 
adferens, quod tanti Gracchum fecisset, ut, quidquid ille 
vellet, sibi faciendum putaret. Tum consul, "Quid?" 

48 Urbis Rornae Viri Illustres 

inquit, " si te Gracchus templo lovis in Capitolio faces 
subdere iussisset, obseciiturusne illius voluntati fuisti 
propter istam, quam iactas, familiaritatem ? " '' Num- 
quam," inquit Blossius, " voluisset id quidem, sed si 

5 voluisset, paruissem." Nefaria est ea vox ; niilla enim 
est exciisatio peccati, si amici causa peccaveris. 

Exstat Gai Gracchi e Sardinia Romam reversi oratio, 
in qua cum aUa tum haec de se narrat : '' Versatus sum 
in provincia, quomodo ex iisii vestro existimabam esse, 

10 non quomodo ambitioni meae condiicere arbitrabar. 
Nemo potest vere dicere, assem aut eo pliis in miineri- 
bus me accepisse aut mea causa quemquam siimptum 
fecisse. Zonas, quas Roma proficiscens plenas argenti 
extuli, eas ex provincia inanes rettuli. Ahi amphoras, 

15 quas vini plenas extulerunt, eas argento repletas domum 

XIX. Gdius 3Iarius. 

C. Marius, humili loco natus, mihtiae rudimentum in 
Hispania duce Scipione posuit. Erat imprimis Scipioni 
carus ob singularem virtiitem et impigram ad pericula 
20 et labores alacritatem. Cum aUquando inter cenam 
Scipionem quidam interrogasset, si quid illi accidisset, 
quemnam res piiblica aeque magnum habitiira esset 
imperatorem, Scipio percusso leniter Marii umero, 
" Fortasse hunc," inquit. Quo dicto excitatus Marius 
25 dignos rebus, quas postea gessit, spiritiis concepit. 

Q. MeteUum in Numidiam contra lugurtham missum. 

Gaiiis Marius 


cuius legatus erat, cum ab eo Romam missus esset, 
apud populum Romammi crlminatus est bellum diacere ; 
si se consulem fecissent, brevi tempore aut vivum aut 
mortuum lugurtham se in potestatem populi Romani 
redacturum. Itaque creatus est consul et in Metelli 5 
locum suffectus. Bellum ab illo prospere coeptum con- 
fecit. lugurtha ad Gaetulos perfilgerat eorumque re- 
gem Bocchum adversus Romanos concitaverat. Marius 
Gaetillos et Bocchum aggressus fiidit ; castellum in ex- 
celsa ripa positum, ubi regii thesauri erant, non sine 10 
multo labore expijgnavit. Bocchus, bello defessus, lega- 
tos ad Marium misit, pacem orantes. Sulla quaestor a 
Mario ad regem remissus Boccho persuasit, ut lugur- 
tham Romanis traderet. lugurtha igitur vinctus ad 
Marium deductus est; quem Marius triumphans ante 15 
currum egit et in carcerem caenosum incliisit. Quo 
cum lugurtha detracta veste ingrederetur, os ridentis 
in modum didiixisse et stupens simiHsque desipientl 
exclamasse fertur : " Pro ! quam frigidum est vestrum 
balneum ! " Paucis diebus post in carcere necatus est. 20 

Marius post bellum Numidicum iterum consul creatus 
bellumque ei contra Cimbros et Teutones decretum est. 
Hi novi hostes, ab extremis Germaniae finibus profugi, 
novas sedes quaerebant, excliisique GalUa et Hispania 
cum in Itaham remigrarent, a Romanis, ut ahquid sibi 25 
terrae darent, petierunt. Repulsi, quod nequiverant 
precibus, armis petere constituunt. Tres duces Ro- 
mani impetus barbarorum non sustinuerunt. Omnes 
fugati, exiiti castris. Actum erat de imperio Romano, 

50 Urhis Roniae Viri Illiistres 

nisi Marius fuisset. Hic prlmo Teutones sub ipsis 
Alpium radicibus adseciitus proelio oppressit. Vallem 
fluviumque medium hostes tenebant; Romanls aquarum 
nulla copia. Aucta necessitate virtus causa vlctoriae 

5 fuit. Nam flagitante aquam exercitu Marius, "Virl," 
inquit, " estis, en illlc aquam habetis." Itaque tanto 
ardore pugnatum est eaque caedes hostium fuit, ut 
Romani victores de cruento fliimine non pliis aquae 
biberent quam sanguinis barbarorum. Caesa traduntur 

10 hostium ducenta mlha, capta nonaginta. Rex ipse 
Teutobochus in proximo saltii comprehensus inslgne 
spectaculum triumphl fuit ; quippe vir proceritatis ex- 
imiae super tropaea ipsa eminebat. 

Deletls Teutonibus C. Marius in Cimbros se con- 

15 vertit. Qul cum ex aUa parte ItaUam ingressl Athesim 
fliimen non ponte nec navibus, sed iniectls arborum 
truncls, vekit aggere, traiecissent, occurrit els C. Marius. 
Cimbrl legatos ad consulem mlserunt, agros urbesque 
sibi et fratribus postulantes ; Teutonum enim cladem 

20 ignorabant. Quaerente Mario, quos illl fratres dlcerent, 
cum Teutones nominassent, rldens Marius, " Omittite," 
inquit, " fratres ; tenent hl acceptam a nobis terram 
aeternumque tenebunt." Tum legatl se liidibrio haberi 
sentientes ultionem Mario minatl sunt, simul atque Teu- 

25 tones advenissent. "Atqui adsunt," inquit Marius, "nec 
sane clvlle foret, vos fratribus vestrls non salutatls dis- 
cedere." Tum vinctos addiicl iussit Teutonu«n duces, 
qul in proeho captl erant. 

His rebus audltls Cimbrl egrediuntur castrls et cum 

Gaitis Maritis 51 

paucis suorum ad vallum Romanum adequitans Boiorix, 
Cimbrorum dux, Marium ad piignam provocat et diem 
piignae a Romanorum imperatore petit. Proximum 
dedit consul. Marius cum aciem ita instituisset, ut pul- 
vis in oculos et ora hostium ferretur, incredibili strage 5 
prostrata est illa Cimbrorum multitiido ; caesa traduntur 
centum octoginta hominum milia. Nec minor cum uxo- 
ribus piigna quam cum viris fuit, cum obiectis undique 
plaustris desuper, quasi e turribus, lanceis contisque piig- 
narent. Victae tamen cum missa ad Marium legatione 10 
libertatem non impetrassent, suffocatis elisisque infanti- 
bus suis aut miituis conciderunt vulneribus aut vinculo e 
crinibus suis facto ab arboribus pependerunt. Canes 
quoque defendere Cimbris caesis eorum domos. Marius 
pro duobus triumphis, qui ofiferebantur, iino contentus 15 
fuit. Primores civitatis, qui ei aHquamdiii ut novo 
homini ad tantos honores evecto inviderant, conserva- 
tam ab eo rem publicam fatebantur. In ipsa acie Ma- 
rius duas Camertium cohortes, mira virtiite vim Cim- 
brorum sustinentes, contra legem civitate donaverat. 20 
Quod quidem factum et vere et egregie postea exciisa- 
vit, dicens, inter armorum strepitum verba se iiiris civi- 
Hs exaudire non potuisse. 

IHa tempestate primum Romae beHum civile commo- 
tum est. Causam beUo dedit Gaius Marius. Cum enim 25 
SuHa consul contra Mithridatem, regem Ponti, missus 
fuisset, Sulpicius, tribiinus plebis, legem ad populum 
tuHt, ut SuHae imperium abrogaretur, C. Mario beHum 
decerneretur Mithridaticum. Qua re SuHa commotus 

(3()iLLB6£ OF LIBERA, /?)• 


52 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhistres 

cum exercitu ad urbem venit, eam armis occupavit, Sul- 
picium interfecit, Marium fugavit. Marius hostes per- 
sequentes fugiens aliquamdiil in paliide delituit. Sed 
paulo post repertus extractusque, ut erat niido corpore 

5 caenoque oblitus, iniecto in collum loro Minturnas rap- 
tus et in custodiam coniectus est. Missus est ad eum 
occldendum servus piiblicus, natione Cimber, quem Ma- 
rius vultiis auctoritate deterruit. Cum enim hominem 
ad se stricto gladio venientem vidisset, "Tiine, homo," 

10 inquit, " C. Marium audebis occidere?" Quo audito 
attonitus ille ac tremens abiecto ferro fiigit, Marium se 
non posse occidere clamitans. Marius deinde ab eis, 
qui prius eum occidere voluerant, e carcere emis- 
sus est. 

15 Accepta navicula in Africam traiecit et in agrum 
Carthaginiensem pervenit. Ibi cum in locis soHtarils 
sederet, venit ad eum Hctor Sextihl praetoris, qul tum 
Africam obtinebat. Ab hoc, quem numquam laesisset, 
Marius hiimanitatis tamen ahquod ofificium exspectabat ; 

20 at hctor decedere eum provincia iussit, nisi in se ani- 
madvertl vellet ; torveque intuentem et vocem niillam 
emittentem Marium rogavit tandem, ecquid reniintiarl 
praetori veUet. Tum Marius, "Abl," inquit, "niintia, 
vldisse te Gaium Marium in Carthaginis rulnls seden- 

25 tem." Duobus clarissimls exemphs de inconstantia 
rerum hiimanarum eum adraonebat, cum et urbis maxi- 
mae excidium et virl clarissiml casum ante oculos po- 

Profecto ad bellum Mithridaticum Sulla Marius revo- 

Gauis Ma7i7is 53 

catus a Cinna in rtaliam rediit, efferatus magis calami- 
tate quam domitus. Cum exercitii Romam ingressus 
eam caedibus et rapinis vastavit ; omnes adversae fac- 
tionis nobiles variis suppliciorum generibus adfecit ; 
qulnque dies continuos totidemque noctes illa scelerum 5 
omnium diiravit licentia. Hoc tempore admiranda sane 
populi Romani abstinentia fuit. Cum enim Marius occi- 
sorum domos multitudini diripiendas obiecisset, inveniri 
potuit nemo, qui civili liictu praedam peteret ; quae qui- 
dem tam misericors continentia plebis tacita quaedam 10 
criidelium victorum vituperatio fuit. Tandem Marius, 
senio et laboribus confectus in morbum incidit et in- 
genti omnium laetitia vitam finivit. Ciiius viri si exami- 
nentur cum virtiitibus vitia, haud facile sit dictii, utrum 
bello melior, an pace perniciosior fuerit ; namque quam 15 
rem piiblicam armatus servavit, eam primo togatus omni 
genere fraudis, postremo armis hostiliter evertit. 

Erat Marius diirior ad humanitatis studia et ingenua- 
rum artium contemptor. Cum aedem Honoris de ma- 
nubiis hostium vovisset, spreta peregrinorum marmorum 20 
nobihtate artificumque Graecorum arte eam vulgari la- 
pide per artificem Romanum ciiravit aedificandam. Et 
Graecas litteras despiciebat, quod doctoribus suis parum 
ad virtiitem profuissent. At idem fortis, vaHdus, adver- 
sus dolorem confirmatus. Cum ei varices in criire seca- 25 
rentur, vetuit se adligari. Acrem tamen fuisse doloris 
morsum ipse ostendit ; nam medico, alterum criis pos- 
tulanti, noluit praebere, quod maiorem esse remedii 
quam morbi dolorem iiidicaret. 

54 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

XX. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 

138-78 B.C. 

Cornelius Sulla cum parvulus a nutrice ferretur, mu- 
lier obvia, " Salve," inquit, " puer tibi et rei publicae 
tuae felix," et statim quaesita, quae haec dixisset, n5n 
potuit inveniri. 

5 Hic bello lugurthino quaestor Marii fuit. Qui cum 
usque ad quaesturae comitia vitam Hbidine, vino, liidi- 
crae artis amore inquinatam perdiixisset, C. Marius 
consul moleste tuHsse traditur, quod sibi gravissimum 
bellum gerenti tam deUcatus quaestor sorte obvenisset. 

10 Eiusdem tamen, postquam in Africam venit, virtiis eni- 
tuit. Bello Cimbrico, legatus consuHs bonam operam 
navavit. Consul ipse deinde factus p.ulso in exsihum 
Mario adversus Mithridatem profectus est. Mithridates 
enim, Ponticus rex, vir bello acerrimus, virtute eximius, 

15 odio in Romanos non inferior Hannibale, occupata Asia 
necatisque in ea omnibus civibus Romanis, quos qui- 
dem eadem die atque hora per omnes civitates inte- 
rimi iusserat, Europae quoque Itahaeque imminere vide- 
batur. Ac primo Sulla illius praefectos duobus proeliis 

20 in Graecia profligavit ; dein transgressus in Asiam Mi- 
thridatem ipsum fiidit ; et oppressisset, nisi ad bellum 
civile adversus Marium festinans qualemcumque pacem 
componere maluisset. Mithridatem tamen peciinia mul- 
tavit ; Asia ahisque provinciis, quas occupaverat, dece- 

25 dere paternisque finibus contentum esse coegit. 

Sulla propter motiis urbanos cum victore exercitii 

Liiciiis Cornelius Snlla 55 

Romam properavit ; eos, qul Mario favebant, omnes su- 
peravit. Nihil autem ea victoria fuit criidelius. Sulla, 
urbem ingressus et dictator creatus, vel in eos, qui se 
sponte dediderant, iussit animadvertl. Quattuor mllia 
deditorum inermium civium in Circo interfici iussit. 5 
Quis autem illos potest computare, quos in urbe pas- 
sim, quisquis voluit, occidit, donec admoneret Fiifidius 
quidam, vlvere aliquos debere, ut essent, quibus impera- 
ret? Novo et inaudito exemplo tabulam proscrlptionis 
proposuit, qua nomina eorum, qul occldendl essent, 10 
continebantur ; cumque omnium orta esset indlgnatio, 
postridie plura etiam adiecit nomina. Ingens caesorum 
fuit multitiido. Nec solum in eos saevlvit, qul armls 
contra se dlmicavissent, sed etiam quietl animl clves 
propter pecuniae magnitndinem proscrlptorum numero 15 
adiecit. Civis quldam innoxius, cul fundus in agro 
Albano erat, cum legens proscriptorum nomina se quo- 
que videret adscrlptum, "Vae," inquit, "misero mihi ! 
me fundus Albanus persequitur." Neque longe pro- 
gressus a quodam, qul eum agnoverat, confossus est. 20 

Depulsls prostratlsque inimlcorum partibus Sulla Fell- 
cem se edicto appellavit; cumque eius uxor geminos 
eodem tunc partii edidisset, puerum Faustum puellam- 
que Faustam nominari voluit. Sed paucls annls post 
repente contra omnium exspectationem dictatilram de- 25 
posuit. Dlmlssls llctoribus diii in foro cum amlcls deam- 
bulavit. Stupebat populus eum prlvatum videns, ciiius 
modo tam formldolosa fuerat potestas ; quodque non 
minus mlrandum fuit, prlvato el non solum saliis, sed 

56 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhistres 

etiam dignitas constitit, qui cTves innumerabiles occiderat. 
Unus adulescens fuit, qui auderet queri et recedentem 
usque ad fores domils maledictis incessere. Atque ille, 
cuius Tram potentissimT virT maximaeque cTvitates nec 
5 effugere nec placare potuerant, TinTus adulescentulT con- 
tumelias patientT animo tulit, id tantum in iTmine iam 
dicens : " HTc adulescens efficiet, ne quis posthac tale 
imperium deponat." 

Sulla deinde in vTllam profectus riisticarT et venando 

10 vTtam agere coepit. Ibi morbo correptus interiit, vir in- 
gentis animT, cupidus voluptatum, sed gloriae cupidior; 
litterTs GraecTs atque LatTnTs erudTtus et virorum littera- 
torum adeo amans, ut sedulitatem etiam malT cTiiusdam 
poetae aliquo praemio dTgnam diixerit ; nam cum ille 

15 epigramma in eum fecisset eTque subiecisset, Sulla sta- 
tim praemium eT darT iussit, sed ea lege, ne quid postea 
scrTberet. Ante vTctoriam laudandus ; in eTs vero, quae 
seciita sunt, numquara satis vituperandus ; urbem enim et 
Italiam cTvTlis sanguinis fluminibus inundavit. Non solum 

20 in vTvos saeviit, sed ne mortuTs quidem pepercit ; nam 
GaT MariT, ciiius, etsT postea hostis, aliquando tamen 
quaestor fuerat, erutos cineres in fliimen proiecit. Qua 
criidelitate rerum praeclare gestarum gloriam corriipit. 

Quintus Sertorius 57 

XXI. Qulnttis Sertorius. 

121-72 B.C. 

Q. Sertorius, ignobili loco natiis, prima stipendia bello 
Cimbrico fecit, in quo honos ei virtiitis causa habitus 
est. In prima adversus Cimbros pilgna, quamquam vul- 
neratus, Rhodanum, flumen rapidissimum, nando traiecit, 
lorica et scuto retentis. Egregia etiam sociah bello fuit 5 
eius opera. In eo cum alter oculus ei esset effossus, 
id non dehonestamentum ori, sed ornamentum arbitra- 
batur ; dicebat enim, cetera belhcae fortitiidinis insignia, 
ut armillas coronasve, nec semper nec ubique gestari ; 
se vero, quotienscumque in piibhcum prodiret, suae virtii- 10 
tis pignus in ipsa fronte ostentare nec quemquam sibi 
occurrere, qui non esset laudum suarum admirator. 

Postquam SuUa ex beUo Mithridatico in Itaham re- 
versus coepit dominari, Sertorius, qui partium Mariana- 
rum fuerat, in Hispaniam se contuht. Ibi tum virtiitis 15 
admiratione, tum imperii lenitate Hispanorum simul ac 
Romanorum, qui locis ihis consederant, animos sibi con- 
cihavit magnoque exercitii conlecto quos Suha adversus 
eum miserat duces profligavit. Missus deinde a SuUa 
MeteUus a Sertorio fiisus fugatusque est. Etiam Pom- 20 
peium, quT in Hispaniam venerat, ut MeteUo opem fer- 

I. prlma stJpendia fecit, served 5. sociali bello, the social war 

his first campaign. (B.C. 91-88). 

4. nando, by swijnming. 6. effossus, put out. 

10. quotienscumque, whenever. 

58 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhistres 

ret, levibus proelils lacessivit Sertorius. Nam, cum non 
minus cautus esset quam acer imperator, universae dimi- 
cationis discrimen vitabat, quod imparem se universo 
Romanorum exercitui sentiret ; interim vero hostem 
5 crebrTs damnis fatigabat. 

Cum aliquando milites eius pugnam inconsulte flagi- 
tarent neque oratione flecti possent, ne cum Romanis 
universa acie confligere veflent, Sertorius vafro consilio 
eos ad suam sententiam perduxit. Duos enim in con- 

10 spectu eorum constituit equos, alterum validissimum, 
alterum inflrmissimum ; ac deinde validl caudam ab im- 
becillo sene paulatim carpl, Inflrml a iuvene eximiarum 
vlrium iiniversam convelll iussit. Obtemperatum im- 
perio est. Sed dum adulescentis dextra inrito se labore 

15 fatlgat, senio confecta manus perfecit, quod imperatum 
erat. Tunc barbarorum contionl cognoscere cupientl, 
quorsum ea res tenderet, " Equl caudae," inquit, " simi- 
lis est hostium exercitus ; cuius qul partes aggreditur, 
facile potest opprimere ; contra nihil proficiet, qul uni- 

20 versum conabitur prosternere." 

Cerva alba eximiae pulchritudinis a Lusitano quodam 
Sertorio dono data est. Hanc ita adsuefecerat, ut audl- 

I. lacessivit, assailed. 14. inrito, to no purpose. 

5. QXQhx\%&3SCiXVi%,frequentlosses., 17. quorsum, w/^///^,?r*;"*qu5rsum 

6. inconsulte, inconsiderately. tenderet, what was the ob- 

7. flecti, be turned, be injluenced. ject. 

8. vafro, cra/ty, artful. 21, cerva, hitid ; Liisitano, an in- 

12. imbecillo, weak ; carpl, be habitant of Lusitania, mod- 

plucked out. ern Portugal. 

13. convelli, be pulled out ; ob- 

temperatum, obeyed. 

Quintiis Sertorins 59 

ret se vocantem euntemque sequeretur. Hanc sibi ob- 
latam divlnitus et Instinctam Dianae numine conloqul 
secum monereque et docere, quae iitilia factii essent, 
persuadere omnibus Instituit. Ac sl quid diirius vide- 
batur, quod imperandum mllitibus esset, a cerva sese 5 
monitum praedicabat barbarlque statim ad omnia, tam- 
quam dlvlnitus imperata, oboediebant. Ea cerva quo- 
dam die, cum incursio esset hostium niintiata, festlna- 
tione ac tumultii consternata in fugam sese proripuit, 
atque in paliide proxima delituit et perlsse credita est. 10 
Neque multls diebus post inventam esse cervam Sertorio 
niintiatur. Tum eum, qui nuntiaverat, iussit tacere, prae- 
cepitque, ut eam postero die repente in eum locum, 
in quo ipse cum amlcls esset, immitteret. Admlssls 
deinde amlcls postrldie vlsam sibi ait in quiete cervam, 15 
quae perisset, ad se revertl et, ut prius consuevisset, 
quod opus esset factii, praedlcere. Tum quidem Sertorio, 
quod imperav^erat, slgnificante cerva emlssa in cubiculum 
introriipLt. Clamor factus et orta omnium admlratio est. 
Eaque hominum barbarorum credulitas Sertorio in magnls 20 
rebus magno usul fuit. 

Vlctus postea a Pompeio miitare priorem mansuetii- 
dinem Sertorius et ad Iracundiam deflectere coepit. 
Multos^ja^, susplcionem proditionis criideliter interfecit; 
unde paulatim odio esse coepit exercitul. Romanl mo- 25 
leste ferebant, quod Hispanls magis quam sibi conflde- 

18. cubiculum, room. 26. Hispanls, Spaniards. 

22, mansuetiidinem, clemency. 

6o Urbis Roniae Viri Illustres 

ret hosque haberet corporis custodes. Tamen non 
deserebant Sertorium, quem necessarium sibi ducem 
iudicarent, sed amare eum desierant. Deinde in Hi- 
spanos quoque saeviit Sertorius, quod tributa non tole- 
5 rarent ; ipse etiam, curls iam et laboribus fessus, ad 
obeunda ducis munia segnior factus ad luxum et libi- 
dines declinavit. Itaque ahenatis omnium animls iussa 
imperatoris contemnebantur. Tandem facta adversus 
eum coniuratione Sertorius in convlvio a suls est inter- 
10 fectus, magnus dux et adversus duos imperatores, Pom- 
peium et Metellum, saepe par, vel frequentius victor, 
ad ultimum desertus et proditus. 

XXII. Gnaeus Pomjyeius Mdgnus» 

Gnaeus Pompeius, stirpis senatoriae, bello clvlll se et 

patrem consilio servavit. Cum enim Pompel pater ex- 

15 ercitui suo ob avaritiam esset invlsus, facta in eum con- 

' iuratione Terentius quldam, Gnael Pompel flUl contuber- 

nalis, hunc occldendum suscepit, dum ahl tabernaculum 

patris incenderent. Quae res cum iuvenl Pompeio 

cenantl nuntiata esset, nihil perlculo motus sohto hila- 

20 rius bibit et cum Terentio eadem, qua antea, comitate 

lisus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressus clam subdiixit 

3. desierant, ceased. 16. contubernalis, tent-companion, 

6. munia, duties. cofnrade. 

7. decllnavit, turned aside, gave 17. tabernaculum, tent. 

hiniself up. 19. solito hilarius, more gaily than 

9. coniiiratione, conspiracy. usual. 

12. proditus, betrayed. 20. bibit, drank. 

Gnaens Pompeius Magnus 6i 

se tentorio et firmam patrl circumdedit custodiam. 
Terentius tum destricto ense ad lectum Pompei acces- 
sit multisque ictibus stragula percussit. Orta mox sedi- 
tione Pompeius se in media coniecit agmina, militesque 
tumultuantes precibus et lacrimis placavit ac ducl recon- 5 

Eodem bello Pompeius partes Sullae seciitus ita se 
gessit, ut ab eo maxime diligeretur. Annos tres et 
vlginti natus, ut Sullae auxilio venlret, paternl exercitiis 
reliquias conlegit, statimque dux peritus exstitit. Magnus 10 
illlus apud mllitem amor, magna apud omnes admlratio 
fuit ; niillus el labor taedio, nulla defatlgatio molestiae 
erat. Cibl vlnlque temperans, somnl parcus ; inter 
mllites corpus exercens, cum alacribus saltii, cum velo- 
cibus cursij, cum validls liictando certabat. Tum ad 15 
Sullam iter intendit et in eo itinere tres hostium exer- 
citiis aut fiidit aut sibi adiiinxit. Quem ubi Sulla ad 
se accedere audlvit egregiamque sub slgnls iuventutem 
adspexlt, desiliit ex equo Pompeiumque saliitavit impe- 
ratorem et postea el venientl solebat sella adsurgere et 20 
caput aperlre et equo descendere, quem honorem neminl 
nisi Pompeio tribuebat. 

Postea Pompeius in Siciham profectus est, ut eam 
a Carbone, Sullae inimico, occupatam reciperet. Carbo 
comprehensus et ad Pompeium ductus est ; quem Pom- 25 

2. ense, sword. 15. luctando, in wrestlijtg ; certa- 

3. stragula, coverlet. - bat, vied, contended. 
8. dlligeretur, was loved. 20. adsurgere, to rise. 

13. parcus, sparing, moderate. 

62 Urbis Romae Viri Ilkistres 

peius, etsl Carbo muliebriter mortem extimescens de- 
misse et flebiliter mortem deprecabatur, ad supplicium 
duci iussit. Longe moderatior fuit Pompeius erga Sthe- 
nium, Siciliae cuiusdam civitatis prlncipem. Cum enim 
5 in eam civitatem animadvertere decrevisset, quae sibi 
adversata fuisset, inlque eum factiirum Sthenius excla- 
mavit, si ob linlus culpam omnes punlret. Interroganti 
Pompeio, quisnam ille ilnus esset, " Ego," inquit Sthe- 
nius, "qul clves meos ad id induxi." Tam llbera voce 

10 delectatus Pompeius omnibus et Sthenio ipsi pepercit. 

Transgressus inde in Africam larbam, Numidiae 

regem, qul Marii partibus favebat, bello persecutus 

intra dies quadraginta oppressit et Africam subegit ad- 

ulescens quattuor et vlgintl annorum. Deinde cum lit- 

15 terae ei a Sulla redditae essent, quibus exercitu dimisso 
cum una legione successorem exspectare iubebatur, 
Pompeius, quamquam aegre id ferebat, tamen paruit 
et Romam revertit. Revertenti incredibihs hominum 
multitOdo obviam Ivit ; Sulla quoque laetus eum exce- 

20 pit et Magnl cognomine consaliitavit. Nihilo minus 
Pompeio triumphum petenti restitit ; neque vero ea re 
a proposito deterritus est Pompeius aususque dlcere 
pliires adorare solem orientem quam occidentem ; quo 
dicto innuebat, Sullae potentiam minul, suam crescere. 

25 Ea voce audlta Sulla, confidentia adulescentis percul- 
sus, " Triumphet ! triumphet ! " exclamavit. 

Metello iam senl et bellum in Hispania segnius ge- 

2. flebiliter, cf. fleo, weep. 6. inlque, unjiistly. 24. innuebat, hinted. 

Gnaetis Pompeius Magnus 63 

renti conlega datus, Pompeius adversus Sertorium vario 
eventu dimicavit. Maximum ibi in proelio quodam 
periculum subiit ; cum enim vir vasta corporis magni- 
tudine impetum in eum fecisset, Pompeius manum am- 
putavit ; sed multis in eum concurrentibus vulnus in 5 
femore accepit et a suis fugientibus desertus in hostium 
potestate erat. At praeter spem evasit ; barbari enim 
equum eius auro phalerlsque eximiis Tnstructum cepe- 
rant. Dum igitur praedam inter se altercantes parti- 
untur, Pompeius eorum maniis effiigit. Altero proeUo 10 
cum Metellus Pompeio laboranti auxiUo venisset, Ser- 
torius recedere coactus dixisse fertur : " Nisi anus iUa 
supervenisset, ego hunc puerum verberibus castigatum 
Romam dimisissem." Metellum anum appeUabat, quia 
is, iam senex, ad moUem et effeminatam vitam defiexe- 15 
rat. Sertorio interfecto Pompeius Hispaniam recepit. 

Cum piratae iUa tempestate maria omnia infestarent et 
quasdam etiam ItaUae urbes diripuissent, ad eos oppri- 
mendos cum imperio extraordinari5 mlssus est Pom- 
peius. Nimiae virl potentiae obsistebant quldam ex 20 
optimatibus et imprlmls Qulntus Catulus. Qul cum in 
contione dixisset, esse quidem praeclarum virum Cn. 
Pompeium, sed non esse iinl omnia tribuenda, adiecis- 
setque, "Sl quid huic acciderit, quem in eius locum 
substituetis ? " summo consensii succlamavit iiniversa 25 
contio : "Te, Qulnte Catule." Tam honorifico clvium 

8. phaleris, trappings. 15. mollem, soft^ unnianly. 

II. laborantl, in distress. 20. nimiae, excessive. 

64 Urbis Roniae Viri Ilhistres 

testimonio victus Catulus e contione discessit. Pom- 
peius, dispositis per omnes maris recessiis navibus, brevi 
terrarum orbem illa peste liberavit ; praedones multis 
locis victos fiidit ; eosdem in deditionem acceptos in 

5 urbibus et agris procul a mari conlocavit. Nihil hac 
victoria celerius ; nam intra quadragesimum diem pira- 
tas toto mari expulit. 

Confecto bello piratico Gnaeus Pompeius contra 
Mithridatem profectus in Asiam magna celeritate con- 

lo tendit. ProeHum cum rege conserere cupiebat, neque 
opportiina dabatur piignandi facultas, quia Mithridates 
interdiii castris se continebat, noctii vero haud tiitum 
erat congredi cum hoste in locis ignotis. Nocte tamen 
ahquando cum Pompeius Mithridatem aggressus esset, 

15 liina magno fuit Romanis adiiimento. Quam cum Ro- 
mani a tergo haberent, umbrae corporum longius pro- 
iectae ad primos usque hostium ordines pertinebant ; 
unde decepti regii milites in umbras, tamquam in pro- 
pinquum hostem, tela mittebant. Victus Mithridates 

20 in Pontum profiigit. Pharnaces fiHus bellum el intulit, 
qui, occisis a patre fratribus, vitae suae ipse timebat. 
Mithridates a filio obsessus venenum siimpsit; quod 
cum tardius subiret, quia adversus venena multis antea 
medicamentis corpus firmaverat, a mihte Gallo, a quo, 

25 ut adiuvaret se, petierat, interfectus est. 

Tigranl deinde, Armeniae regl, qul Mithridatis partes 

4. deditionem, surretider. 15. adiumento, aid, assistance, 

11. facultas, opportu7iity. 16. umbrae, shadows. 

12. interdiu, in the daytiine. , 17. pertinebant, extended. 

Gnaeus Pompehcs Magnus 65 

secutus erat, Pompeius bellum intulit eumque ad de- 
ditionem compulit. Qul cum procubuisset ad genua 
Pompei, eum erexit, et benlgnis verbis recreatum dia- 
dema, quod abiecerat, capiti reponere iussit, aeque pul- 
chrum esse iudicans, et vincere reges et facere. Inde 5 
in indaeam profectus Romanorum prlmus ludaeos do- 
muit, Hierosolyma, caput gentis, cepit, templumque iure 
vlctoriae ingressus est. Rebus Asiae compositls in Ita- 
liam versus ad urbem venit, non, ut plerlque timuerant, 
armatus, sed dlmisso exercitu, et tertium triumphum 10 
blduo duxit. Inslgnis fuit multls novls inusitatlsque 
ornamentls hlc triumphus ; sed nihil inlustrius visum, 
quam quod tribus triumphls tres orbis partes devlctae 
causam praebuerant ; Pompeius enim, quod antea con- 
tigerat neminl, prlmum ex Africa, iterum ex Europa, 15 
tertio ex Asia triumphavit, fehx oplnione hominum fu- 
turus, si, quem gloriae, eundem vltae finem habuisset 
neque adversam fortunam esset expertus iam senex. 

Posteriore enim tempore orta inter Pompeium et 
Caesarem gravl dissensione, quod hlc superiorem, ille 20 
parem ferre non posset, bellum clvUe exarsit. Caesar 
Infesto exercitu in ItaUam venit. Pompeius rellcta urbe 
ac deinde Itaha ipsa ThessaUam petit et cum eo con- 
sules senatusque omnis ; quem Inseciltus Caesar apud 
Pharsalum acie fudit. Vlctus Pompeius ad Ptolemaeum, 25 
Aegyptl regem, cui tiltor a senatu datus erat, profugit, 

2. "pxQzxHoyxxsz^^., had fallen, thrown 7. Y{\&xo's,o\yva.z.,JerusaleTn. 

himself down ; genua, knees. 9. versus, turned ; plerlque, niost 

3. erexit, raised. people. 

66 Urbis Roniae Viri Illustres 

qui Pompeium interfici iussit. Latus Pompel sub oculis 
uxoris et liberorum mucrone confossum est, caput prae- 
cisum, truncus in Nilum coniectus. Deinde caput cum 
anulo ad Caesarem delatum est, qui eo viso lacrimas 
5 non continens illud multis pretiosissimisque odoribus 
cremandum ciiravit. 

Is fuit Pompei post tres consulatiis et totidem tri- 
umphos vitae exitus. Erant in Pompeio multae et 
magnae virtiites ac praecipue admiranda friigalitas. 

lo Cum ei aegrotanti praecepisset medicus, ut turdum 
ederet, negarent autem servi, eam avem usquam aestivo 
tempore posse reperiri, nisi apud Liicullum, qui turdos 
domi saginaret, vetuit Pompeius turdum inde peti, me- 
dicoque dixit : " Ergo, nisi Liicullus perditus deliciis 

15 esset, non viveret Pompeius?" Aliam avem, quae pa- 
rabilis esset, sibi iussit apponi. 

Viris doctis magnum honorem habebat Pompeius. 
Ex Syria decedens, confecto bello Mithridatico, cum 
Rhodum venisset, Posidonium cupiit audire ; sed cum 

20 audivisset, eum graviter esse aegrum, quod vehementer 
eius artiis laborarent, voluit tamen nobihssimum philo- 
sophum visere. Mos erat, ut, consule aedes aliquas 
ingressiiro, lictor fores percuteret, admonens consulem 
adesse ; at Pompeius fores Posidonii percuti honoris 

1. latus, side. 13. saginaret, fattened. 

2. mucrone, foint, sword. 14. perditus delicils, spoiled by 
9. praecipue, especially. luxury. 

10. aegrotanti, when ill ; turdum, 21. a.rtu.s, joints, limbs. 

Gaius Inlms Caesar 6/ 

causa vetuit. Quem ut vldit et saliitavit, moleste se 
dixit ferre, quod eum non posset audlre. At ille, " Tii 
vero," inquit, '' potes, nec committam, ut dolor corpo- 
ris efficiat, ut frustra tantus vir ad me venerit." Ita- 
que cubans graviter et copiose de hoc ipso disputavit ; 5 
nihil esse bonum nisi quod honestum esset, nihil ma- 
lum dlci posse, quod turpe non "esset. Cum vero 
dolores acriter eum pungerent, saepe, " Nihil agis," 
inquit, " dolor ! quamvls sls molestus, numquam te esse 
malum confitebor." 10 

XXIII. Gdiiis lulius Caesar, 

100-44 B.c. 

C. liiUus Caesar, nobiHssima liiHorum genitus famiHa, 
annum agens sextum et decimum patrem amlsit. Cor- 
neham, Cinnae fiHam, diixit uxorem ; ciiius pater cum 
esset SuHae inimlcissimus, is Caesarem voluit compel- 
lere, ut eam repudiaret; neque id potuit efficere. 15 
Qua re Caesar bonls spoHatus cum etiam ad necem 
quaereretur, miitata veste nocte urbe elapsus est et 
quamquam tunc quartanae morbo laborabat, prope per 
singulas noctes latebras commiitare cogebatur; et com- 
prehensus a SuHae Hberto, ne ad SuHam perdiiceretur, 20 

4. frustra, in vain. 13, diaxit = in matrimonium duxit. 

5. cubans, lyitig down. 17. elapsus est, escaped. 

7. turpe, base, wrong, 18. quartanae morbo, quartan 

8. pungerent, pricked, stung, tor- ague ; prope, almost. 

mented, 20. X)!oG.x\.o,freedman. 

6S Urbis Romae Viri Illtistrcs 

vix data pecunia evasit. Postremo per propinquos et 
adfines suos veniam impetravit. Satis constat, Sullam, 
cum deprecantibus amicissimis et ornatissimis viris ali- 
quamdiii denegasset atque illl pertinaciter contenderent, 
5 expiignatum tandem proclamasse, vincerent, dum modo 
scirent, eum, quem incolumem tantopere cuperent, ali- 
quando optimatium partibus, quas secum simul defen- 
dissent, exitio futiirum ; nam Caesari multos Marios 

10 ^'''&tipendia prlma in xA.sia fecit. In expiignatione 
Mitylenarum corona clvica do/mtus est. Mojtuo Sul]a 
Rhodum se;:edere statuit, ut per ^tiura Apollonio. Mo- 
lonl, tunc clarissimo dlcendl magistf o, . operam 
Hiic dum traicit, a^ praedombus captus est mansitque 

15 apud eos pfope quadraginta liies. Per omne autem 
illud spatium ita se gessit," ut plratls pariter terrori 
venerationlque^ esset. Comites interim servosque ad 
expediendas peciinias, quibus redimeretur, dlmmt.' Vi- 
gintl talent^ plratae postulS^erant ; ille c^mquaginta 

20 datiirum se spopondit. Quibus numeratls cum exposi- 
tus esset in lltore, confestim Miletum, quae urbs proxime 
aberat, properavit ibique contracta classe, invectus in 
eum locum, in quo ipsi praedones erant, partem classis 
fugavit, partem mersit, aliquot naves cepit plratasque 

25 in potestatem redactos ep supplicio, quod illls saepe 
minatus inter iocum erat, adfecit cruclque sufflxit. 

2. adflnes, relations (by marriage) . 24. mersit, sank. 
5. vincerent, that they might have 26. minatus erat, had threatened. 
their way. 

Gaiiis hiliiis Cacsar 69 

Quaestori ulterior Hispania obvenit. Quo profectus 
cum Alpes transiret et ad conspectum pauperis ciiius- 
dam vici comites per iocum inter se disputarent, num 
illic etiam esset ambitioni locus, serio dixit Caesar, malle 
se ibi primum esse, quam Romae secundum. Domi- 5 
nationis avidus a prima aetate regnujn concupiscebat 
semperque in ore habebat hos Euripidis, Graeci poetae, 
versus : 

Nam si violandum est ius, regnandi gratia 

Violandum est, aliis rebus pietatem colas. 10 

Cumque Gades, quod est Hispaniae oppidum, ve- 
nisset, animadversa apud Hercuhs templum magni Alex- 
andri imagine ingemuit et quasi pertaesus ignaviam 
suam, quod nihildum a se memorabile actum esset in 
ea aetate, qua iam Alexander orbem terrarum subegis- 15 
set, missionem continuo efflagitavit ad captandas quam 
primum maiorum rerum occasiones in urbe. 

Aedihs praeter Comitium ac Forum etiam Capitohum 
ornavit porticibus. Venationes autem liidosque et cum 
conlega M. Bibulo et separatim edidit; quo factum 20 
est, ut commiinium quoque impensarum solus gratiam 
caperet. His autem rebus patrimonium effiidit tan- 
tumque conflavit aes ahenum, ut ipse diceret, sibi opus 
esse mihens sestertiiim, ut haberet nihil. 

6. 2i\\6.MS, eager,greedy. i6. e^3.g\idiv\i,de7nandedt{rgejitly. 

13. ingemuit, sighed ; pertaesus, 23. aes alienum, debt. 

wearied, disgusted with. 24, mlliens sestertiiim, a hundred 

14. xviSx^^^nxci^nothing as yet. million sesterces = about ^4, 


70 Urbis Romae Viri Illiistres 

Consul deinde creatus cum M. Bibulo, societatem 
cum Gnaeo Pompeio et Marco Crasso iunxit Caesar, 
ne quid ageretur in re piiblica, quod displicuisset ulli 
ex tribus. Deinde legem tulit, ut ager Campanus plebi 
5 divideretur. Cui legT cum senatus repiignaret, rem ad 
populum detulit. Bibulus conlega in Forum venit, ut 
legi obsisteret, sed tanta in eum commota est seditio, 
ut in caput eius cophinus stercore plenus effunderetur 
fascesque ei frangerentur atque adeo ipse armis Foro 

10 expelleretur. Qua re cum Bibulus per reliquum anni 
tempus domo abditus ciiria abstineret, iinus ex eo tem- 
pore Caesar omnia in re pviblica ad arbitrium adminis- 
trabat, ut nonniilli urbanorum, si quid testandi gratia 
signarent, per iocum non, ut mos erat, consulibus Cae- 

15 sare et Bibulo actum scriberent, sed liilio et Caesare, 
iinum consulem nomine et cognomine pro duobus ap- 

^' Functus consulatii Caes^r Galliam provinciam acce- 
pit. Gessit autem novem annis, quibus in imperio fuit, 

20 haec fere : GalHam in provinciae formam redegit ; Ger- 
manos, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, primus Romanorum 
ponte fabricato aggressus maximis adfecit cladibus. 
Aggressus est Britanno^s, ignotos antea, superatisque — . 
peciinias et obsides imperavit. Hic cum multa Ro- 

8. cophinus, basket ; stercore, 12. arbitrium, will. 

filth. 13. testandl gratia,_/&r the purpose 

9. fasces, a bundle of rods with ofbearitjg witness. 

an axe, carried before the 18. iviX\ci\is,filled,finished. 

highest magistrates ; fasces. 21. incolunt, dwell. 

Gaiiis luliiis Caesar yi 

manorum mllitum insignia narrantur, tum illud egre- 
gium ipsTus Caesaris, quod nutant^. in fugam exercitii, 
rapto fugientis e manu scuto, in"primam volitans aciem 
proelium restituit. Idem alio proelio legionis aquili- 
ferum ineundae fugae causa iam conversum faucibus 5 
comprehensum in contrariam partem detraxit dextram- 
que ad hostem tendens, '' Quorsum tu," inquit, " abis ? 
Illic surij, cum quibus dimicamus." Qua adhortatione 
omnium legionum trepidationem correxit vincique pa- 
ratas vincere docuit. * 10 

Interfecto interea apud Parthos Crasso et defiincta 
liiHa, Caesaris fiha, quae, niipta Pompeio, generi soce- 
rique concordiam tenebat, statim aemulatio eriipit. lam 
pridem Pompeio suspectae Caesaris opes et Caesari 
Pompeiana dignitas gravis, nec hic ferebat parem, nec 15 
ille superiorem. Itaque cum Caesar in Galha detine- 
retur, et, ne imperfecto bello discederet, postulasset, 
ut sibi hceret, quamvis absenti, alterum consulatum 
petere, a senatii suadentibus Pompeio eiusque amicis 
negatum ei est. Hanc iniiiriam acceptam vindicatiirus 20 
in Itaham rediit et bellandum ratus cum exercitii Rubi- 
conem fliimen, qui provinciae eius finis erat, transiit. 
Hoc ad fliimen paukim constitisse fertur ac reputans, 
quantum moliretur, conversus ad proximos, " Etiam 
nunc," inquit, " regredi possumus ; quod si ponticulum 25 
transierimus, omnia armis agenda erunt." Postremo 

2. nutante, giving way. 12. nupta, married. 

5. faucibus./awj-, throat. 24. moliretur, was attempting. 

6. dextram, right hand. 

/2 Urbis Rontae Viri Ilhistres 

autem, " lacta aiea esto ! " exclamans, exercitum traici 
iussit plurimisque urbibus occupatls Brundisium conten- 
dit, quo Pompeius consulesque confOgerant. 

Qui cum inde in Epirum traiecissent, Caesar eos 

5 seciitus a Brundisio Dyrrhachium inter oppositas classes 
gravissima hieme transmisit ; copiisque, quas subsequi 
iusserat, diiitius cessantibus cum ad eas arcessendas 
frustra misisset, mirae audaciae facinus edidit. Morae 
enim impatiens castris noctii egreditur, clam navicu- 

10 lam conscendit, obvolilto capite, ne agnosceretur, et 
quamquam mare saeva tempestate intumescebat, in 
altum tamen protinus dirigi navigium iubet et guber- 
natore trepidante, " Quid times?" inquit, " Caesarem 
vehis ! " neque prius gubernatorem cedere adversae 

15 tempestati. passus est, quam paene obrutus esset fluc- 

Deinde Caesar in Epirum profectus Pompeium Phar- 
salico proeho fiidit, et fugientem perseciitus, ut occi- 
sum cognovit, Ptolemaeo regi, Pompeii interfectori, a 

20 quo sibi quoque insidias tendi videret, bellum intulit ; 
quo victo in Pontum transiit Pharnacemque, Mithrida- 
tis filium, rebellantem et multiplici successii praefero- 
cem intra quintum ab adventii diem, quattuor, quibus 
in conspectum venit, horis iina profligavit acie, more 

25 fulminis, quod iino eodemque momento venit, percus- 

I. alea, die. 11. intumescebat, was swelling. 

6. hieme, wijiter, storm. 12. gubernatore, hebnsman. 

10. obvoliito, wrapped round, muf- 15. obrutus, buried, overwhelmed ; 
fied up. fluctibus, hy the waves. 

Gaius hclius Caesar 73 

sit, abscessit. Nec vana de se praedicatio est Caesaris, 
ante victiim hostem esse quam vTsum. Pontico postea 
triumpho trium verborum praetuht titulum : " Veni, 
vidi, vici." Deinde Sclpionem et lubam, Numidiae 
regem, rehquias Pompeianarum partium in Africa refo- 5 
ventes, devicit. 

Victorem AfricanT behl Gaium Caesarem gravius ex- 
cepit Hispaniense, quod Cn. Pompeius, Magnl fihus, 
adulescens fortissimus, ingens ac terribile conflaverat, 
undique ad eum auxihls paternl nominis magnitudinem 10 
sequentium ex toto orbe confluentibus. Sua Caesarem 
in Hispaniam comitata fortuna est ; sed nilhum um- 
quam atrocius perlculosiusque ab eo initum proehum ; 
adeo ut, pliis quam dubio Marte, descenderet equo 
consistensque ante recedentem suorum aciem, increpans 15 
Fortunam, quod se in eum servasset exitum, denuntia- 
ret mlhtibus, vestigio se non recessurum ; proinde vide- 
rent, quem et quo loco imperatorem desertiirT essent. 
Verecundia magis quam virtute acies restituta est. 
Cn. Pompeius vTctus et interemptus est. Caesar, om- 20 
nium vlctor, regressus in urbem omnibus, qul contra 
se arma tulerant, Tgnovit et qulnquiens triumphavit. 

Behls clvlhbus confectls, conversus iam ad ordinan- 
dum rel piibhcae statum, fastos correxit annumque ad 
cursum sohs accommodavit, ut trecentdrum sexaginta 25 
qulnque dierum esset et intercalario mense sublato 

I. '^xz.Q.d\c2LX\o,praise,boast. 17. ves,\\g\b,foofprint,track. 

3. titulum, inscrjption, notice. 26. intercalario mense, intercalary 

5. refoventes, warming over, reviving. month. 

74 Urbis Roinae Viri lUustres 

unus dies qiiarto quoque anno intercalaretur. liis la- 
boriosissime ac severissime dlxit. Repetundarum con- 
victos etiam ordine senatorio movit. Peregrinarum 
mercium portoria instituit ; legem praecipue siimptu- 
5 ariam exercuit. De ornanda instruendaque urbe, item 
de tuendo ampliandoque imperio pliira ac maiora in 
dies destinabat ; imprimis iiis civile ad certum modum 
redigere atque ex immensa legum copia optima quae- 
que et necessaria in paucissimos conferre libros ; bibli- 

10 othecas Graecas et Latinas, quas maximas posset, pii- 
blicare, siccare Pomptinas paliides ; viam miinire a 
Mari Supero per Appennlnl dorsum ad Tiberim usque ; 
Dacos qui se in Pontum effiiderant, coercere ; mox 
Parthls bellum Inferre per Armeniam. ^ 4- nLhj^ 

15 Haec et aha agentem et meditantem mors praeve- 
nit. Dictator enim in perpetuum creatus agere inso- 
lentius coepit ; senatum ad se venientem sedens ex- 
cepit et quendam, ut adsurgeret, monentem Irato vultii 
respexit. Cum Antonius, Caesaris in omnibus bellls 

20 comes et tunc consulatiis conlega, capitl eius in sella 
aurea sedentis pro rostrls diadema, Inslgne regium, im- 
posuisset, id ita ab eo est repulsum, ut non offensus 
videretur. Qua re coniiiratum in eum est a sexaginta 

2. repetendarum, sc. rerum, extor- 6. ampliando, by enlarging. 

tion. 10. bibliothecas, libraries. 

4. mercium, wares, merchandise ; ii. siccare, /t» if/j. 

portoria, duties ; legem 12. Marl Supero, i.e. //?<? ^^/7a//V; 

sumptuariam, a laiv against dorsum, back, ridge. 


Gains IhHus Cacsaj' 75 

amplius viris, Cassio et Bmto ducibus, decretumque \ 

eum Idibus Martiis in senatu confodere. 

Plurima indicia futuri perlcull obtulerant dii immor- 
tales. Uxor Calpurnia, territa nocturno \\m, ut Idibus ^.ju^ 
Martils domi subsisteret orabat, et Spilrinna haruspex 5 
praedlxerat ut proximos dies trlginta quasi fatales ca- 
veret, quorum ultimus erat Idus Martiae. Hoc igitur 
die Caesar Spurinnae, " Ecquid scls," inquit, *' Idus 
Martias iam venisse? " et is, " Ecquid scls, illas nondum 
praeterlsse ? " Atque cum Caesar eo die in senatum 10 
venisset, adsldentem coniuratl specie ofificil circumste- 
terunt Ilicoque unus, quasi aliquid rogatilrus, propius 
accessit renuentlque ab utroque umero togam appre- 
hendit. Deinde clamantem, " Ista quidem vls est," 
Casca, unus e coniiiratls, adversum vulnerat paulum 15 
Infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae brachium adreptum gra-. 
phio traiecit conatusque prosillre aho vulnere tardatus 
est. Dein ut animadvertit, undique se strictls piigio- 
nibus petl, toga caput obvolvit et ita tribus et vlgintl 
plagls confossus est. Cum Marcum Brutum, quem fihl 20 1 
loco habebat, in se inruentem vldisset, dlxisse fertur : / 
''Til quoque, ml flli ! " 

Illud inter omnes fere constitit, talem ei mortem 
paene ex sententia obtigisse. Nam et quondam cum 

5. haruspex, soothsayer. 17. prosillre, to leap /ortvard. 

13. renuenti, refusmg ; apprehen- 18. pugionibus, daggers. 

dit, seized. 24. ex sententia, according to his 
16. mfra, ie/ow ; a.rreptum, seized ; desire ; obtigisse, had hap- 

graphio, stylus, writing-style. pened, had befallen. 

"j^ Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

apud Xenophontem legisset, Cymm ultima valetildine 
mandasse quaedam de funere suo, aspernatus tam len- 
tum mortis genus subitam sibi celeremque optaverat, et 
pridie quam occideretur, in sermone nato super cenam, 

5 quisnam esset finis vitae commodissimus, repentinum 
inopinatumque praetulerat. Percussorum autem neque 
triennio quisquam amplius supervixit neque morte he- 
cessaria periit. Damnati omnes alius alio casu perie- 
runt, pars naufragio, pars proelio ; nonniilli semet 

10 eodem illo piigione, quo Caesarem violaverunt, inter- 

Quo rarior in regibus et principibus viris moderatio, 
hoc laudanda magis est. C. liiHus Caesar victoria 
civili clementissime usus est ; cum enim scrlnia depre- 

15 hendisset epistularum ad Pompeium mlssarum ab eis, 
qui videbantur aut in diversis aut in neutris fuisse par- 
tibus, legere noluit, sed combiissit, ne forte in multos 
gravius consulendi locum darent. Cicero hanc laudem 
eximiam Caesari tribuit, quod nihil obHvTsci soleret 

20 nisi iniilrias. Simultates omnes occasione oblata Hbens 
deposuit. Ultro ac prior scripsit C. Calvo post famosa 
eius adversum se epigrammata. Valerium CatuHum, 
cuius versicuHs famam suam laceratam non Ignorabat, 
adhibuit cenae. C. Memmil suffragator in petltione 

I. ultima valetudine, z« /^w /aj/ ///- 9. Vi^Mix^^^o, shipivreck. 

ness. 14. scrinia, acc. plu., portfoUo, let- 

5. commodissimus, most suitable, ter-case. 

most favorable. 20. simultates, eiimities. 

8. morte necessaria, by a natural 21. ultro, volmitarily. 

death. 24. su{{raga.tor, suJ>porter,partisan. 

Marcus Ttillms Ciccro yj 

consulatus fuit, etsl asperrimas fuisse eius in se ora- 
tiones sciebat. 

Fuisse traditur excelsa statura, ore paulo pleniore, 
nigris vegetlsque oculls, capite calvo ; quam calvitil 
deformitatem, quod saepe obtrectatorum iocls obnoxia 5 
erat, aegre ferebat. Ideo ex omnibus decretls sibi a 
senatu populoque honoribus non alium aut recepit aut 
lisurpavit libentius quam ius laureae perpetuo gestan- 
dae. Vlnl parcissimum eum fuisse ne inimlcl quidem 
negaverunt. Verbum Catonis est, Hnum ex omnibus 10 
Caesarem ad evertendam rem publicam sobrium acces- 
sisse. Armorum et equitandl perltissimus, laboris ultra 
fidem patiens ; in agmine nonnumquam equo, saepius 
pedibus antelbat, capite detecto, seu sol, seu imber 
erat. Longissimas vias incredibill celeritate conficiebat, 15 
ut persaepe nilntios de se praevenlret ; neque eum 
morabantur flumina, quae vel nando vel innlxus Inflatls 
utribus traiciebat. 

XXIV. Mdrcus Tiillius Cicero, 

106-43 B.C. 

Marcus Tullius Cicero, equestrl genere, ArpTnl, quod 
est Volscorum oppidum, natus est. Ex eius avis iinus 20 

4. vegetls, animated, bright ; 8. usurpavit, make use of. 

calvo, bald. 12, ultra, beyond. • 

5. obtrectatorum, detractors, en- 18. utribus, bags made ofskins. 

emies ; obnoxia, liable, ex- 

j8 Urbis Romae Viri Illiistres 

verrucam in extremo naso sitam habuit, ciceris grano 
similem ; inde cognomen Ciceronis genti inditum. 
Suadentibus quibusdam, ut id nomen miitaret, " Dabo 
operam," inquit, "ut istud cognomen nobilissimorum 

5 nominum splendorem vincat." Cum a patre Romam 
missus, ubi celeberrimorum magistrorum scholTs inter- 
esset, eas artes disceret, quibus aetas pueriUs ad hiima- 
nitatem solet Informari, tanto successii tantaque cum 
praeceptomm tum ceterorum discipulorum admiratione 

lo id fecit, ut, cum fama de Ciceronis ingenio et doctrina 
ad aHos manasset, non pauci, qul eius videndl et audi- 
endl gratia scholas adlrent, repertl esse dlcantur. 

Cum niilla re magis ad summos in re piiblica honores 
viam miinlrl posse intellegeret quam arte dlcendl et 

15 eloquentia, toto animo in eius studium incubuit ; in 
quo quidem ita versatus est, ut non solum eos, qul in 
Foro et iiidicils causas perorarent, studiose sectaretur, 
sed prlvatim quoque dlligentissime se exerceret. Pri- 
mum eloquentiam et llbertatem adversus Sullanos osten- 

20 dit. Nam cum Roscium quendam, parricldii acciisa- 
tum, ob Chrysogonl, Sullae libertl, qul in eius adversarils 
erat, potentiam nemo defendere auderet, tanta eloquen- 
tiae VI eum defendit Cicero, ut iam tum in arte di- 
cendl niillus el par esse videretur. Ex quo invidiam 

25 veritus Athenas studiorum gratia petiit, ubi Antiochum 

I. verrucflm, wart ; naso, nose ; 15. 'mcvib\\\i, applied himsel/. 

ciceris grano, chickpea. 17. sectaretur, frequentative of se- 

II. manasset, had Jlowed, had quor. 

spread. 25. \&x'\X.\xs,fearing. 

Marctis Tullius Cicero 79 

philosophum studiose audivit. Inde eloquentiae causa 
Rhodum se contulit, ubi Molonem, Graecum rhetorem 
tum disertissimum, magistrum habuit. Qul cum Cice- 
ronem dicentem audivisset, flevisse dicitur, quod per 
hunc Graecia eloquentiae laude privaretur. 5 

Romam reversus quaestor SiciHam habuit. Nullius 
vero quaestiira aut gratior aut clarior fuit ; cum magna 
tum esset annonae difficultas, initio molestus erat Sicu- 
lls, quos cogeret friimenta in urbem mittere ; postea 
vero, dlHgentiam et iustitiam et comitatem eius expertl, 10 
maiores quaestori suo honores quam uHl umquam prae- 
torl detulerunt. E SicHia reversus Romam in causis 
dlcendls ita floruit, ut inter omnes causarum patronos 
et esset et haberetur prlnceps. 

Consul deinde factus L. Sergil Catillnae coniHratio- 15 
nem singulari virtute, constantia, cura compressit. Ca- 
tihnae proavum, M. Sergium, incredibiH fortitildine 
fuisse PHnius refert. Stlpendia is fecit secundo beHo 
PHnico. Secundo stlpendio dextram manum perdidit ; 
stlpendils duobus ter et vlciens vulneratus est ; ob id 20 
neutra manii, neutro pede satis utiHs, pHirimlsque postea 
stlpendils debiHs mlles erat. Bis ab Hannibale captus, 
bis vinculorum eius profugus, vlgintl mensibus nHHo 
non die in catenls aut compedibus custodltus. Sinistra 
manu sola quater piignavit, duobus equls insidente eo 25 
suffossls. Dextram sibi ferream fecit eaque reHgata 

3. 6S.%^x^K%%\m\xm,most eloquent. 24. catenTs, chains ; compedibus, 

16. compressit, checked, repressed. fetters. 

2.2.. debilis, crippled, disabled. 26. suffossis, stabbed froni below. 

8o Urhis Romae Viri Illustres 

proeliatus Cremonam obsidione exemit, Placentiam tii- 
tatus est, duodena castra hostium in Gallia cepit. " Ce- 
teri profecto," Plinius addit, ^^victores hominum fuere, 
Sergius vlcit etiam fortiinam." 
5 Singularem hiiius viri gloriam foede dehonestavit 
pronepotis scelus. Hic enim rei famiharis, quam pro- 
fiiderat, inopia multorumque scelerum conscientia in 
furorem actus et dominandi cupiditate incensus indig- 
natusque, quod in petitione consulatiis repulsam passus 

10 esset, coniiiratione facta senatum confodere, consules 
trucidare, urbem incendere, diripere aerarium consti- 
tuerat. Actum erat de pulcherrimo imperio, nisi illa 
coniiiratio in Ciceronem et Antonium consules incidis- 
set, quorum alter industria rem patefecit, alter manii 

15 oppressit. Cum Cicero habito senatii in praesentem 
reum perorasset, Catilina, incendium suum ruina se 
restinctiirum esse minitans, Roma profugit et ad exer- 
citum, quem paraverat, proficiscitur, signa inlatiirus urbi. 
Sed socii eius, qui in urbe remanserant, comprehensi 

20 in carcere necati sunt. A. Fulvius, vir senatorii ordi- 
nis fihum, iuvenem et ingenio et forma inter aequales 
nitentem, pravo consiUo Catihnae amicitiam seciitum 
inque castra eius ruentem, ex medio itinere retractum 
supphcio mortis adfecit, praefatus, non se Catilinae 

25 iUum adversus patriam, sed patriae adversus Catilinam 

6. ■^xoxi'&^Q'ds, great-grandson, 24. praefatus, having Jirst said. 

22. nitentem, conspicuous. 

Marcus Tulliiis Cicero 

Neque eo magis ab incepto CatilTna destitit, sed 
infestis signis Romam petens Antonil exercitii opprimi- 
tur. Quam atrociter dimicatum sit, exitus docuit ; nemo 
hostium bello superfuit; quem quisque in pugnando 
ceperat locum, eum amissa anima tegebat. Catilina 5 
longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est ; pul- 
cherrima morte, si pro patria sic concidisset ! Senatus 
populusque Romanus Ciceronem patrem patriae appel- 
lavit. Cicero ipse in oratione pro Sulla palam praedi- 
cat, consiHum patriae servandae fuisse iniectum sibi a 10 
diis, cum Catilina coniiirasset adversus eam. " O dii 
immortales," inquit, "vos profecto incendistis tum ani- 
mum meum cupiditate conservandae patriae. Vos avo- 
castis me a cogitationibus omnibus ceteris et conver- 
tistis ad saliitem iinam patriae. Vos denique praetu- 15 
Hstis menti meae clarissimum liimen in tenebris tantis 
erroris et inscientiae. Tribuam enim vobis, quae sunt 
vestra. Nec vero possum tantum dare ingenio meo, 
ut dispexerim sponte mea in tempestate iUa turbulen- 
tissima rei piibHcae, quid esset optimum factii." 20 

Paucis post annis Ciceroni diem dixit Clodius tri- 
biinus plebis, quod cives Romanos indicta causa neca- 
visset. Senatus maestus, tamquam in piibHco liictii, veste 
miitata pro eo deprecabatur. Cicero, cum posset armis 
saliitem suam defendere, maluit urbe cedere, quam sua 25 
causa caedem fieri. Proficiscentem omnes boni flentes 

5. tegebat, covered. 12. profecto, certainly. 

6. cadavera, corpses. 16. tenebrls, darkness. 

82 Ui^bis Romae Viri Illnstres 

proseciiti sunt. Dein Clodius edictum proposuit, ut 
Marco Tullio igni et aqua interdiceretur ; illius domum 
et villas incendit. Sed vis illa non diiiturna fuit; mox 
enim totus fere populus Romanus ingenti deslderio 

5 Ciceronis reditum flagitare coepit et maximo omnium 
ordinum studio Cicero in patriam revocatus est. Nihil 
per totam vitam Ciceroni itinere, quo in patriam rediit, 
accidit iiicundius. Obviam ei redeunti ab iiniversis 
itum est; domus eius piiblica peciinia restitiita est. 

10 Gravissimae illa tempestate inter Caesarem et Pom- 
peium ortae sunt inimicitiae, ut res nisi bello dirimi 
non posse videretur. Cicero quidem summo studio 
enitebatur, ut eos inter se reconciliaret et a belli civilis 
calamitatibus deterreret, sed cum neutrum ad pacem 

15 ineundam permovere posset, Pompeium seciitus est. 
Sed victo Pompeio, a Caesare victore veniam iiltro ac- 
cepit. Quo interfecto Octavianum, Caesaris heredem, 
fovit, Antonium impiignavit effecitque, ut a senatii 
hostis iiidicaretur. 

20 Sed Antonius, inita cum Octaviano societate, Cice- 
ronem iam diii sibi inimicum proscripsit. Qua re 
audita Cicero transversis itineribus in villam, quae a 
mari proxime aberat, fiigit indeque navem cgnscen-, 
dit, in Macedoniam transitiirus. Unde aliquotiens in 

25 altum provectum cum modo venti adversi rettulissent, 
modo ipse iactationem maris pati non posset, taedium 

2. igni et aqua interdiceretur, was 13. enitebatur, strove. 

forbidden fire and water, i.e. 18. idvit,/avored, supported. 
was banished. 

Marcus Tullins Cicero ' 83 

tandem eum et fngae et vitae cepit regressusque ad 
vlllam, " Moriar/' inquit, " in patria saepe servata." 
Satis constat, adventantibus percussoribus servos forti- 
ter fideliterque paratos fuisse ad dimicandum, ipsum 
deponi lecticam et quietos pati, quod sors iniqua co- 5 
geret, iussisse. Prominenti ex lectica et immotam cer- 
vicem praebenti caput praecisum est. Maniis quoque 
abscisae ; caput relatum est ad Antonium eiusque iiissii 
cum dextra manii in rostris positum. 

Quam diii res piiblica Romana per eos gerebatur, qui- 10 
bus se ipsa commiserat, in eam ciiras cogitationesque 
fere omnes suas conferebat Cicero et pliis operae po- 
nebat in agendo quam in scribendo. Cum autem 
dominatii iinius liilii Caesaris omnia tenerentur, non 
se angoribus dedidit nec indignis homine docto volup- 15 
tatibus. Fugiens conspectum Fori urbisque riira pera- 
grabat, abdebatque se quantum licebat, et solus erat. 
Nihil agere autem cum animus non posset, existimavit 
honestissime molestias posse deponi, si se ad philoso- 
phiam rettuHsset, cui adulescens multum temporis tri- 20 
buerat, et omne studium ciiramque convertit ad scri- 
bendum ; atque ut civibus etiam otiosus ahquid prodesse 
posset, elaboravit, ut doctiores fierent et sapientiores, 
plilraque brevi tempore eversa re piibhca scripsit, quam 
multis annis ea stante scripserat. Sic facundiae et La- 25 
tinarum htterarum parens evasit paruitque virorum sapi- 

5. lectlcam, HUer. 15. angoribus, vexation. 

6. prominentT, leaning out. 16. rura, the country. 

7. cervicem, neck. 25. facundiae (for, fari), eloquence. 

84 Urbis Roniae Viri Ilhistres 

entium praecepto, qui docent non solum ex malls eli- 
gere minima oportere, sed etiam excerpere ex his ipsls, 
si quid Insit boni. 

Multa exstant facete ab eo dicta. Cum Lentulum, 
5 generum suum, exiguae statiirae hominem, vldisset 
longo gladio accinctum, ^' Quis," inquit, " generum 
meum ad gladium adligavit?" 

Matrona quaedam, iiiniorem se quam erat simulans, 
dictitabat se trlginta tantum annos habere ; cul Cicero, 
lo "Verum est," inquit, '' nam hoc vlgintl annos audio." 

Caesar, altero consule mortuo die Decembris ultima, 
Canlnium consulem hora septima in reHquam diel par- 
tem renuntiaverat ; quem cum plerlque Irent salutatum 
de more, " Festlnemus," inquit Cicero, " priusquam 
15 abeat magistratu." De eodem Canlnio scrlpsit Cicero : 
" Fuit mlrifica vigilantia Canlnius, qui toto suo consu- 
latu somnum non vlderit." 

XXV .' Caesar Octdvidmis Aiigustus, 

63 B.C. tO 14 A.D. 

Octavianus, liiliae, Gal Caesaris sororis, nepos, quar- 

tum annum agens patrem amlsit. Ab avunculo adop- 

20 tatus profectum eum in Hispanias adversus Gnaei 

Pompel liberos seciitus est. Deinde ab eo Apollo- 

niam mlssus studils vacavit. Utque prlmum occlsum 

2. excerpere, fo pick out, extract. 16. mirifica, wonderfuL 

4. facete, wittily. 

Caesar Octavianus Atigiistiis 85 • 

Caesarem heredemque se comperit, in urbem regres- 
sus hereditatem adiit, nomen Caesaris siimpsit conlec- 
toque veteranorum exercitu opem Decimo Briito tuHt, 
qui ab Antonio Mutinae obsidebatur. Cum autem 
urbis aditil prohiberetur, ut Briitum de omnibus rebus 5 
certiorem faceret, primo Htteras misit plumbeis lami- 
nis inscriptas, quas ad brachium religatas iirinatores 
Scultennam amnem tranantes ad Briitum deferebant. 
Quin et avibus interniintiis iitebatur. Columbis enim, 
quas incliisas ante fame affecerat, epistulas ad coUum 10 
reHgabat easque a proximo moenibus loco emittebat. 
IHae, liicis cibique avidae, altissima aedificiorum pe- 
tentes excipiebantur a Decimo Briito ; qui eo modo 
de omnibus rebus certior fiebat, utique postquam dis- 
posito quibusdam locis cibo columbas Hliic devolare 15 

BeHum Mutinense Octavianus duobus proeHis con- 
f ecit ; quorum in altero non ducis modo, sed miHtis 
etiam fiinctus est officio atque in media dimicatione, 
aquiHfero legionis suae graviter saucio, aquilam umeris 20 
subisse diiique fertur portasse. Postea reconciliata cum 
Antonio gratia iiinctisque cum eo copiis, ut Gai Caesa- 
ris necem ulcisceretur, ad urbem hostiHter accessit 
misitque, qui nomine exercitiis sibi consulatum depos- 
cerent. Cunctante senatii, centurio princeps legationis 25 

6. plumbeis laminls, leaden 9. columbls, doves. 

plates. 10. fame, hioi^^er. 

7. brachium, arm ; iirinatores, 20. sa.uc\b,7vounded. 

divers. 21. utique, especially. 

S6 Urbis Romae Viri Illustres 

reiecto sagulo, ostendens gladii capulum non dubitavit 
in ciiria dicere : " Hic faciet, si vos non f eceritis." 

Ita cum Octavianus vicesimo aetatis anno consulatum 
invasisset, pacem fecit cum Antonio et Lepido, ita ut 

5 triumviri rei piiblicae constituendae per quinquennium 
essent ipse et Lepidus et Antonius, et ut suos quisque 
inimicos proscriberent. Quae proscrlptio Sullana longe 
criidelior fuit. Exstant autem ex ea multa vel extremae 
impietatis vel mirae iidei ac constantiae exempla. T. To- 

10 ranius, triumvirorum partes seciitus, proscrlpti patris sui, 
praetorii et ornatl virl, latebras, aetatem notasque corpo- 
ris, quibus agnoscl posset, centurionibus edidit, qul eum 
perseciitl sunt. Alius quldam cum proscrlptum se cog- 
novisset, ad clientem suum confugit ; sed fllius eius per 

15 ipsa vestlgia patris mllitibus ductls occldendum eum in 
conspectii suo obiecit. 

Cum C. Plotius Plancus a triumvirls proscriptus in 
regione Salernitana lateret, servi eius comprehensl mul- 
tumque ac diii torti negabant se sclre, ubi dominus esset. 

20 Non sustinuit deinde Plancus tam fideles tamque boni 
exempll servos iilterius cruciarl ; sed processit in medium 
iugulumque gladils mllitum obiecit. Senatoris ciiiusdam 
servus cum ad dominum proscriptum occidendum mllites 
advenisse cognosset, commiitata cum eo veste, permiitato 

25 etiam anulo, illum postlco clam emlsit, se autem in cubi- 

I. sagulo, cloak ; capulum, hilt ; 18. Salernitana, of Salernum (in 
cf. capio. Campania, modern Salerno). 

25. postico, a hack door. 

Cacsar Octavianus Augustus 87 

culum ad lectulum recepit et ut dominum occidi passus 
est. " Quanti viri est," addit Seneca, "cum praemia pro- 
ditionis ingentia ostendantur, praemium fidel mortem 
concupiscere ! " 

Octavianus deinde M. Brutum, interfectorem Caesaris, 5 
bello perseciitus id bellum, quamquam invalidus atque 
aeger, duplicT proelio transegit; quorum priore castrls 
exiitus vix fuga evasit. Vlctor acerbissime se gessit ; in 
nobilissimum quemque captlvum non sine verborum con- 
tumelia saeviit. Uni suppliciter sepultiiram precantl 10 
respondisse dlcitur, iam istam in volucrum fore potestate. 
Alios, patrem et fllium, pro vlta rogantes, sortlrl fertur 
iussisse, ut alterutri concederetur, ac cum patre, quia 
se obtulerat, occlso fllius quoque voluntaria occubuisset 
nece, spectasse utrumque morientem. Orare veniam vel 15 
exciisare se conantibus iina voce occurrebat, moriendum 
esse. Scrlbunt quldam, trecentos ex deditlcils electos 
ad aram dlvo liilio exstriictam Idibus Martils hostiarum 
more mactatos. 

Abalienatus postea est ab Antonio, quod is repudiata 20 
Octavia sorore Cleopatram, Aegyptl reglnam, diixisset 
uxorem ; quae quidem mulier cum Antonio liixii et deli- 
cils certabat. Una se cena centiens sestertiiim absiimptii- 
ram aliquando dlxerat. Cupiebat discere Antonius, sed 
fierl posse non arbitrabatur. Postero igitur die magni- 25 
ficam alias cenam, sed cottldianam Antonio apposuit, 

I. lectulum, couch, bed. 19. mactatos, slaughtered. 

4. concupiscere, inch. of cupio. 23. centiens sestertium, ten mil- 

17. dediticiis(dedo),//7.ft»7^^;-j(5/'wij;- Hon sesterces (about ^410,000). 

88 Vrbis Komiw l in Jiifistfr 

iiuhlcnli. *|ihMl \\a\c iu>i\ potdissrt. At ill. 
mtcm u\rns.mi siu ui\il.m\ ui-.Mt. I'!\ iMaiHi-pto lumistr 
uumu t.mtuiu .mti' imiu i»i»mum(> .u (-ti. ( imis .i-.|um 
\i'.»|U(~ m.ii !;.mt.i'. icsv^lvit. l''\-.|>ri l.mlc i!;iliii .\i\t(>iU(> 
■, i|mili\.iu\ (••.•.('t .!( tui.i, lu.ii !;.ii il.iiu. »111.1111 .iiiiil>us jHM('h,\t 
ilcti.i\it ct .Kcto lu|U(l,i( .\l»S(>ilniit. \ u tiuu Auto 
niuiu (>iuiu".. »1111 .uU^ i>i(>uui\ti.\\ ci iml. 

( ( um \uti>i\u> .ipiul \( tium, (lui Kxus t*st 
m l''i>ii(>. u.iN.ili i>iv>clu> (luuu.uit. \'u tiim ct tii:',ici\tciu 

u' i>(MsC( \ilii'. ,\ci',\ ptuiu i>ctiit. ct .\lc\.iiulic.iii\. (lUO Aiito- 
luus ( iiiu ( 'lcop.iti.i ( oi\lu:',ci.\t. ol>:.C(lii. .Antoniiis ii\ 
ullim.i icimu (lc^.pci.itiouc. ( luu>ilu icj;is ii\ solio 
ic!-;.ili sc(lu.'.ct. luoitcm m1>i ipsc (oi\:.(i\it. ( "lc^^p.iti.i, 
(ju.uu ( >( t.i\ .\l(\,iiulic.i ii\ potcst.itciu «cd.ut.». 

i.s i\\.i!;i\(»l>c\c ( \i\.ii\\ ( (»i\\i»\cl\ci\(l\ 1 1 lumphvxiuc 
StMA.UI. .l-.pulciU '.ihl .\(1|C1CI\(1.11U ( iii.uit ciu-.tiuc luoisu 

ptMiit. ( "lc(»i>.ili.ic i\\(»\tu.\c C(»u\u\ui\cu\ ( luu .\ul(»u\(» 
scpullm.uu tiihiut 

r.iuilciu ( >(t.i\ i.iuiis, l\(»-.tihus vutis S(»lus u\\pcii(» p(>ti 

ao tus. ( lciucutciu NC c\lul»ml. ( >iui\i.\ posth.u m C(» i»lc\\.\ 
lu.iusiictudiius ct hum.iiul.ilis. Miiltis i!;i\<»\it \ cl cv^. k\\\\ 
s.icpc :;i.i\itc\ cum I\c\('\siis lu ll.\li.iu\ 
twumph.iu'. ii\«;rcssus cst. liiiu hclli-> t(»l(» (»rhi* 
C(>iup(>s\t\s l.\u\ i^iMuuu su.\ ( l.iUMt. (lu.ic his 

i^ t.inl\un ;intc.\ cl.u\s.\c ptiuuuu suh Nmu.i ic!;c, 
\lv'iuiu i»o>.t piuuum huuu luu hclliim. ruuc (»u\ncs 

u. n>ci\«.iU\\, ..'fc» >.-. \x •■.>li(\ M>W»#% 

3. »umMI, <'<«<v*"' »''■ .k'"l»ul("'u, .j,»/, i>t/^r. 

4, n\wi^(Ul1^H, /V.1W4', 

Caesar Octavianns Augusliis 89 

jM.K-lci iloi iiiM iii.iloriiiii ohlivio ( (-|)il. |)()|)iiliis(|ii(- Ko 
iiiaiiiis linicscntis (jtii hictili.i pciiiiich.iliir. Ochiviaiio 
in.ixiini honorcs M. S(!n;itii (lcl.ili siiiil. Ipsi Aii^iisto coj^ 
noincn (latiiin cl iii lionorcin ciiis incnsis Scxtilis (-odcin 
noiniiK- ;i|)|)cll;itiis cst, (|iio(l illo incnsc hcllis (ivilihlis 5 
rinis cssct iinjjositiis. I';iliis j);itri;ic cognoincn nnivcrsi 
in;ixiino conscnsn (lcliilcriinl ci. Dcfcrcntihns l;u:riin;nis 
rcsj)on(lit Aiif^iistiis liis vcrhis : " ( 'oinj>os (;i( tiis volonnn 
nicorum, j)alrcs (ujns^rij^li, ijiiid li;il)co aiiiKJ, (jiKjd dcos 
iininort;ilcs jjrcccr, (iikiiii iiI Iiiiik conscnsinn vcstrtnn 10 
ad iiltiiniiiii vit;tc riiicin inilii jjcrlcrrc li( (-;it ! " 

JJictaturain niagna vi (jffcrcntc p^jjjulo dcj^rccatus est. 
Domini ;ii)j)cll;itioncin scinjxM* cxhorriiit c;iiikiiic sihi tri- 
hiii cdicto V(-tuit. liniiio *^V- rc:>tiliiciid;i rc |)iihli( ;i iion 
scmcl cogitavit, scd rci)iit;iiis (-t sc j)iiv;i.liiin iion siiKt 15 
I)crK;ulo forc ct rcm |)iil)li(:ain j)luriiiin arhitrio connnis- 
siim iri, suinm;i,in rctiniiit i)otcst;itcin, id vcro stiidiiit, nc 
(iucin novi sl;itiis i);i(:iiitcr(-t. Hcnc dc cis cti;iiii, (jiios 
;Klversarios cxjjcrtus cr;it, ct scntich^U. (-t lo(jiicl);itiir. 
Dcgentcm aliqu;uid() uniiin c n(-|)otihiis invcnit ; ( iinKiuc 20 
l)uer territus voliiincn ( 'i( (ronis, (jiiod in;niu tcnchat, 
vcste tcgerct, Augiistiis lihriiin (cpil cofiiic st;itiin rcd- 
dito, "llic vir," iiKiuit, " fili nn, doctiis (iiit ct patriiic 

4. Scxtilis, ///(? f/.tV,'/ w^A//// fcoinil i.). \\\\\w'i, Nay more. 

irif^ fruin MjucIij. 17. h\ii(lml, waUf i/ /lis aim. 

8. Conipo.s fiicliis voloiiiiii iiico- 

ruii), // / \lit)uld j/tiiii my 

heatfs desire. 

90 Urbis Roniae Viri llliistres 

Pedibus saepe per urbem incedebat summaque comi- 
tate adeuntes excipiebat. Convenit aliquando eum vete- 
ranus miles, qui vocatus in iiis periclitabatur, rogavitque, 
ut sibi adesset ; statim Augustus iinum e comitatu suo 

5 elegit a(ivocatum, qul litigatorem commendaret. Tum 
veteranus exclamavit, " At non ego, te periclitante 
bello Actiaco, vicarium quaesivi, sed ipse pro te piig- 
navi," simulque detexit cicatrlces. Erubuit Augustus 
atque ipse venit in advocationem. 

lo Cum post Actiacam vlctoriam Octavianus Romam 
reverteretur, occurrit el inter gratulantes opifex quldam 
corvum tenens, -quem Instituerat haec dicere : "Ave, 
Caesar, vlctor, imperator ! " Miratus Caesar officiosam 
avem vlgintl mllibus nummorum emit. Socius opificis, 

15 ad quem nihil ex illa llberaUtate pervenerat, adflrmavit 
Caesarl habere illum et aUum corvum, quem ut adferre 
cogeretur rogavit. Adlatus verba, quae didicerat, ex- 
pressit : " Ave, Antonl, victor, imperator ! " Nihil 
exasperatus Caesar satis diixit, iubere iUum dlvidere 

20 donativum cum contubernall. Saliitatus simiUter a psit- 
taco eml eum iussit. 

Exemplum sutorem pauperem soUicitavit, ut corvum 
Institueret ad parem salutationem. Qul impendio ex- 
haustus saepe ad avem non respondentem dlcere sole- 

25 bat : "Opera et impensa periit ! " AUquando tamen 

4. comitatu, suite. 20. psittaco, parrot. 

7. vicarium, substitute. 22. siitorem, cobbler. 

14. vlgintl mllibus nummorum, 23. impendio, outlay, cxpetise. 

twenty thousand scsterccs 25. impcnsa, cf, impcndio. 

(about $820). 

Caesar Octavianiis Angiistus 91 

corviis coepit dicere dictam saliltationem. Hac au- 
dita, dum transit, Augustus respondit : " Satis domi 
talium salutatorum habeo." Superfuit corvo memoria, 
ut et illa, quibus dominum querentem solebat audlre, 
subtexeret, ''Opera et impensa periit." Ad quod 5 
Caesar risit emique avem iussit, quanti nullam ante 

Solebat Graeculus quidam descendenti e palatio Cae- 
sari honorificum aliquod epigramma porrigere. Id cum 
frustra saepe fecisset et tamen riirsus eum idem factu- 10 
rum diixisset Augustus, breve sua mania in charta exara- 
vit Graecum epigramma et Graeculo advenienti obviam 
misit. IUe inter legendum laudare mirarique tam voce 
quam vultii gestuque. Deinde cum accessisset ad sel- 
lam, qua Caesar vehebatur, demissa in pauperem cru- 15 
menam manii paucos denarios protuht, quos principi 
daret, dixitque, se plus daturum fuisse, si pliis habuis- 
set. Seciito onmium risu dispensatorem Caesar vocavit 
et satis grandem peciiniae summam numerari Graeculo 
iussit. 20 

Augustus fere nulh se invitanti negabat. Exceptus 
igitur a quodam cena satis parca et paene cottidiana, 
hoc tantum insusurravit, " Non putabam me tibi esse 
tam famiharem." Cum ahquando apud Pohionem 
quendam cenaret fregissetque iinus e servis vas crys- 25 

9. porrigere, to offer. i6. denarlos, detiarii; the denarius 
II. charta, paper ; exaravit, com- =about^.i6, 

po.ied. 23. Insusurravit, wliispered to him. 
15. crunicnam, piirse. 

92 Urbis Romae Viri Illiistres 

tallinum, rapi eum ad mortem Pollio iussit et obici 
muraenis, quas ingens piscina continebat. Evasit e 
manibus puer et ad pedes Caesaris confiigit nihil aliud 
petitiirus, quam ut aliter periret nec esca piscium fieret. 
5 Motus est novo criidelitatis genere Caesar et illum qui- 
dem mitti, crystallina autem omnia coram se frangi 
iussit complerique piscinam. 

Augustus in quadam villa aegrotans noctes inquietas 
agebat, rumpente somnum eius crebro noctuae cantii. 

10 Qua molestia cum liberari se vehementer cupere sig- 
nificasset, miles quidam, aucupii peritus, noctuam pre- 
hendendam ciiravit, vivamque Augusto attulit, spe 
ingentis praemii. Cui cum Augustus mille nummos 
dari iussisset, ille minus dignum praemium existimans 

15 dicere ausus est, "Malo ut vivat," et avem dimisit. 
Imperatori nec ad irascendum causa deerat nec ad 
ulciscendum potestas ; hanc tamen iniiiriam aequo 
animo tuUt Augustus hominemque impiinitum abire 
passus est. 

20 Augustus amicitias neque facile admisit et constan- 
tissime retinuit. Imprimis famiharem habuit Maecena- 
tem, equitem Romanum; qui ea, qua apud principem 
valebat, gratia ita semper iisus est, ut prodesset omni- 
bus, quibus posset, noceret nemini. liis ahquando di- 

25 cebat Augustus et muhos capite damnatiirus videbatur. 
Aderat tum Maecenas, qui per circumstantium turbam 

2. muraenis, a khid of sea-fish. 11. aucupil, from avis and capio. 

4. esca, food. 13. mille nummos, a thousand ses- 

9. noctuae, owl. terces (about ^41). 

Caesar Octaviamis Aiigustiis 93 

perrumpere et ad tribunal propius accedere conabatur. 
Quod cum frustra tentasset, haec verba in tabella scrlp- 
sit, " Surge tandem, carnifex ! " eamque tabellam ad 
Aiigustum proiecit. Qua lecta is statim surrexit neque 
quisquam est morte multatus. 5 

Habitavit Augustus in aedibus modicis, neque laxi- 
tate neque cultu conspicuis, ac per annos amplius quad- 
raginta in eodem cubiculo hieme et aestate mansit. 
Suppellex quoque eius vix privatae elegantiae erat. 
Raro veste aha usus est quam confecta ab uxore, so- 10 
rore, fiha neptibusque. Item tamen Romam, quam 
pro maiestate imperii non satis ornatam invenerat, adeo 
excoluit, ut iure gloriaretur, marmoream se rehnquere, 
quam latericiam accepisset. 

Forma fuit Augustus eximia et per omnes aetatis 15 
gradiis venustissima. Erat tamen omnis lenocinii neg- 
legens et in capite comendo tam inciiriosus, ut eo 
ipso tempore, quo iUud tonsoribus committeret, aut 
legeret ahquid aut etiam scriberet. 

Paucis annis antequam moreretur, gravissimam in 20 
Germania accepit cladem, tribus legionibus cum duce 
Varo legatisque et auxihls omnibus caesls. Hac nun- 
tiata excubias per urbem indlxit, ne quis tumultus exsis- 
teret, et magnos ludos lovl optimo maximo vovit, sl 
res pubhca in mehorem statum vertisset. Adeo de- 25 

3. carnifex, execiitioner, butcher. i6. lenociniT, adorntnent. 

6. laxitate, spaciousness. i8. tonsoribus, barbers. 

II. Xi&^^^JCciMS, grand-daughters. 23. excubias indixit, o/-i/(?r^d?wa/tA 
14. laterlciam, ofbrick. to be kept. 

94 Urbis Romae Viri Ilhistres 

nique consternatum ferunt, ut, per continuos menses 
barba capilloque submlsso, caput interdum foribus inli- 
deret, vociferans, " Quinctili Vare, legiones redde ! " di- 
emque cladis quotannis maestum habuerit ac liigubrem. 

5 Tandem adflicta valetiidine in Campaniam concessit, 
ubi, remisso ad otium animo, niino hilaritatis genere 
abstinuit. Supremo vitae die petito speculo capillum 
sibi comi iussit et amicos circumstantes percontatus, 
ecquid eis videretur mimum vitae commode transegisse, 

[o adiecit sohtam clausulam, ^' Edite strepitum vosque 
omnes cum gaudio applaudite." Obiit Nolae sextum 
et septuagesimum annum agens. 

3. submlsso, being allowed to 10. mlmum, play, farce. 

grow. II. clausulam, conclusioft, ' tag.' 

8. speculo, a mirror (made of 





The legends of the founding of Rome and of the reigns of the seven 
kings, although believed in by the Romans themselves, and generally ac- 
cepted in modern times until the publication of the first volume of Nie- 
buhr's History of Rome, in i8ii, cannot be accepted as history. They are 
largely aetiologlcal, that is, many of the stories have been invented to 
explain customs and institutions which were already in existence at the 
beginning of the historical period ; and many of them may be traced to 
Greek sources. The dates were traditional with the Romans themselves, 
and are not to be reUed on. According to Lewis (6>« the CredibiUiy of 
Early Roman History) , a trustworthy history of Rome does not begin until 
the war with Pyrrhus. In this statement he undoubtedly goes too far ; but 
the history of the period before the destruction of the city by the Gauls in 
390 B.C., while it narrates some historical facts, cannot be accepted as gen- 
uine in the form in which it has come down to us. 

For an excellent discussion of the historical yalue of these legends, see 
Ihne's Early Rome. 

Page 1. 1. Proca : the twelfth of a line of mythical kings, 
beginning with Ascanius, son of Aeneas, who was said to have 
founded Alba Longa, the capital of the Albanl. 2. Numi- 
tori: A. 225 ; G. 344 ; H. 384, 11.* natu maior : 'theelder'; 

* A. = Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar, Revised edition; G. = Gilder- 
sleeve's; H. = Harkness's, the ' Standard' edition. Refcrences like this, p. lo, 1. 8 
(page lo, line 8), are to the pagcs of this book. Translations of Latin words or 
phrases are in single quotation marks. 

abl. ="ablative"; abs. = "absolute"; cf. ((r^;(/>r)= "compare"; sc. {scilicet) 
= "supply," "understood"; N. = "note"; r. = "remark"; Vocab. = " Vocabulary," 
at the end of the book ; dir. disc. = " direct discourse " ; ind. disc. = " indirect dis- 
course " {drdtid obliqua) ; constr. = " construction " ; 1. = " line " ; p. = " page " ; 
pp. = " pages " ; lit. = " literally " ; trans. = " translate " or " translation." 

For other abbreviations, see the list preceding the Vocabulary. 


98 Notcs [Page 1 

for natu, see A. 253; G. 398; H. 424. 3. pulso fratre : 

' after driving out his brother,' or ' drove out his brother and.' 
A. 255, vi^ith Note to 5 ; G. 408-409 ; H. 431. Do not translate 
the abl. abs. Uterally. subole : A. 243; G. 389; H. 414. 
privaret: A. 317, i ; G. 545, i ; H. 497, 11. 

4. Vestae Sacerdotem : see note to p. 5, 1. 5. The institu- 
tion of the vestal virgins was undoubtedly of high antiquity. On 
Vesta, see Vocab. sacerdotem : A. 239, \,a\ G. 334 ; H. 373. 
5. tamen : force ? 6. Ea re cognita : cf. note on frdtre, 1. 3 
above. ipsam : trans. ' her,' or ' the mother.' See A. 195, ^; 
G. 297; H. 452. 

7. alveo : A. 228; G. 346; H. 386. impositos abiecit : 
' put in . . . and threw.' A verb and a participle agreeing with 
the subject or object of the verb are often best translated into 
English by two verbs. Independent statements are far more 
numerous in English than in Latin narration. forte : ' as it 
happened.'' Floods of the Tiber were common, and there are 
frequeht allusions to them in Roman writers. In the time of 
Augustus special magistrates were appointed, called ciirdtdres 
Tiberis, whose duty it was to take measures to restrain the river 
within its proper bounds. 8. super ripas erat effusus : 

' had overflowed its banks ' ; lit. meaning? 

9. Vastae . . . solitudines : ' a wilderness.' Note the sep- 
aration of the adj. from its noun by limiting phrases, a common 
order in Latin. 10. Lupa : a bronze statue representing 

Romulus and Remus suckled by the wolf is to be seen in the 
Capitoline Museum at Rome. fama: A. 248, c, i\ G. 403; 
H. 420. 11. ori : cf. note on atveo, I. 7, above. 

13. saepius : ' quite often,' ' again and again.' revertere- 
tur : A. 325 ; G. 586 ; H. 521, 11, 2. cimi . . . reverteretur gives a 
picture of the circumstances under which the action of the main 
verb took place ; if the indicative were used, the clause would 
date the action of the main verb. See A. 323. 14. pastor 
regius : ' the shepherd of the king,' or ' the king's shepherd.' 

Page 2] Bcginnings of Romc 99 

A. 214, ^,2; G. 360; H. 395, N. 2. 15. educandos : ' to 
be broiight up.' A. 294, d\ G. 431 ; H. 544, 2, n. 2. 

16. deinde : force? ludicris certaminibus : ' friendly 
contests of strength ancl skill.' A. 248, c, i\ G. 403 ; H. 420. 
17. venando : A. 301; G. 432; H. 542, iv. 18. Qua re : 
A. 245; G. 407; H. 416. 19. insidiati essent : cf. note 
on revcrterctur, 1. 13, above. 21. esset : A. 334; G. 469 ; 
H. 529, I. eorum : i.e. Rdjnull et Remi. 

Page 2. 1. quae mater : sc. fuisset. Albam : A. 258, b ; 
G. 342, R. 2 ; H. 380, II. 4. quasi : ' alleging that.'' 5. soli- 
tus esset : A. 312; G. 604; H. 513, 11, n. i. a rege : note 
that the abl. of the agent requires the prep. a or ab. A. 246; 
G. 403; H. 388, 2. 7. aetatem . . . indolem : i.e. his age 
corresponded with the period of time which had elapsed since 
the children were thrown into the Tiber, and his bearing was 
too noble for a mere shepherd. 

8. haud procul erat quin agnosceret : ' he was not far 

from recognizing/ ' he nearly recognized.' A. 319, d\ G. 551, 
i; H. 501, I, I. 9. lineamentis : A. 253 ; G. 398 ; H. 424. 

matri: A. 234, d, 2; G. 356 and R. i ; H. 391 and 11, 4. 
simillimus : ' very Hke.' 

11. tenet: note the tense. A. 328, a\ G. 572; H. 467, 4. 
anxium : ' in suspense.' supervenit : historical present ; 

A. 276, d\ G. 227; H. 467, III. 16. daret: A. 334; G. 469; 
H. 529, I. 

17. auspicia : ' auspices,"' interpretation of the will of the 
gods by observing the flight of birds ; note the derivation of 
the word. According to the story, Romulus stationed himself 
on the Palatine Hill, and Remus took his place on the Aventine, 
where they watched the heavens for a sign from the gods. All 
important acts at Rome were preceded by consultation of the 
auspices. 19. victor : as Remus saw his vultures first, the 
victory of Romulus was not undisputed. According to one ver- 

lOO Notes [Page 3 

sion of the legend, it was in the contest that arose over the 
decision that Remus was killed. augurio : ' by virtue of the 
augury/ A. 245; G. 407; H. 416. 

20. urbi : A. 228 ; G. 348 ; H. 386, 2. Quos : ' these' ; see 
Vocab. 21. iratus : ' in anger.' 22. Sic deinde : sc. 

pereat, or perhaps eat ; cf. p. 8, I. 2. 24. imperio : A. 249 ; 

G. 405 ; H. 421, I, 


25. Romulus : a diminutive oi Rdinus from Roma, the Roman 
people represented as an individual. While the legends told of 
Romukis are mythical, tliose which relate to the political institu- 
tions attributed to liim have a basis of historical truth, as such 
institutions undoubtedly existed in the earhest times. 26. asy- 
lum : the Asylum lay between the two summits of the Capitoline 
hill, where the Piassa del Campidoglio now is. For tlie con- 
struction, see n. on sacerddtem, p. i, 1. 4, above. 

Page 3. 1. mira vTs : ' an extraordinary number.' latro- 
num: A. 216; G. 367 ; H. 397. 2. ipse : Romuhis, the prin- 
cipal personage of the story ; cf. ipsam, p. i, 1. 6. 3. legatos : 

the position of an envoy to a foreign nation was an exalted one 
among the Romans, combining the dignity of a magistrate and 
the sacredness of a priest. For another meaning of legdtus, 
cf. note to p. 30, I. 25. 4. qui . . . peterent : ' to ask for.' 
A. 317, 2; G. 545, I ; H. 497, I. conubium : ' the right of 
intermarriage,' which did not exist between two states, except 
by special agreement. 

5. additum : sc. est. 7. ioxGit = esset ; for the mood, see 
A. 308 and 310 ; G. 599 and 602 ; H. 510. 8. indici . . . iubet : 
' gave orders that invitations be issued ' ; for iiidici, see A. 331, <? ; 
G. 546, R. I ; H. 535, II. 9. etiam: force? videndae : 
A. 298 and b\ G. 429; H. 544, i. 

rAGE 3] Romulus loi 

10. SabiiiT: the Sabines, as near neighbors of the Romans, 
came in especially large numbers, because, besicles their interest 
in the games, they wished to see the city which was growing up 
so near them. 11. venit : A. 324 and n. ; G. 563; H. 518 
and N. I. eo : \.^. ad spectdcuhtin. mentes cum oculis : 
^ both their minds and thoughts.' 12. erant : A. 324, a\ G. 
564; H. 518, N. I. Note the difference in the meaning of the 
tenses of venit and erant ; notice also that we naturally trans- 
late 7'ejitt by an English pluperfect. 

13. iuveues Romani discurrunt, virgines rapiunt : note 
the omission of the conjunction. See A. 346, ^; G. 483, 3; 
H. 636, I. 14. Haec: A. 195, d\ G. 319, r. i ; H. 445, 4. 
ob virgines raptas : ' on account of the rape of the maidens.' 
A. 292, a ; G. 324, r. 3 ; H. 549, n. 2. 17. forte . . . ierat : 
' happened to have gone.' aquam : for sacred rites ; for such 
purposes water from a running stream was always used. peti- 
tum: A. 302; G. 436; H. 546. Huius pater : 'Her father.' 

18. arci: A. 228; G. 346; H. 386. 20. perduxisset : 

subjunctive in implied or informal ind. disc. representing the 
future perfect indicative of the dir. disc. A. 341, c ; G. 652, r. 2. 
21. gererent, etc. : in dir. disc. date idqnodin sinistris tnanibns 
geritis ; cf. note on perdilxisset above. The principle involved 
in the mood of perduxisset and gererent is a very important 
one for an understanding of the use of the subjunctive in Latin. 
videlicet : ' you see,' ' namely ' ; derivation? 

24. et : i.e. as well as their rings and bracelets. habue- 
rant : force of the tense ? This act of Tarpeia^s was kept in 
mind by the Tarpeian Rock, a name given to a precipice on the 
side of the Capitoline Hill, from which traitors were hurled. Cf. 
Byron, Childe Harold, iv, 112: 

"Where is the rock of Triumph, the high place 
Where Rome embraced her heroes? where the steep 
Tarpeian — fittest goal of Treason's race, 
The promontory whence the Traitor's Leap 
Cured all ambition? " 

I02 Notes [Page 4 

27. Romanum Forum : the word foriim is connected with 
the adv. foris, ' out-of-doors,' and signifies ' an open place.' 
The Forum Rojttdniwi, the principal, and at first the only forum 
at Rome, was situated between the Palatine and Capitoline hills. 
It was used as a place for the administration of justice, for hold- 
ing assembHes of the people, and for transacting other pubUc 
business. 28. nomine : A. 253; G. 398; H. 424. 

Page 4. 3. longe aliud . . . aliud : ' one thing . . . quite 
another.' See A. 203 ; G. 321 ; H. 459. Note that in the Latin 
longe stands in the first member, while in EngHsh ' quite ' stands 
in the second. rapere : A. 270 and i ; G. 420 and 423 ; 

H. 538. 5. aedem : the temple of Jupiter Stator, wliose 
foundations on the Palatine hiU have recently been excavated. 
8. hino . . . hinc : ' on one side . . . on the other,' Ht. 'from 
one side ' ; cf. ^ dextrd parte, ' on the right,' d dextro cortiu^ 
' on the right wing,' etc. conciliarunt = concilidverimt . 

9. foedere icto : ' after striking atreaty'; the ceremony in- 
cluded the striking (sacrifice) of a victim. 11. multo : A. 250 ; 
G. 400 ; H. 423. 12. quorum consilio : ' in accordance with 
whose advice.' A. 253, and n. ; G. 398 ; H. 416. As stated in 
A., cases in which the abl. expresses that ' in accordance with ' 
which anything is done, cannot aU be classified in our catego- 
ries, which of course were unknown to the Romans. 

13. ageret: A. 317, 2; G. 545, i ; H. 497, i. senatores : 
the original purpose of the Senate was to give advice to the 
Kings, and its decrees were at all times caHed consulta, i.e. mat- 
ters which seemed advisable. At an early period of the Repub- 
Hc, however, the Senate became the ruling power in the state, 
and by its consutta controlled the whole Roman world. 

14. equitum : the Knights were originally the cavalry of the 
state, who received a horse and a sum of money for its annual 
support. To serve as an eques one must have a fortune of 
400,000 sesterces (about $16,000). At an early period the Knights 

Page 5] Niujia Ponipiliiis 103 

ceased to serve in the field, their places being taken by Gauls, 
Numidians, etc. 

16. in campo : i.e. the Campiis Mdrtms. 19. cui rei: the 

dat. is governed by the expression Jidem fecit, which —fecit ut 
crederent. A. 227 and n. 2 ; G. 345 ; H. 385, 11. 22. visum : 
sc. esse. A. 336, 2; G. 653; H. 523, i. f 5rma : A. 251 and 
a\ G. 402 and r. i ; H. 419, 11. 23, praecipere : note the 
tense. 25. exsisterent : A. 332, 2; G. 558; H. 501, i, i. 

Why is the periphrasis///'/;?;'////'^ . . . exsisterejit usedl con- 
stituta : sc. est. coUe Quirinali : the ' seven hills of Rome' 
were the CapitoHne, Palatine, Aventine, Coehan, EsquiHne, Qui- 
rinal, and Viminal. The highest, the Esquiline, is but 218 feet 
high. 26. Quirmus : this name, which was given to Romulus 
after his death and deification, was that of a Sabine god of war, 
corresponding in some respects with the Roman Mars. 


Page 5. 1. Numa Pompilius : the second King of Rome, 
like the first, is a mythical personage, and typifies the rule of law 
and order. The institutions ascribed to him existed in very early 
times. His Sabine origin seems to indicate that the Romans 
derived a great part of their religious system from the Sabines. 
iustitia: A. 251 ; G. 402; H. 419, il. 

2. Curibus, ex oppido : ' from Cures, a town of the Sabines/ 
A. 258, a, cf. 184, c; G. 41 1, cf. 412, R. 2 ; H. 412, 11. 3. Qui 
cum : ^When he.'' Note that the subject of a subordinate clause 
very often precedes the conjunction which introduces the clause. 
4. religione : A. 248, ^, i ; G. 403 ; H. 420. 5. virginibus : 
although the institution of the Vestal virgins is ascribed to Numa, 
it will be remembered that Romulus was the son of a Vestal. 
Livy explains the discrepancy by saying that the institution had 
existed at Alba. It undoubtedly goes back to very early times. 

I04 Notes [Page 5 

6. Flaminem : the name of a priest devoted to a particular 
deity. The flamen of Jupiter was held in high honor. insigni 
veste : the dress of the flamen consisted of the apex, a conical 
cap to which a spike of ohve-wood was fastened ; the toga prae- 
texta (see n. to p. ii, 1. i6) ; and a laurel wreath. 7. curuli 
sella : the ' curule chair,' or ' chair of state,' was very plain, 
resembhng a common folding camp-stool, but with curved legs. 
It was originally a symbol of kingly power. Under the RepubHc 
the right of sitting on it belonged to the consuls, praetors, curule 
aediles, censors, and flamens ; also to the dictator and the ?nagis- 
ter eqidtiun. 

10. quibus sacris fulmina essent procuranda : the falHng 
of a thunderbolt was regarded by the Romans as a portent, and 
the direful omen was averted by propitiatory offerings. Accord- 
ing to the legend, Jupiter intended that human sacrifices should 
be ofifered on such occasions, but Numa cleverly outwitted him 
and substituted others. 12. daturum esse : A. 330,/; G. 424, 
R. 3. 14. futurum esset : A. 334, a\ G. 469; H. 529, 4. 

15. anclle : the shield was of a pecuHar oval form. On its 
preservation depended the strength and prosperity of the state ; 
hence the precautions which Numa took to prevent its being 
stolen. 18. Salios : the name (cf. salio, ' leap ') means ' the 
Leapers.' In their festival at the beginning of March they car- 
ried the sacred shields through the city, and at the same time 
sang a hymn to Mars and danced. 

19. Kalendis: A. 256; G. 392 ; H. 429. 21. duodecim 

menses : the year of Romulus had consisted of ten months. 
By the arrangement ascribed to Numa, which continued until 
Caesar^s reform of the calendar in 46 b.c, March, May, July, 
and October had 31 days, Febmary 28, and the rest 29. This 
year of 355 days was too short for the solar year, and the defi- 
ciency was made up by inserting an intercalary month every 
other year. This month, which varied in length at the discre- 
tion of the Pojitifices, was inserted after Feb. 23. 

i'A^=ii 7J Tiilhis Hostiliiis 105 

22. nefastos fastosque dies : dics nefdsti were days on 
which for various reasons legal judgment could not be pro- 
nounced or assemblies of the people held. portas lano 
gemino : Janus, the oldest of the Roman gods, was god of 
beginnings and guardian of all entrances and passages. He was 
represented with two faces turned in opposite directions. The 
arch in the Forum sacred to Janus was not closed again after 
Numa's time until the end of the First Punic War. 

Page 6. 2. maiorem institutis suis auctoritatem : note 
the order. An adj. is frequently separated from its noun by a 
word or phrase. 4. ageret : A. 336, 2; G. 653; H. 524. 
quem medium : ' the middle of which.' 5. perenni rigabat 
aqua : cf. note on 1. 2 above. 6. deae : ' with the goddess,' 
we should say. 8. contineret : A. 319 and i ; G. 553-556; 
H. 500, II. 9. quidem : ' it is true.' 10. civitati : A. 227 ; 
G. 345 ; H. 385, I. 11. laniculo : the Janiculum was not 
included in the ' seven hills of Rome ' (see n. to p. 4, 1. 25). It 
lay across the Tiber. 13. annos : A. 256; G. 337; H. 379. 


14. Tullus Hostilius : the third King, like his predecessors, 
cannot be regarded as an historical personage. In many respects 
he reminds us strongly of Romulus ; Ihne {Earty Rojne, p. 74) 
considers the story of Tullus as merely a changed form of that 
of Romulus. rex: A. 239, i, n. 2; G. 334, R. ; H. 373, 2. 

15. etiam : force? 16. Romulo : A. 247 and a\ G. 399; 
H. 417 and N. i. E6 regnante: ' During his reign.' 22. unde : 
— qnd ex parte. Cf. note on hinc, p. 4, 1. 8, above. esset : 
A- 332, /; G. 546; H. 501, III. 25. infestls armis : ' in 
hostile array.' terni: ^\vj xvqX trcs? 

Page 7. 2. increpuere : A. 324; G. 563 ; H.5i8andN. i. 
After the Roman method of fighting, they first hurled their spears, 

io6 Notes [Page 8 

which rang against the shields of their opponents, and then drew 
their swords for a hand-to-hand conflict. 4. alius super 

alium : ' one over the other.'' Cf. note on alind . . . aliud, p. 4, 
1.8, above ; alter is more common when only two persons are 
mentioned. 7. deserebat : force of the tense ? Unum Ho- 
ratium: ' the surviving Horatius."' 9. erat : A. 321 ; G. 540; 
H. 516, I. 10. per intervalla : ' at intervals.' 

11. aliquantum spatii: ' a considerable distance ' ; atiquan- 
tum is acc. of extent of space, and spatii partitive gen. pug- 
natumest: ' the battle took place.' 12. videt : A. 325, /5'; 
G. 58i,R. 13. magnoimpetu: A. 248 ; G.401; H. 419, iii. 

15. occiderat : force of the tense ? Alterum : ' the second.' 

16. posset: A. 327; G. 579; H. 520, 11. 

17. singuli : ' one on each side.' 18. ferox : ' full of con- 
fidence.'* 21. iacentem : ' his fallen foe.' 22. domum : 

A. 258, 2, ^; G. 342, R. 2 ; H. 380, 11, 2, i). 23. Princeps : 
'Atthehead.' Might //-fw/zi' have been used here ? 24. cui: 
A. 228, b. 26. crines solvere : a common sign of grief among 
ancient peoples. 27. iuveni: trans. as if gen. A. 235, a\ 
H. 384, II, 4, N. 2o 

Page 8. 1. fratrum : A. 219 ; G. 375 and R. 2 ; H. 406, 11, 
and 407, N. I. 2. Sic eat quaecumque Romana : trans. as 
if i-f^: eat oinnis Rotndna feniina, quae. 5. in ius : ' to court.' 
iudices : they were a commission of two men {duuinviri') ap- 
pointed for the purpose. 6. accesserat . . . iniciebatque : 
force of the tenses ? lictor : the Hctors were public officers 
who attended the chief Roman magistrates. They served as a 
body-guard, preceded the magistrates in public, to order the peo- 
ple to make way for them, and executed judicial sentences. The 
kings had twelve lictors. 

7. provocavit : in early Rome, it is said, those condemned 
had the right of appeal to the people, who might reverse the de- 
cision of a magistrate. 10. paulo : A. 250; G. 400; H. 423. 
conspexissent : A. 341, b\ G. 652, r. 2. In dir. disc. : nollte 

Page 9] Ancus Marcius 107 

me^ quem paiild ante ciun egregid stirpe conspexistis, orbuni llbe- 
ris facere. 11. liberis : A. 243, d\ G. 388; H. 414, i. 

13; tamen : force? 

16. quod : ' and this.' tigillum sororium : ' the sister's 
beam' was renewed as often as it decayed, and kept its place for 
many centuries. 

The victory of the Horatii was commemorated by the pila 
Hordtia in the Forum, a pillar which bore the spoils taken from 
the Curiatii. See Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Rome, Virginia, 177 : 

" And sprang upon that column, 
By many a minstrel sung, 
Whereon three mouldering helmets, 
Three rusting swords, are hung." 

17. pax Albana : ' the peace with Alba.' 19. rem corri- 
geret : ' that he might set the matter right.' 23. suo : em- 
phatic position. 24. facere : note the tense. 25. Mettius : 

subject of what verb? Note the order. 

Page 9. 1. ruinis : A. 248, ^, i ; G. 403 ; H. 420. 2. quo 
. . . habitaretur : A. 317, <^ ; G. 545, 2 ; H. 497, 11, 2. 3. eam 
sedem . . . cepit : ' chose it as the site.'' On the gender of eam 
see A. 195, d\ G. 319, r. i ; H. 445, 4. 7. militiae quam 
domi: ' in war than in peace.' A. 258, c, 2, d\ G. 412, r. i ; 
H. 426, 2. 9. spiritus illi feroces : ' that high spirit of his.' 
11. fulmine ictum : according to the story, he attempted to 
draw Jupiter down from heaven as Numa had done (see p. 5, 1. 8), 
but incurred the anger of the god by improperly performing the 
rite. ^^12. gloria : the abl. denotes the attendant circum- 
stances. A. 255, a\ G. 408; H. 431. 


14. Ancum Marcium : as Tullus Hostilius greatly resembles 
Romulus, so Ancus appears to be a shadow of Numa. See Ihne, 

io8 Notes [Page 10 

Early Rome, p. 74. 19. indiceret : cf. note on posset, p. 9, 
1. 16, above. qui res repeteret : ' to demand satisfaction.^ 
The demand was made in a metrical formula or carmen, which 
Livy has preserved for us. 20. posteri: i.e. the Romans of 
iater generations. The custom was maintaincd until the extent 
of the Roman territory became too great. 22. capite velato : 
because he was addressing Jupiter. When engaged in prayer 
the Roman veiled his head with a fold of his gown. 23. huius 
populi : Livy tells us that he named the people, t.g. fines popidz 

24. verbis : dat. governed by the expression fides sit ; cf. 
note on eid rei, p. 4, 1. 19, above. 25. deduntur : a general 
condition. A. 306, cf. 309; G. 597 and footnote ; H. 508. 

Page 10. 1. emittit : the spear, Livy tells us, had a 

wooden point hardened by fire, and was stained with blood. 
After the Roman territory became too great, and her enemies 
too distant, for an actual hurling of a spear into their territories, 
a captive was compelled to buy a small piece of land near the 
temple of Bellona, and into this the spear was hurled. Octavia- 
nus declared war against Cleopatra in this way. 

4. superbe responsum est : ' a haughty answer was re- 
turned.'' 5. hoc : ' in the manner described ' ; /^J^ here refers 
to what precedes, and not, as usual, to what follows. 9. car- 
cerem : later called the Mamertine Prison ; it is situated on the 
slope of the Capitoline hill, overlooking the Forum. It consists 
of two parts, a lower chamber called the Tnttidnum, of great 
antiquity, and a larger room above. 10. audaciae : A. 217 ; 
G. 361, 2; H. 396, III. urbi: A. 228 and 225, d\ G. 348; 
H. 386, 2. 

11. ponte sublicio : the oldest and most frequently men- 
tioned of the Roman bridges. It connected the Janiculum with 
the city. It was of great religious importance, and after a new 
bridge of stone was built beside it, the old bridge was kept 
in repair. It is known to have been in existence in the time 

Page 11] Tarquiniiis Priscus 109 

of Constantine. 12. urbi : A. 248, a, R. ; G. 346, R. 2; 

H. 385, II, 4, 3). Ostiam : as Rome increased, Rome\s sea- 
port also grew, and during the Second Punic War Ostia was a 
naval and commercial port of the greatest importance. Ancus 
is said to have estabHshed salt-works there, and salt-making is 
to-day the principal employment of its inhabitants. 


15. Lucius Tarquinius : the story of the Tarquins is as full of 
contradictions and as untrustworthy as that of the former kings. 
It seems certain, however, that they were of Etmscan origin ; 
it is probable that they represent a conquest of Rome and a 
dynasty of Etruscan kings. Tarquiniis, ex . . . urbe : cf. 
note on Ciiribus, p. 5, 1. 2, above. 

17. advenienti: sc. ei. A. 229; G. 344, R. 2 ; H. 386, 2. 
18. pilleum : a felt cap worn on journeys. carpentum : a 

two-wheeled covered carriage, usually drawn by a paij of mules, 
but often by horses or oxen. 19. apte : ' neatly.' 20. sub- 
limis abiit : ' flew high up ' into the air. 

21. caelestium prodigiorum : i.e. omens from the move- 
ments and flight of birds, from Hghtning, meteors, and other 
phenomena of the heavens. For the case see A. 218, « ; G. 373 ; 
H. 399, I, 2. 22. virum : ' her husband.' excelsa et 

alta : used substantively. 

Page 11. 2. liberis : dat. governed by the phrase tiltor 
relictus, which n^-^xXy — praefectus . relictus : ' appointed' by 
will. 3. adeptus esset : sc. id. A. 312; G. 604; H. 513, 
II and N. I. 4. Circum Maximum : between the Palatine 
and Aventine hills. It was used for chariot races and gymnastic 
contests. It was of great extent, in later times accommodating 
over 100,000 spectators. 

IIO Notes [Page 11 

5. de Sabinis : see Vocab. under trinmphd. The triumph 
was a solemn procession in which a victorious general entered 
the city in a four-horse chariot, preceded by the captives and 
spoils taken in war, and followed by his troops. For a vivid 
description of a triumph, see Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Rome, 
Prophecy of Capys, 22^-26?». murum lapideum : according 
to Livy, he was on the point of building the wall, when he was 
interrupted by a war with the Sabines, and his successor Servius 
carried out the plan. Portions of the ' Servian Wall ' are still in 

8. ea tempestate : ' for those times'; abl. of attendant cir- 
cumstances. augur : see note to p. 2, 1. 17, above. 10. in 
experimentum : ' to try.' 11. concepisset : subj. in infor- 
mal ind. disc. ; dir. disc, ferine potest, quod 7nente concepif 
Posset is an ind. question. 12, Atqui : <■ Oh, but.' 13. illam : 
with a gesture. 14. ergo : ' well then.' secuisse : sc. eain. 
This act was commemorated by a veiled statue of Attius in the 
Comitium ; the stone also was preserved as a sacred relic. 

15. annorum: K.2\^,b\ G. ^^^andR. ; H. 396, v. per- 
cussisset : A. 321 ; G. 541 ; H. 516, 11. 16. praetexta bulla- 

que : A. 225, d\ G. 348 ; H. 384, 11, 2. The praetexta, sc. toga, 
was a white cloak with a broad purple border, worn by children 
of both sexes, and by magistrates of senatorial rank. Young 
men exchanged it for the white toga virilis at the age of about 
seventeen. The bidla was an amulet, usually of gold, and was 
worn suspended from the neck. It was laid aside with the toga 
praetexta, and consecrated to the Lares. 

18. paterno : ' their father's.' 19. ex pastoribus : used 
instead of the part. gen. ; the usual construction with numerals. 
See A. 216, c. 22. clamor : subject of what verb? Note the 
order. 23. vociferari . . . et certatim obstrepere : ' to 

shout at the top of their voices and try to drown each other's 
words.' 25. ex composito : ' according to a prearranged 

plan.' 26. elatam seciirim . . . deiecit : trans. as \i extjdit 

Page 12] Scrvhis TiLllins 1 1 1 

securim et deiccit. 27, relicto telo : ' leaving the weapon,' 
Note again that the abl. abs. is not to be translated literally. 
The English renc|ering varies according to the context. 


Page 12. 1. Servius Tullius : according to the universal 
tradition Servius was of Latin origin. The story of his career is 
full of marvels, and cannot be regarded as history. The tradition 
may point to a successful attempt of the Latins to throw off the 
yoke of the Etruscans, who, however, afterwards reconquered 
them. The constitution ascribed to Servius goes back to very 
early times ; it endured with some modifications until the fall of 
the RepubUc. 

2. ex nobili femina : A. 244; G. 395; H. 413 and n. 2. 
captiva tamen : ' who was, however, a captive.'' Qui cum : 
'Whenhe.' 3. visu eventuque : A. 303 ; G. 437 ; H. 547. 
5. dormientis : ' while asleep.' 7. haud secus ac suos 

liberos : = qicasi siius filius esset. See A. 209, c\ G. 448, R. 2 ; 
H. 637, VIII. educaret: A. 331 ; G. 546; H. 499, 3. 

8. adolevit: A. 324; G. 563; H. 518, and N. i. 9. quo- 
dam : ' a' ; quidam often has the force of the English indefinite 
article. 10. signum : the standard of the legion. Its loss was 
considered a great disgrace. 11. Cuius recipiendi gratia : 
' in order to get this back.' 12. referrent : note the double 
meaning of the word ; ' carried ofT the standard and the victory.' 

17. convalesceret : informal ind. disc. In the direct form : 
interim dmn convalescam, Servio Tidlio dicto audientes estote. 
18. Servio TuUio : dat. governed by the phrase dicto audi- 
ejites. A. 227, N. 2 ; G. 345 ; H. 385, i. Sic . . . sed : i.e. 
although he usurped the throne, his reign was just and good. 
20. Quirinalem : see note to p. 4, 1. 25, above. 21. murum : 
see note to p. 11, I. 5, above. 

112 Notes [Page 13 

22. censum : a division of the whole body of Roman citizens 
for mihtary and political purposes, into six classes, according to 
the amount of their property. They were divided into 193 cen- 
turies, each of which cast one vote, the classes voting in order, 
beginning with the lirst. As the first class contained 80 centu- 
ries, this with the 18 centuries of knights, which voted before 
the first class, cast a majority of the votes. Thus the political 
power was in the hands of the rich. 

25. lam tum : 'Even in those early days.' Dianae Ephe- 
siae fanum : the temple of Diana at Ephesus was one of the 
' seven wonders of the world.' See Acts xix, 24 fol. 26. fac- 
tum fama ferebat : note the alliteration. 

Page 13. 1. et ipsi: ' they too,' as the peoples of Asia 
Minor had done. 3. mirae magnitudinis : A. 215 and N. ; 
G. 364; H. 395, V. 4. nata : sc. esse. A. 330, a, i, and b, i ; 
G. 528; H. 534, I. datum : sc. esse. 6. immolasset : 
represents what mood and tense in the dir. disc. ? 9. ad 

Tiberim descendit : the Tiber flows close to the northeastern 
slope of the Aventine. See the map of Rome. 12. Ser- 
vius Tullius : subject of what verb? alteram ferocem, 

mitem alteram : ' chiastic ' order. A. 344,/", and n. ; G. 684; 
H. 562. 13. ferocem miti, mitem feroci: ferocem filiam 
initi iuvenl, niitein filiani feroci iiiveni. Note also the order. 

21. carpento : abl. of means ; trans. ' in a carriage.' vecta : 
'riding.' 22. prima . . . salutavit : ' was the first to greet.' 
23. decessisset . . . rediret : force of the tenses ? 24. eum, 
qui equos agebat : ' the driver.' 25. super ipsum corpus : 
' right over the body.' A. 195,/", R. 


Page 14. 1. Tarquinius Superbus : cf. note on Tarqtiinius 
PrTscus, p. 10, 1. 15, above. Tamen : 'In spite of that,' i.e. 

Page 15] Tarquin tJic Proud 1 1 3 

although he had usurped the throne. 3. fraude Sexti fili: 
an instance of Greek coloring. The same story is told by 
Herodotus of Zopyrus and Darius. 9. sciscitatum : A. 302 ; 
G. 436; H. 546. 10. nihil respondit : A. 238, b\ G. 331, 
R. 3; H. 371, II. 

11. deliberabundus : ' pondering,' ' in a brown study'; the 
adjectives in -bundus have nearly the same force as the present 
participle. 13. capita : ' tops.' This part of the story is 

also Greek ; Herodotus tells us of a message sent in this way by 
Thrasybulus of Miletus to Periander of Corinth. 15. quid 
vellet pater : ' what his father meant.'' 18, sorore : A. 244 ; 
G. 395 ; H.415. 19. apud : ' at the house of.' iuvenibus 
regiis : ' the princes.' 20. suam : sc. uxorem. 21. placuit 
experiri : sc. eis ', ' they resolved to test the matter.' citatia 
equis : ' at full gallop.' 22. regias nuriis : i.e. the wives of the 
sons of Tarquin. convivio et luxii : ' in the indulgence of 
the table ' ; hendiadys, see A. 385 ; G. 695 ; H. 636, iii, 2. They 
had prolonged their dinner beyond the usual hour. 24. lanae 
deditam : ' busily engaged in spinning.' Spinning and weaving 
were the occupation of a thrifty housewife. See Macaulay, Lays 
of Ancient Rome, Horatius, 582 : 

" When the goodman mends his armor, 
And trims his he]met's plume ; 
When the goodwife's shuttle merrily 
Goes flashing through the loom." 

Page 15. 3. abditum habebat : how does this phrase 

differ in meaning from abdiderat? 4. in exitium regum 

coniiirant : ' make a conspiracy to kill the king and his family ' ; 
note the plural r<^//;;/. Tarquinio . . . redeunti: 'Against 
Tarquin on his return ' ; cf. note on advenienti, p. 10, 1. 17, 

6. indictum : sc. est. consules : except that there were 
two consuls, and that they were elected only for one year, their 
power was at first nearly equal to that of the kings who preceded 

1 14 Notcs [Page 15 

them. As time went on the establishment of other offices, such 
as the censorship and the praetorship, took from the consuls 
some of their functions. Throughout the period of the Repub- 
lic, however, the consulship was regarded as the highest office 
to which a citizen could attain. 7. Tarquinius Collatinus : 
after a short time, the tradition says, Collatinus, merely because 
he bore the hated name of Tarquin, was persuaded to abdicate, 
and Publius Valerius was chosen in his place. 


Horatius Cooles : note that his surname, Hke many of the 
Roman cdgndmitia, was derived from a personal pecuharity. The 
story of Horatius was one of the most celebrated legends of 
the early history of Rome, and has been made one of the most 
familiar to modern readers by Macaulay's Lay of Horathis. 
There are two versions of the story. According to Livy, whom 
Macaulay follows, Horatius had two companions ; according to 
Polybius, he defended the bridge alone, but perished in the 
river. Our version is a combination of the two. 

10, non umquam alias ante : ' never before.' 12. demi- 
grant : sc. Rdmdni. 14. Tiberi obiecto : ' by the interpo- 
sition of the Tiber.' A. 292, a\ G. 324, r. 3 ; H. 549, n. 2. 
Pons sublicius : see note to p. 10, L 11, above. Pliny tells 
us that on account of the delay in breaking it down on this 
occasion, it was rebuilt without nails, in such a way that each 
beam could be removed and replaced at pleasure. 15. fuisset : 
A. 308; G. 599; H. 510. The conclusion is expressed hy paene 
dedit, which is nearly equivalent to dedisset. Sometimes with 
greater vividness the unquaUfied indicative is used. See A. 308, b ; 
G. 599, R. 2 ; H. 511, N. 4. 17. extrema parte : ' the end.' 

18. interrumperetur : the subjunctive denotes that it was the 
design of Horatius. 20. multis superincidentibus telis : 

Pagp: 16] CoriolamLS 1 1 5 

' though many weapons fell aroiind him.'' A. 255, ^, 3 ; G. 409 ; 
H. 431, I and 2. 22. tantum agri : ' so much land."' A. 216, 3 ; 
G. 371; H. 397, 3. publice: ' in the name of the state.' 
24. ei: trans. as \i eius -, cf. note on iuveiii, p. 7, 1. 27, above. 


Page 16. 2. Coriolanus: the story of Coriolanus, which 
is one of the prettiest of the early Roman legends, is the subject 
of Shakespeare's Coriolanus. It is purely mythical. In addi- 
tion to the many impossibilities in the story, Livy tells us that 
Scipio Africanus in 201 b.c. was the first Roman to receive a 
surname from his conquests. See Ihne, Early Roine, p. 151. 
3. prima stipendia facere : ' to serve his first campaign.' 
What is the literal meaning oi stipendia? 5. corona : crowns 
of metal, leaves, or flowers were given for various deeds of arms. 
The most prized was the ' civic crown ' {cordna civilis) of oak 
leaves, given for saving the life of a Roman citizen. 0\ prae- 
7nia nillitaria were headless spears, bracelets, and necklaces. 

8. tum demum : ' then and not till then.' 13. potuisset : 

informal ind. disc. The consul said : quantimi sustinere 
potueris. 14. unius hospitis captivi : ' one captive who 
was bound to him by ties of hospitality.' Such ties among the 
Romans were stronger even than those of blood. They were 
formed by mutual consent and hallowed by religion, and were 
hereditary. The Roman was bound to protect his hospes under 
all circumstances. 

16. gravi annona : ' a poor harvest,' ' a failure of the crops.' 
At that time the Romans did not import grain except under such 
circumstances. frumentum . . . ciiravit : ' he had the grain 
distributed at a high price,' i.e. he refused to distribute it except 
at a high price. For the case of indgno pretio see A. 252 ; 
G> 404 ; H. 422 ; for dandum, A. 294, d-., G. 431 ; H. 544, 2, n. 2. 

Ii6 Notes [Page 17 

18. coleret : ' that the people might cultivate their fields, and 
not insurrections ' ; a play on the double meaning of colerent. 
20. aestimatur: a general truth. A. 276; G. 218; H. 467, 11. 
22. quartum lapidem : although milestones were set along the 
Roman roads in all directions from the city, inscribed with infor- 
mation for the traveller, they appear to have been introduced at a 
later time than that to which these events are assigned (490 
B.C.). 26. quoque : ' even.' 

Page 17. 4. possent : subjunctive because it represents the 
thought of Veturia and Volumnia. In dir. disc : qnojiiaju armls 
virl defejidere iirbein non possiint, nos imdieres defenddmus. 
7. patria : he addresses himself not to his mother directly, but 
to his country. precibus huius admotis : ' by employing 

her prayers,' with a gesture toward his mother. cui : ' and 
for her sake.'' 11. eundem : ' he ' ; strictly ' the aforesaid.' 


Pyrrhus : the Greek word from which the name Pyrrhus 
is derived means ' red,' ' flame-colored " ; hence Macaulay calls 
him ' the red king.' With the story of Pyrrhus we reach the 
domain of historical truth. He was one of the greatest generals 
of antiquity, and one of the best kings. He was regarded by 
the Romans of later times with kindly feelings. Cicero refers to 
the war with Pyrrhus as ' a struggle for dominion with a noble 
and powerful king,' and relates many anecdotes of his chivalrous 

12. fecissent: subjunctive because it represents the reason of 
the Romans of that time, not the reason of the writer. 14. aux- 
ilium : A. 239, 2, c\ G. 2)33 ; H. 374. ex genere Achillis ; 

thus many other Greeks pretended to trace their ancestry back 
to the heroes of the Trojan War. According to tradition Pyr- 

Page 18] Laevinus and PyrrJiiLs 117 

rhus, son of Achilles, settled in Epirus after the fall of Troy. 
16. primum : ' for the first time.' What difference in mean- 
ing would primd and prijnt have here ? 

18. qui cum : ' and when he.' iussit : ' gave orders.' 

19. ostendl . . . dimitti : i.e. o?nnem exerciticm ostendi eis, et 
tujn eos dimitti. 20. quaecumque : = omnia qtiae. 21. pe- 
dem referret : ' was giving way,' ' was beginning to retreat.' 
22. elephantos : the elephants, which were new to the Romans, 
terrified horses and men aUke, and turned the tide of battle in 
favor of Pyrrhus. 

Page 18. 2. equites : 'riders.' 3. dedit : we should 
say * put,' or ' made.' 5. occisos : sc. Rdmdnos. For the 
omission of the conjunction see A. 346, c ; G. 483, 3 ; H. 636, i, i. 
Quos cum : how is quos to be translated? Cf. qui cu?n, p. 17, 
1. 18, above. 7. hac voce : ' this exclamation,' ' these words.' 
8. potuisse : representing the perf. ind. of the dir. disc. A. 308, c ; 
G. 599, 3; H. 511,1,^.3. 9. mihi: A. 235, <^. 10. amit- 
tam: A. 319, 2; G. 633; H. 500, i. Si . . . vicero : ' If I 
conquer.' In Enghsh we use the present, while in Latin the 
more logical future perfect is used. 11. ad urbem : ' towards 
the city.' 12. magnis itineribus : ' by forced marches.' 
ferro igmque : ' with fire and sword.' In our phrase the order 
of the words is reversed. 13. lapidem : see note to p. 16, 
I. 22, above. 

14. Pyrrho obviam : ' to meet Pyrrhus.' 15. sibi : A. 231 ; 
G. 349; H. 387. 16. hydram : a dragon which ravaged the 
country about Lernae near Argos. Its destruction, which was 
accompHshed by fire, was one of the ' twelve labors ' of Hercules. 

20. cognita : ' who already knew.' 22. solet . . . esse : 
' is usually ' ; cf. note on aestimdtur, p. 16, I. 20, above. 

24. sero : ' too late.' se pro socio dominum accepisse : 
the Tarentines expected Pyrrhus to fight their battles for them, 
but he forced them much against their will to exchange their 
life of pleasure and luxury for hard service on land and sea. 

1 1 8 Notes [Page 19 

26. neqne deerant qui : ' and there were plenty to.' A. 209, c ; 
G. 448, R. 2; H. 637, VIII. 

27. nonnulli: i.e. of the citizens. 28. locuti essent : the 
reason of their accusers ; ' because, as was alleged.' Observe 
that the charge was true. 29. simplex : ' frank.' 

Page 19. 1. pervenisset: informal ind. disc. Give the 
direct form. 2. Et haeo diximus : give this reply in the form 
of ind. disc. 3. nisi vinum defeoisset : ' if the wine had 
held out.' dicturi fuimus : \\^?^x\\- ~ dixissemus. 6. glo- 
riosum : modifies what? pacem et foedus : ' peace and an 
alliance.' Cf. note on vi ct armis, 1. 11, below. 11. vi et 
armis : ' by force of arms ' ; hendiadys. Cf. note to p. 14, 1. 22. 
This figure is much abused ; expressions lilce paccm et foediis 
(1. 6, above) are often called hendiadys. 

12. tamen : ' and yet,' looking back to valcbat. Cineas did 
not owe his influence over the king to flattery. 20. mihi : 
A. 231; G. 349; H. 387. Quid deinde : sc. dctilrus cs. 

23. isto otio : ' tliat peace you talk of; for the case see 
A. 249; G. 405; H. 421, I. iam nunc : an emphatic niinc, 

' right off now.' fruaris : A. 319, c\ G. 549; H. 497, 11. 
29. condicionum : i.e. of peace. 

Page 20. 1. pacem et foedus : see note to p. 19, 1. 6, 
above. 3. olim : derivation and meanings? lectica : lit- 
ters for sick persons and invalids seem to have been in use at 
Rome from the earliest times. They were covered and enclosed 
with curtains, or with sides in which there were windows, and 
resembled a sedan-chair. In later times they were used by peo- 
ple in health, especially in traveliing. def erri : force oide? 
5. responsum est : give the reply of the senate to Pyrrhus, 
and the order of the Romans with reference to the captives 
(1. 7, below) in the form of dir. disc. 8. potuissent : note 
the mood. 9. binum : why not dudrnm? 12. qualem 

Romam comperisset : ' what his impression of Rome had 
been.' 13. vero : force? 

Page 21] Gaius Fabricius 


15. C. Fabricius : one of the most popular of the heroes of 
early Rome. He is often alhided to by Cicero, in company with 
M\ Curius, as a type of the old Roman virtues of bravery, hon- 
esty, and frugaUty. Cuius : ' his.'' 16. ut : sc. ;zJ;;/.?«, ' as 
that of.' 18. miinera atque aurum : cf. note on pdceni et 
foediis, p. 19, 1. 6, above. Is this hendiadys? 19. quae 
omnia : ' all of which.' 21. conloquente : trans. the abl. 
abs. by a clause beginning with ' while.' 

Page 21. 4. vellet : ' consent.' 7. sin vero malum : 
sc. viriiin me mdicds. 11. medicus . . . pollicitus est : 
give this promise in dir. disc. The physicians among the 
Greeks and Romans of this time were slaves. 12. veneno 
necaturum : ' would poison.' 16. honestate : ' honor,' ' hon- 
orable conduct.' Be cautious about translating Latin words by 
the corresponding English derivatives ; sometimes it is the best 
translation, but more often it is not. 19. quendam : Epicii- 
rits^ a famous Greek philosopher who lived from 342 to 270 B.c. 
For an exposition of his philosophy see the ' Dictionary of Biog- 
raphy and Mythology.'' Although Epicurus taught that pleasure 
was the highest good, his own life was blameless, and it was 
only a perversion and misunderstanding of his philosophy which 
made it justify material and sensual pleasures. Give the state- 
ment of Cineas in dir. disc. 20. sapientem : ' a philosopher.' 
21. ad voluptatem referenda : i.e. must have pleasure as their 
aim and object. 22. persuadeatur : ' that our enemies may 
be persuaded of this.' A. 267; G. 254; H. 484, i. 24. dede- 
rint : future perfect ; force of the tense ? ab . . . a^lienum : 
' foreign to.' 

25. supellex argentea : ' plate.' salino : on account of 
the religious purposes for which salt was used, the salt-cellar 
was a sacred heirloom in the family. It was often of silver in 
the poorest and liumblest homes. For the case see A. 244, c\ 

I20 Notes [Page 22 

G. 396; H. 415, III. 26. patella ad usum sacrorum : 

i.e. a shallow bowl, or saucer, for pouring out libations to the 

Page 22. 2. hac : A. 243, a ; G. 389 ; H. 414, i. 

3. simultatem gerebat : ' was on terms of enmity.' 5. hic : 
'Rufinus.' On account of the greater number and definiteness 
of the Latin pronouns, a pronoun in Latin is often best trans- 
lated into English by a noun. 8. auctor fuit : ' used his 
influence.' 10. fecisset : force of the mood? Give the reply 
of Fabricius in dir. disc. compilari quam venire : ' to be 
robbed rather than sold,' i.e. he preferred to be robbed by Rufi- 
nus rather than to have his goods and perhaps himself sold at 
auction by a victorious enemy. 

11. Eundem : ' this same Rufinus.' censor : the censors 
among other duties chose the members of the senate from those 
who were eHgible to that dignity, and removed them for cause. 
12. argenti facti : ' silver plate'; sumptuary laws, which were 
intended to put a check on extravagance and hixury, were fre- 
quently passed and enforced. decem pondo : ' ten pounds ' ; 
Pondo is indecHnable. 

14. decessit : i.e. e vitd decessit. unde . . . expediretur : 

* the means of furnishing.' dos filiarum : among the Romans, 
as in most countries of modern Europe, a w4fe was expected to 
bring a dowry to her husband. 16. conlocavit : ' estab- 
Hshed' in marriage. 

18. dicionis : A. 214, c\ G. 365, R. i ; H. 403. 21. terra : 
A. 258, g\ G. 387; H. 425, 2, I, i). 22. foedissima tem- 
pestate : ' by a frightful hurricane.' 24. Qua tanta clade : 

* by this great disaster,' ' by so great a disaster as this.' Do not 
translate the phrase HteraHy. 25. deos esse : ' that there 
were gods.' 27. prosperi quidquam : ' any good fortune.' 
A. 216, 3 ; G. 371 ; H. 397, 3. 28. Italia : A. 258, a, n. 2 ; 
G. 388 ; H. 412, 2. ignobili morte : see p. 24, L 9 fol. 

Page 24] Majtms Ciiriiis 12 1 


Page 23. 1. Manius Curius : see note owFabridKS, p. 20, 

1. 15, above. Besides his military achievements Curius was 
celebrated for the many public works which he superintended. 

2. permultum agri hominumque maximam vim : note the 
order. 4. interversae pecuniae : ' embezzlement/ ' misap- 
propriating funds.' For the case see A. 220 ; G. 377 ; H. 409, 11. 
5. catillo ligneo : cf. the simplicity of Fabricius's estabHsh- 
ment, p. 21, I. 25 above. 

7. Curio . . . repudiati ab eo sunt : observe the order of 
this sentence. Commit the anecdote to memory. 10. non 
enim : give the remark of Curius in dir. disc. 13. viritim : 
' apiece.' 16. perniciosum esse : give this remark in dir. 

20. nomina non darent : ' did not volunteer ' ; lit. ' did not 
give in their names ' for enrohnent. 21. primum nomen . . . 
citari: i.e. he ordered the man whose name wa3 ifirst drawn 
to be called upon to serve. 23. hastae subiecit : ' sold at 
pubUc auction,' the spear was originally a sign of booty taken in 
war, which was sold by the commanding general. 

24. tribunos plebis appellasset : ' had appealed to the 
tribunes of the people,' who had the right of vetoing the act of 
the consul. ipsum : ' the man himself,' contrasted with bona. 
vendidit : ' sold into slavery.' 25. nihil opus esse rei 

publicae : ' that the state had no need.' A. 231 ; G. 349; H. 
387. cive: A. 243, ^; G. 390; H. 414, IV. nesciret : 

A. 320; G. 556; H. 503, I. 26. auxilio: ' able to help.' 

A. 233, a; G. 350; H. 390, II, N. 2. 27. res . . . abiit : ' it 
became the regular custom.' 

Page 24. 1. detrectaret : informal ind. disc. ; the un- 

written law might have been expressed thus : si quis militiani 
detrectdbit, in servitiitejn veiidatiir. 5. turribus : i.e. towers 
carried on the elephants' backs, from whicli the riders hurled mis- 

122 NoteS [Page 25 

siles. 7. renovaturus putaretur : ^c.esse', ' it was thought 
that he,' etc. In Latin the personal construction is preferred. 

8. placuit: sc. popnlo ; ' it was the people's pleasure.' 
16. utraque manu libratam . . . deiecit : ' poised it with 
both hands and hurled it down.' 


17. Marcus Regulus : Regulus was one of the favorite char- 
acters of early Roman history, not only on account of his 
heroism, but also, like Fabricius and Curius, on account of his 
frugality and the simpHcity of his Hfe. The story of his em- 
bassy and death at the hands of the Carthaginians are imper- 
fectly attested. magna clade : in the ninth year of the First 
Punic War Regulus crossed to Africa. On his way he defeated 
the Carthaginian fleet with great loss. 18. quasi : ' osten- 
sibly.' de pace acturus : ' to treat for peace.' A. 293, b, 2 ; 
G. 544, R. 4 ; H. 549, 3. Note that acturus is parallel to iit . . . 
extraheret below. 20. advenirent : A. 328; G. 574; H. 

519,11,2. 21. huic : ' to him.' 22. annis : A. 250; G. 
400; H. 423. 23. velut: cf. quasi, 1. 18, above. 25. in- 
cipiebat : note the tense. 

Page 25. 2. si feceritis: ' if you do'; note the force of 
the tense in Latin. nihilo Afris meliores : ' Punic faith' 
was proverbial with the Romans, although they themselves, as 
in the famous affair of the Caudine Forks, were by no means 
beyond reproach. 3. par pari referri: ' to return like for 
like'; note that in the Latin expression the passive is used. 
4. gravitati : gravitds was the ideal of Roman character ; per- 
haps ' dignity ' translates it as well as any single word. Isto 
metu : ' that fear of yours,' ' that fear which you express.' 

7. non convenit : ' no agreement was reached.' 8. primus 
traiecit ; ' was the first to cross.' 9. trecenta : ' hundreds of ' ; 

Page 26] Regtiltis 123 

treccjiti is often used indefinitely of a large niimber. 14. ipso : 
^ mere.'' 17. repellente : trans. the abl. abs. by a causal 


22. pedes : A. 257; G. 336; H. 379. 24. imperium . . . 
prorogatum est : ' his command was prolonged.' The iinpe- 
riuni was conferred first for a single year only. 26*. soripsit 
senatui : give the letter of Regulus in dir. disc. 27. septem 
iiigerum : note the simplicity of early Roman life, as indicated 
by the small size of the consuFs farm and his appeal for a recall, 
in order to support his family. itlgenlni is gen. of measure. Do 
not translate the relative clause Hterally, but give the meaning in 
good English. 28. instriimento rustico : i.e. his tools, the 
equipment of his farm. 

Page 26. 1. non esset unde : ' he should not have the 
means,' ' the wherewithal."' alerentur : A. 320; G. 556; 

H. 503, I. 3. publica pecunia : ' from tlie pubhc treasury,' 
' at pubhc expense.' agellum colendum locavit : ' made a 
contract for working the farm.'' Note the diminutive agelluju. 
11. iiltima pernicie : ' with awful slaughter.' The Latin ex- 
pression is even stronger. 

15. impetrasset : informal ind. disc. ; direct form : si non 
ijnpetrdvero, redibo. 16. sententiam ne diceret, reciisavit : 
' refused to express his opinion,' ' to give his vote.'' The sena- 
tors gave their votes in a set speech, in which they set forth the 
reasons for their views. 19. negavit esse : trans. as if it 

were dixit jioji esse. 22. cum retineretur : how is ciun to be 
translated here? A. 326, n. 2 ; G. 588 ; H. 515, iii. 25. con- 
servandum : sc. esse. 26. reversum : sc. eiun. 27. pal- 
pebris resectis : various stories of the death of Regulus are 
told. It is beheved by some that he died a natural death in 
Carthage, and that the stories told of his end were invented to 
justify the cruelty practised by his family on some noble Cartha- 
ginian captives. 

124 Notes [Page 27 


Page 27. 

Qulntus Fabius Maximus was one of the most distinguished members of 
the famous Fabian gens. He bore three additional names, Verrucosus, 
from a wart on his upper Hp ; Oviada, ' the Lamb,' from the mildness of 
his temperament ; and Cunctator, from his poUcy in the war with Hannibal. 
He was consul for the first time in 233 B.C., and was a comparatively old 
man when he was appointed dictator against Hannibal, He died in 
203 B.C., having Uved to see Hannibal leave Italy. The portion of his 
career here narrated faUs betvveen the dates given at the head of the pas- 

9. secundum Punicum bellum : the second Punic war, 
often called the Hannibalic war, lasted from 218 until 202 b.c. 
11. Saguntum : the defence of Saguntum was most obstinate. 
The city was taken part by part, almost house by house. The 
surviving inhabitants burned all their valuables, and many threw 
themselves into the flames to avoid capture. foederatam : 

the reiations of the foederatae civitdtes to Rome differed some- 
what, according to the special treaty. In general such states 
were independent, though liable to be called on to assist the 
Romans with troops and supplies. They did not enjoy the priv- 
ileges of Roman citizenship. 15. " Hic,'' inquit : give this 
remark of Fabius in the form of ind. disc. after dicit ; after 
dT.xit. 16. utrum placet : sc. vobis ; ' whichever you please.' 
17. daret : A. 339; G. 655 ; H. 523, iii. Give the reply of the 
Carthaginians in dir. disc. 

19. quibus acciperent animis, eisdem : i.e. elsdein anmns, 
qitibiis. A. 345,^; G. 614; H. 453, 2. 22. Trasumenum 
lacum : this battle, fought in 217 B.C., though most stubbornly 
contested, was one of the most disastrous defeats the Romans 
ever experienced. Livy relates a story to the eifect that the fury 
of the combatants was such that they were unconscious of a 
destructive earthquake shock which occurred during the battle. 
See Byron, Childe Harold, iv, 'jt, : 

Page 29] Fabius Maxiimis 125 

" And such the shock of battle on this day, 
And such the frenzy, whose convulsion blinds 
To all save carnage, that, beneath the fray, 
An earthquake rolled unheedingly away." 

25. dictator : an extraordinary magistrate appointed in time 
of peril. He lield his office for six months only, and was 
preceded by twenty-four lictors with the fasces and axes. He 
had associated with him a lieutenant called the Master of 
Horse {inagister equituni), whom he usually appointed himself. 
As he had no colleague, and was irresponsible, his power was 
greater than that of the consul. impetum mora fregit : 

i.e. he checked Hannibal's victorious career by a poHcy of delay. 
His design was to harass Hannibal and tire him out, without 
risking a decisive battle. From the successful outcome of these 
tactics ' Fabian poHcy' has become proverbial. 

Page 28. 4. castris : A. 258,/; G. 387 ; H. 425, 11, i, i) ; 
castris is really an abl. of means. 5. quantum : A. 238, b\ 
G. 331, R. 3; H. 378, 2. cogeret: informal ind. disc, rep- 
resenting the design of Fabius. His thought might be expressed 
thus : castris, nisi quantiun necessitas coget, milites tenebo. 
6. rei bene gerendae : ' of scoring a success.' qua : A. 105, d\ 
G. 105 ; H. 190, I. daretur : cf. note on cogeret, 1. 5, above. 
Express the thought of Fabius. 

8. superior discederet : cf. our expression ' came off victor.' 
mllitem . ^ . virtutis suae : A. 221, b\ G. 376; H. 409, iii. 
10. laudem : Ennius, an early Roman poet, writes of Fabius : 
Unus honio 7idbis cunctando restituit reni. See p. 31, I. 10. 

15. quos : A. 228, a. 18. extra vallum egredi: ' to 

leave the camp.' For egredi see A. 330, 2; G. 532, r. 2, 
and 424, R. 2 ; H. 535, 11. 20. Fabio conflaret invidiam : 
' that he might make Fabius unpopular.' 21. agrum : ' farm,' 
' estate.' 27. magister equitum : see note to p. 27, I. 25, 

Page 29. 2. dictatori . . . aequavit : ' gave the master 
of horse equal rank with the dictator.' On dictatorl see A. 225 ; 

126 Notes [Page 30 

G. 344; H. 384, 11 ; on imperio A. 253; G. 398; H. 424. 
3. aequo animo : ' patiently.' 5. auxilio : A. 233 ; G. 350 ; 
H. 390, I. 

7. receptui: A. 233, b\ G. 35O ; H. 390, i. ab se 

. . . Fabio : note the order. 10. dedisse : ' had brought.' 
12. idemque facere : i.e. Fabium patrein appelldre. As Livy 
tells the story, Minucius ordered his soldiers to hail those of 
Fabius as^^/r<?;/f, ' protectors.' 15. per speciem venandi : 
' as if to hunt,' ' pretending that they were going hunting.' 

22. factum : sc. est. eoque consuetudinis adducta est : 
' became so usual,' ' such a regular custom.' On cdnsuetiidiiiis 
see A. 216, 4; G. 371, R- 4; H. 397, 4. 26. appropinqua- 
x\mt: = appropinqudver?i}it. 28. vasti corporis : A. 215 

and N. ; G. 364 and r. ; H. 396, v, and n. 3. 

Page 30. 3. Salinator: Cicero tells us that M. LTvius 

SalTnator commanded Tarentum when it was taken by Hannibal, 
but he is undoubtedly in error. Livy gives the commander's 
name as M. LTvius Macatus. The name SalTnator was first 
given in ridicule, because M. LTvius imposed a tax on salt, but 
it became the regular surname of the family. 

4. in arcem : Hke most ancient cities, Tarentum had a strong- 
hold or arx, elevated (in the case of Tarentum only slightly) 
above the rest of the city, and strongly fortified. Here Livius 
held out until Fabius retook the city. 7. leve dictu : ' insig- 
nificant.' 18. suum Hannibalem : ' a Hannibal of their 

own.' Give this remark in ind. disc. after dfcit ; after dLvit. 
22. eum : i.e. Fabium. 24. amisisses . . . recepissem : 

sc. eam = arcem. Give this remark in ind. disc. See A. 2)1)1 ■, b ; 
G. 659, I and 2; H. 527, iii. 25. legatus : a general was 
attended on his expeditions by a legdtus, or Heutenant, who was 
chosen by himself, though the choice had to be ratified by the 
senate. The legdtT were usually men of considerable miUtary 
experience. Tliey aided the general with their advice, but 
had no independent power. 

Page 31] .Paiilus aiid Varro 12/ 

28. neque : trans. as if it were et 7idn. 29. descendit : 

it was the custom for all officers of inferior rank to dismount 
from their horses on the approach of the consul. The respect 
due to the consul took precedence of that due from a son to his 

Page 31. 5. ad summam senectutem : he Hved to be 
nearly ninety years old. When Hannibal withdrew from Italy, 
the senate presented a grass wreath to Fabius, the only surviv- 
ing general who had served through the whole war with credit. 
This wreath, usually given to a general by the army which he 
had saved from destruction, was the highest honor that had yet 
been bestowed by the state on a Roman citizen. 

7. cautior quam promptior : note the Latin idiom. A. 192 ; 
G. 314; H.444, 2, N. I. 8. ei bello : ' such a war.'' 9.Ne- 
mini dubium est : 'No one doubts.' rem : = rem publicain. 
10. restituerit: A. 319, d\ G. 551 ; H. 504, 3. 


11. in Apuliam pervenisset : after the defeat of the Romans 
at Lake Trasumenus, Hannibal did not march on Rome, but 
made his way through Umbria and Picenum into southern Italy. 
After a vain attempt on Capua, Fabius all the while dogging his 
steps, he turned into Apulia. 

12. L. Aemilius Paulus et . . . Varro : these two consuls 
represented diiTerent factions, Paulus the aristocracy and Varro 
the commons, and were besides wholly at variance in their idea 
of the way in which the war should be conducted. Paulus was 
associated by the Romans of later times with Fabricius, Curius, 
and Regukis, as a national hero. 

16. invito : ' against the will of.'' pugnae : see note on 
rccepUii, p. 29, I. 7, above. 23. tribunus militum : the 

128 Notes [Page 32 

military tribunes, six to a legion, commanded the legion in 

Page 32. 2. perdas : A. 269, ^, 3 ; G. 264, 11 ; H. 489, 2. 
3. adveniat: informal ind. disc. See A. 327, <z. 8. nobiles 
viri : the nobles at this time consisted of the patrician famihes, 
together with such plebeians as had obtained curule offices, with 
the descendants of the latter. 9. in testimonium : ' as a 
proof of,' ' to show the greatness of.' 11. equitum . . . sena- 
torum : the right of wearing a gold ring {iiis dnuli aurei) was at 
this time the privilege only of senators, magistrates, flamens, 
knights, and ambassadors to foreign nations during their period 
of service. Other persons wore iron rings. 

20. mora . . . imperio : this was the general belief in ancient 
times, but as a matter of fact Hannibal could have gained noth- 
ing by an attempt to storm the strongly fortified city. The 
question whether Hannibal should have advanced on Rome after 
Cannae, was in later times a favorite subject of debate in the 
schools of rhetoric. 

24. Capuam Hannibali Cannas : the belief was that the 
pleasures and luxury of Capua demoraUzed Hannibal's troops, 
and that his wdntering there w^as a disaster as great as the defeat 
at Cannae had been to the Romans. But as Hannibal more 
than held his own for nine years afterward, the effect of the life 
at Capua has doubtless been much exaggerated. 28. quin 
etiam : ' on the contrary.' 

Page 33. 1. itumsit: note the tense. The action of the 
verb is regarded as an historical fact, past at the time of writing, 
instead of being looked at as contemporaneous with fuit. Cf. 
A. 287, c\ G. 513; H. 495, VI. . 2. desperasset: the reason 
of the senate. They might have said : grdtids tibi aginms, guod 
de re piiblicd ndn desperdvistl. qui : ' whereas he."' 5, age- 
bat: note the tense. ' While (i.e. all the time that) Hannibal 
was spending his time in sloth and idleness, the Romans were 

Page 33] Pauhis and Varro ' 1 29 

beginning to get their breath again.' What different meaning 
would the present have? 

6. erant : sc. eis and trans. as if it were nulla arina habebant. 
7, templis . . . spolia : in accordance with a common custom, 
armor taken from their conquered enemies had been hung in the 
temples as offerings to the gods. This their necessity compelled 
them to use. servi manumissi: a regular ceremony was 

performed. The most common form was this : the magistrate 
touched the slave's head with a rod and declared him free ; 
meanwhile the master had been holding the slave, and when 
he was declared free he let him go, e manii einisit. 

10. bullis : see note to p. 11, 1. 16, above. singulis anu- 
lis : 'a ring apiece.' 12, suffecere : i.e. for making lists of 
contributions. tabulae : these tablets consisted of two, or 
sometimes three, thin pieces of wood, of which the outer sur- 
faces were plain, while the inner were covered with wax and 
surrounded by a narrow rim of wood. They were written on by 
means of the stilns, an instrument resembling a pencil in size 
and shape. 

15. redimendi sui: A. 298, a\ G. 429, R. i ; H. 542, i, N. i. 
copiam fecisset : ' had given the opportunity.^ 16. ex ipsis : 
' of their number.'' 22. veluti aliquid oblitus : ' pretending 
to have forgotten something.'' For the case of aliquidsQQ A. 219 ; 
G. 375, R. 2; H. 407. paulo post . . . regressus: he pre- 
tended to think that by returning to the camp in this way he 
could remain at Rome without violating his oath. 23. re non 
impetrata: ' after the failure of the embassy.' 25. Quod 
ubi: 'When this.' 

28. rebus adflictis : by what kind of a clause should this 
be translated ? What construction might have taken its place ? 
29. esset : note the mood ; it might be expressed by * the 
thought that the senate,' etc. 

I30 Notes [Page 34 


Page 34. 1. Publius Cornelius Scipio : the Scipios were 
a patrician family of the Cornehan gens. This family produced 
some of the greatest men of Rome, all of whom were strong 
partisans of the aristocratic faction. The family tomb of the 
Scipios was discovered in 1780 near the Porta Capena, and is 
one of the most interesting remains of the RepubHc. Scipio 
Africanus appears to have lived from 234 to 185 b.c. ; the por- 
tion of his career which is narrated here began in 218 b.c. 
virlli toga: see note to p. 11, 1. 16, above. 

4. iam nunc : ' was just on the point of.' interiecto 
corpore : trans. by a phrase beginning with ' by.' 6. Quae 
pietas : ' This act of filial afifectioii.' What other meanings 
has pictas? 7. petenti : ' when he was a candidate for.' 

8. negantes rationem eius habendam : ' saying that no ac- 
count ought to be made of liim.' 

9. legitima aetas : to be an aedile a man should have reached 
the age of thirty-six. 10. Quirltes : the official designation 
of the Roman people in a civil capacity. 11. inde : ' then,' 
'thereupon.' 12. destiterint : see note on itiun sit, p. ;^2)^ 
1. I, above. 

13. Post cladem Cannensem : ' after the disastrous defeat 
at Cannae.' The use of the adjective is in accordance with 
the usual idiom. 15. omnium consensu : ' unanimously.' 

16. admodum adulescentem : trans. by a concessive clause. 
What gives the phrase this force? 23. " lurate " : give this 
remark in ind. disc. after dicit ; after dixit. 

Page 35. 2. Haud secus pavidl : 'Quite as much terri- 
fied.' What figure? 5. duas clades : Pubhus and Gnaeus 
Scipio, the father and uncle of Africanus, waged war successfully 
in Spain for several years, and contributed not a httle to the suc- 
cess of the war by keeping Hasdrubal from joining Hannibal in 

Page 37] Scipio Africanus • 13 1 

Italy. Finally in 212 b.c. their armies were separated, and they 
were defeated and slain. 10. crederent : informal ind. disc, 
expressing the expectation of the people. 12. inops con- 
silii : ' at its wif s end.' campum : i.e. the Campus Mdrtius. 

14. ferme : ' not qiiite.'' 15. posset : the subjimctive denotes 
Scipio's purpose. 16. ad linum : ' to a man.'' 18. animo- 
rum impetus resedit : ' their enthusiasm cooled.'' 19. aetati : 
\s\v\^fidd governs either the dat. or abl., diffido usually governs 
the dat., rarely the abl. 

21. gerendum esset : why subjunctive? 24. quo die 

venit : = eo die qiio venit, ' on the day of his arrival,' i.e. before 
the town. Advancing with incredible celerity, he surprised the 
town with an inadequate garrison, and took it by storm before 
help could arrive. E5 : 'Into this town.'' 25. ibi . . . ibi 
. . . ibi: anaphora. A. 386, 11 ; H. 636, iii, 3. 

Page 36. 7. accedent : ' shall be added.' 10. victum 
, . . expulit : ' conquered and drove out.'' 14. generis : 

gen. of characteristic. forma : abl. of characteristic. Might 
generis be changed to the abl. ■^w^formd to the gen. ? 15. id 
aetatis : ' at that age,' ' at his time of life."' A. 216, 3 and 240, b ; 
G. 371 and 331, r. 3 ; H. 397, 3 and 378, 2. 20. aetatem : 

' youth.'' 25. effiisis gaudio lacrimis : ' shedding tears of 

joy,' ' with tears of joy.'' vero : ' certainly.'' 27. datlsque : 
sc. eis. 

Page 37. 3. Nomen imperatoris : after a victory it was 
customary for the soldiers to salute their commander as impe- 
rdtor. This was a mere formal compliment, as he had received 
the imperium on taking command of the army. 4. appella- 
runt : = appelldverunt. mihi : ' in my eyes,' ' in my opinion.'' 
regium nomen : ' the title of king ' ; it is parallel to nomefi 
imperdtoris in I. 3. For the use of the adjective cf. clddem 
Cajmejtsem, p. 34, I. 13. 

7. regalem : differs how from regum in meaning? 15. spe- 
raret: A. 320, ^; G. 636; H. 549, 3. 17. quocum . . . 

132 • Notes [Page 38 

vivebat : ' whose most intimate friend he was/ 18. se ac- 
cipere adnuit : ' expressed his wilHngness to accept.' nec 
. . . voluit : ' but refused.' 19. coram : ' in person.' 

22. petiturus : A. 293, <^, 2 ; G. 673, 3 ; H. 549, 3. 23. in- 
vitatus : sc. ^i^/. Cenatum est : 'They dined.' 24. eSdem 
lecto : tlie Romans recUned at their meals, supported on the left 
elbow, the right being left free to take food. Three persons 
usually recHned on one coiich. 26. infestissimum : ' most 
deadly.' 27. sibi conciliaret : ' won the heart of.' 

Page 38. 1. iamdudum cupiebat : ' had for a long time 
been eager.' A. 277, b\ G. 225; H. 469, 2. 5. paucls : 

used substantively. 7. praesentis : sc. eius. 9. cultus 

munditiis : ' elegantly adorned.' 10. attonitus : ' over- 

whelmed.' 11. de filio : see p. 36, 1. 13 fol. 12. eam : 
'such an.' 

13. quam : ' and now that it.' 16. ante annos : ' before 
the legal age,' which was forty-three. Scipio held all the offices 
of state before the legal age. 18. inde : ' from there,' i.e. 
from Sicily. 20. nec : trans. as \i et noii. 21. id : i.e. iit 
eqidtes arjnis et equls Instrueret. 24. qua : sc. die. Note 
the gender. 25. terra marique : A. 258, c, 2, d\ G. 387; 
H. 425, 2. 

Page 39. 1. horrere apparebat : ' evidently shrank from.' 
2. remissurum : ' woiild excuse.' 3. voluissent : ' would 

consent.' Give Scipio's ofFer in dir. disc. 6. vento secundo : 
with a favorable wind the voyage from Sicily to Africa can be 
made in one day. 

7. tanto ardore : abl. of attendant circumstances, or abl. 
abs. 10. brevi: sq. tempore. 11. attonitos : because such 
a fall was considered a bad omen. Similar stories are told of 
JuHus Caesar, William the Conqueror, and other famous men. 
14. metatus est : when a Roman army encamped, even for a 
single night, the camp was always carefully measured off and 

l\\c,K 41] Scipio Africanus 133 

laid out according to a regular plan. An elevated or easily 
defended position was chosen whenever possible. 18. inter- 
rogatos : sQ..eds. 27. esset nuntiatum: subject.^ 28. ipse: 

i.e. SypJidx. 

Page 40. 3. adiuverat : might the subjunctive have been 
used? Why? aurea corona : see note to p. 16, 1. 5, above. 

4. Haec et aliae . . . clades : note the order. 6. revo- 
carent : Hannibal had been absent from Carthage thirty-six 

10. Cannensi: 'of Cannae.' See note to p. 32, 1. 20, above. 
11. quae urbs : 'a city which.' iter : A. 257, b\ G. 335; 
H. 379. a Carthagine : the preposition is usual with names 
of towns in expressions of this kind. 15. duo . . . duces : 
note the order. 

17. non convenisset : ' no agreement had been reached.' 
22. piignari: impersonaL 27. leges : ' conditions ' of peace. 
29. pacta essent : subjunctive by attraction, or perhaps infor- 
mal ind. disc, representing the design of the envoys. On the 
former see A. 342 ; G. 666; H. 529, 11. 

Page 41. 2. Ad quem . . . factus est : ^He was met 

on his return.' 3. effusa . . . multitudo : note the order. 

5. omnium : i.e. oimiiiiiJi qiiae iirbs twiqiiam vidcrat. 6, pri- 
musque : see note to p. 16, 1. 2. 10. dicere : A. 221, c\ 
G. 376, R. ; H. 410, IV. haud piget : sc. me. 12. venti- 
tare : derivation and meaning? 13. cellam lovis : the mid- 
dle hall of the great triple temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva 
on the Capitoline Hill. 

15. id temporis : i.e. before daylight. For the construction 
see note on id aetatis, p. 36, 1. 15 above. 22. neque lilla : 

trans. as if et mllla. 23. ius dicebat : ' was holding court,' 
one of the duties of the commander of an army and governor of 
a province. 26. in quem diem . . . iuberet : ' on what day 
and in what place he bade the sureties make their appearance.' 

134 Notes [Page 42 

Page 42. 3. suTsque invisus : ' an object of hatred to his 
countrymen/ 6. Ephesi : A. 258, <:, 2 ; G. 412; H. 425, il. 
10. Quaerenti: sc. ei, i.e. Sctpioni. 12. castra metari: 
see note to p. 39, 1. 14, above. loca cgpit : i.e. for a camp. 

15. diceres . . . vicisses : force of the mood and of the 
tenses? '^wva.: — si te vicissejn. 20. quondam : ' once 

upon a time.' 23. muniendam : ' built.'' Not only ought 
cowards to be allowed to escape, but in order to get rid of them 
it was even worth while to build a road for them. 25. decreto 
bello : in 190 b.c. provincia obvenisset : at the close of 
their term of office each of the consuls was assigned a province 
to govern. The assignment was made by lot. 28. surgens : 
in the senate, where the matter was under discussion. 

Page 43. 2. legatum : see note to p. 30, I. 25, above. 
3. nihil est . . . commutatum : ' no change was made.' 
5. frater natu maior minori : i.e. Scipio Africanus went as 
the legdtus of his younger brother Lucius Scipio. For the case 
of minori see A. 235, a\ G. 343, r. 2 ; H. 384, 11, 4, N. 2. 
7, peperisset : the subjunctive denotes the purpose of Publius 

8. bello : abl. of time. 10. tum maxime : 'just at that 
very time.' 15. " Abi," etc. : give this reply in ind. disc. 
18. non convenit : ' was not agreed on.' 22. prolatum : 
trans. by a relative clause. quo : trans. ' in which' with con- 
tiiiebajitur, ' by which ' with refelli ; it is abl. of means with both. 
24. dubitari: ' that there should be any doubt.' 25. Quin 
etiam : ' Even more/ ' Not content with that.' 26. Non est, 
quod : ^ There is no reason why.' 27. quaeratis : A. 320, a ; 
G. 634; H. 503, I, N. 2. 29. innocentia: commonly means 
' honesty,' ' freedom from corruption.' 

Page 44. 2. Punicae : ^c.gazae. 6. universus : 'unan- 
imously.' 7. diem dixerunt : ' appointed a day,' i.e. for 

trial, on the charge of embezzlement. 9. causae dicendae : 

Page 45] Thc GraccJii 135 

' for pleading his caiise ' ; genitive. magna frequentia : abl. 
of attendant circumstances, or abl. abs. Cf. tanto drdore, p. 39, 
1. 7, above. 

11. rostra : ' tlie rostrum ' (in English the singular is used, 
in Latin always the pku-al) or speaker's platform, between the 
Comitium and the Fomm. It was so called because it was deco- 
rated with tlie beaks of the ships (rostra) taken from the people 
of Antium in 338 b.c. corona triumphali: there were three 
kinds of ' triumphal crowns'; see ' Dictionary of Antiquities.' 
The one referred to here was worn by a general during his 
triumph, and was of laurel or bay leaves. 

16. relinquamus : sc. ?//. A. 331, <f, cf./. R.; G. 546, cf. 
R. 3 ; H. 498, I, and 499, 2. 20. neo quisquam : ' and no 

one.' 22. quam quo : i.e. qiiam eo die, guo. 24. tribu- 

niciis iniuriis : 'the insults of the tribunes.' 29. quae : 

A. 243, e, R. ; G. 390 ; H. 414, iv, n. 4. 

Page 45. 1. Quod : what part of speech? Why? 3. vi- 
tae : objective genitive. 4. quasi : ' as they would.' 5. ne 
gravaretur : ind. disc, representing some form of a negative 
request in the dir. disc. 6. postquam : what part of speech? 
Wliat mood is used with it? Wliat tenses commonly? 


14. Tiberius et Gaius Gracchi : the story of the Gracchi is 
told here from the point of view of Cicero and other adherents 
of the aristocratic party, who looked on tliem as rebels, bent 
on th2 overthrow of the constitution. As a matter of fact, they 
were undoubtedly sincere in their desire to reform the many 
abuses of tlieir time, and to improve tlie condition of the com- 
mons ; but they were forced to adopt revokitionary means to 
bring their reforms to pass. ex filia nepotes : the father of 

136 lYotcs [Page 46 

the Gracchi, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, a distinguished gen- 
eral, married Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africanus the Elder. 
Their sister was married to Scipio Africanus the Younger. 

15. bonis artibus : abl. of attendant circumstances. 16. in- 
dolem . . . educatio : note the derivation and meaning of these 
two words. 18. Graecis litteris : ' Greek literature.' The 
study of Greek was just beginning to be an essential part of the 
education of a Roman of the upper classes. 21. illo saeculo : 
'of the time'; abl. abs. of attendant circumstances. 22. mu- 
liebriter : ' as women will,' ' as women love to do.' 23. redi- 
rent : the subjunctive denotes the purpose of Cornelia. 

Page 46. 2. tueri poterant : ' might have protected.' 

With a verb of different meaning the pluperfect subjunctive 
would naturally have been used. A. 308, C] G. 599, R. 3; 
H. 511, I, N. 2. 3. tribunus plebis creatus : in 133 B.c. 
5. agros . . . dividebat, provincias . . . replebat : note the 
tenses of the verbs. The Licinian rogations forbade the holding 
of more than 320 acres of land by one individual. These had 
become a dead letter, and great tracts were held by wealthy men 
and worked by their slaves, while the poor citizens were without 
land or employment. Gracchus wished to enforce the Licinian 
rogations, with some modifications. He also wished to provide 
for some of the citizens by founding colonies. 

6. prorogari : the tribuneship could not lawfully be held for 
two successive years. He wished his term of office continued so 
that he might finish carrying out his plans ; the bloodthirsty 
sentiment which follows was doubtless an invention of his ene- 
mies. 8. viam ad regnum parare : no name was more hated 
or dreaded by the Romans than that of king. The charge of 
wishing to be made king was brought against many men who 
tried to ameliorate the hard lot of the people. 12. nobili- 
tas : ' the aristocrats.' ita accepit : ' understood to mean.' 
diadema : the regular word ; corona is never used in the sense 
of a roval crown. 

Page47] Thc GraccJii 137 

17. senatus . . . pars maior : the members of the senate 
formed an hereditary nobiUty. The distinguishing marks of the 
order were the toga praetexta, and a peculiar kind of shoe. The 
equestrian order consisted of the equites (see note to p. 4, 1. 14), 
who no longer served as cavahy. They were distinguished by 
a narrow purple stripe on the toga and tunic, and a gold ring. 

19. subsellii : of the three hundred followers of Gracchus who 
perished, not one, it is said, was slain by an iron weapon. The 
senators broke up the benches on which they had been sitting, 
and armed themselves with the fragments. Cf. Macaulay, Lays 
of Aiicient Ro;ne, Virginia, 46 fol. : 

" No cries were there, but teeth set fast, 
Low whispers and black frowns, 
And breaking-up of benches, 
And girding-up of gowns." 

20. potuerat: see note on poterant, 1. 2,above. 22. qui: 
sc. occupdverat. Gaium Gracchum : he went farther than 
his brother. Besides reviving his brotlier^s agrarian laws, he 
tried to Hmit the power of the senate by transferring their 
judicial functions to the knights. He was tribune in 123 b.c. 
27. dabat: force of the tense? 28. omnes boni: the term 
by which Cicero designates the aristocrats. 29. in quibus 
maxime : ' and especially.' 

Page 47. 1. tamen : ' in spite of that.' 6. Nolim : 

subjunctive of modesty. A. 311, b\ G. 602; H. 485. qui- 
dem : emphasizes noliin, 'I shouldn^t like.'' 7. facies : note 
the vivid future condition ; ' If you do it, I shall ask for my 
share.' 9. patrimonium piiblicum : ' the state's inheritance,' 
i.e. the money which had accumulated in the public treasury. 
The term patrinidniuni is suggested by Piso's remark. 

11. ut videret consul : the regular formula by which dicta- 
torial powers were conferred on the consul. The last dictator 
(see note to p. 27, I. 25) was appointed in 202 b.c. The dicta- 

138 Notes [Page 48 

torships of Sulla and Caesar were of an entirely different char- 
acter. 14. familia : what did this word mean to a Roman? 

16. cum iam comprehenderetur : ' when he was on the 
point of being overtaken.'' 18. corpus : sc. in Tiberim deiec- 
tu?n est. 22. eum : i.e. Septic^njcleiimi. 26. Blossius qui- 
dam: ' one Blossius,' 'a man named Blossius.' 28. tanti : 
A. 252, a\ G. 379; H. 405. Give the excuse of Blossius in dir. 
disc. 29. Quid: sc. de hoc dtcis ; calls attention to the fol- 
lowing question ; ' What ! ! ' Look here ! ' 

Page 48. 1. faces subdere : ' to set fire to.' 4. qui- 
dem : emphasizes id; ' He never would have wished t/iat.'^ 
5. vox : ' word,' ' remark.' 6. peccaveris : subjunctive with 
the indefinite second person. A. 309, a ; G. 598 ; H. 508, 5, 2). 
7. oratio : Gaius Gracchus was one of the greatest Roman 
orators. 8. cum alia tum haec : ' this among other things.' 
9. ex usu vestro : ' to your advantage.' 

11. assem : hke our expression, 'a red cent.' 12. sump- 
tum fecisse : ' was put to expense.' 13. Zonas quas . . . 
eas : trans. eds zonds, qiids. 15. vini ; argento : A. 248, c, 
2 and R. ; G. 373 and R. 2; H. 421, 11, and n. 5. Argento is 
really abl. of means. 


17. C. Marius : he was born at Arpinum in 157 b.c. and died 
in 86 B.c. militiae rudimentum posuit : ' was initiated in 
the art of war,' cf. prinia stipejidia facere, p. 16, 1. 3, above. 
18. Scipioni : i.e. Scipio Africanus the Younger, grandson by 
adoption of the elder Africanus. 21. quidam : ' some one.' 
illi: i.e. Scipidnl. 25. rebus : A. 245, a\ G. 373, R. 3; 

H. 421, III. 

26. lugurtham : Jugurtha had become king of Numidia by 
the murder of the rightful heirs to the throne. The vengeance 

Page 50] Maritis 139 

of the Romans was delayed by wholesale bribery, and when 
war was declared (118 b.c.) it was retarded in the same way. 
Metelhis, a man of integrity and abiUty, was sent against him in 
lio B.C. 

Page 49. 2. bellum ducere : ' of prolonging the war.' 

3. si fecissent : note the ind. disc. without a formal verb of 
saying. Change the sentence to dir. disc. aut vivum aut 
mortuum : in English we more commonly reverse the words ; 
' dead or aUve.' Qi. ferro Tgiiiqne, p. 18, 1. 12, above. 6. suf- 
fectus : ' substituted.'' Cdnsiil siiffectus is the regular term for 
a consul chosen to fill a vacancy made by death or another 
cause. Bellum coeptum : trans. by a relative clause. 

9. aggressus fudit : trans. by two verbs. 10. regii : trans. 
by a noun in the genitive. non sine multo labore : litotes 
for sum^no labore. 12. orantes : instead of one of the various 
ways of expressing purpose (see A. 318), with a very slight dif- 
ference of meaning ; ' who asked for peace.' 14. vinctus : 
'a prisoner.' 15, triumphans : ' when he triumphed,' ' in 
his triumph'; i.e. on his return to Rome. 16. carcerem : 
the TuIIianum. See note to p. 10, I. 9, above. 

21. creatus : sc. est. 22,. decretum est : i.e. by the 

senate. Cimbros et Teutones : for a description of these 
peoples see Mommsen's History of Rotne (English translation) , 
vol. iiij p. 217 fol. 27. Tres duces : C. Papirius Carbo, 
113 B.c. ; M. Junius Silanus, 109 b.c. ; L. Cassius Longinus, 
107 b.c. The Romans are said to have lost 80,000 men in the 
last battle. 29. fugati, exuti: sc. sunt. Actum erat de : 
'Itwould have been all over with,' lit. ' it was.' A. 308, b\ G. 
599, R. 2; H. 511, I. 

Page 50. 1. nisifuisset: ' if it hadn't been for.' sub 
ipsis : 'just at ' ; at Aquae Sextiae (modern Aix) in 102 b.c. 
3. medium : ' flowing through the middle of it.' Romanis : 
sc. erat, and trans. as if it were Romani aqudrum nitllam copiam 
habebant. 6. illic : pointing to the enemy's position. 

140 Notes [Page 51 

11. comprehensus : trans. by a relative clause. 13. super 
tropaea ipsa : ' even above the trophies.'' The tropaea were made 
of the arms and armor of the vanquished enemy. 16. non 
. . . nec : ' not . . . nor yet.' 19. postulantes : cf. note 
on orantes, p. 49, 1. 12, above. 20. quos illi fratres dice- 
rent : ' whom they meant by brothers/ ' what brothers they 
were talking about.'' 21. Omittite : ' Never mind.' 25. ad- 
venissent : why subjunctive ? Atqui adsunt : ' Oh, but they 
are here,' ' Why, here they are.' 

Page 51. 2. diem . . . petit : i.e. asked him to name a day 
for the battle, in accordance with a common custom of the Ger- 
manic and Gallic tribes. 3. Proximum : sc. die^n. 10. tamen : 
in spite of their brave resistance. 11. elisisque : ' and dash- 
ing out the brains of.' 13. ab . . . pependerunt : ' hanged 
themselves to.' 16. novo homini : i.e. a man whose ances- 
tors had held no ofifice at Rome. Cicero, the fellow-townsman 
of Marius, was a jwvhs honid. 

26. Mithridatem : Mithridates VI, or the Great, was a man 
of great skill in the art of war, of wonderful strength and endur- 
ance, and of unusual culture. He was a formidable enemy of 
Rome until he was finally conquered by Pompey ; see p. 64. 
27. legem . . . tulit : in connection with this law he proposed 
others, which limited the amount of property which a senator 
could hold and increased the power of the plebeians. 

Page 52. 1. urbem : i.e. RoDiajn, a common designation. 
4. ut erat: 'just as he was.' 7. servus publicus : i.e. a 
slave owned by the state. natione Cimber : he naturally 
stood in awe of Marius. 8. deterruit : ^frightened from his 
purpose.' 9. homo : contemptuously, 'fellow.' 

16. in locis solitariis : Carthage, after its destruction in 
146 B.C., remained uninhabited until the time of Augustus. 
18. obtinebat : ' was governing.' 19. tamen : i.e. in spite 
of his official position, which would constrain him to be hostile 

Page 54] Sulla 141 

to an outlavv. 21. intuentem : trans. by a clause beginning 
with ' when.'' 22. rogavit : iic. llctor. 

Page 53. 1. magis : ' rather.' 4. nobiles : ' prominent 
men.' Note the derivation of the word. 6. licentia : ' law- 
less reign.'' Hoc tempore : ' at this time,' thought of as a 
period ; shghtly dilTerent from the acc. of duration of time. 
9. luctu : ' at the expense of the grief,' a kind of abl. of price. 
peteret: A. 320, a-^ G. 634; H. 503, i. 10. quaedam : 

' as it were.' 12. ingenti omnium laetitia : ' to the great 
joy of all'; abl. of attendant circumstances. 

16. armatus . . . togatus : ' in war . . . in peace.' 18. du- 
rior : ' somewhat hard,' ' rather disinclined.' hiimanitatis 

studia: ' refined pursuits,' ' the humanities.' ingenuarum : 
' liberal.' 

21. nobilitate : ' fame,' ' reputation.' Derivation? vul- 
gari lapide : i.e. instead of importing rare and beautiful mar- 
bles, and employing a Greek architect, he had it built of the 
common Roman tufa by a native builder. 23. doctoribus : 
derivation and meaning? 24. profuissent : in his opinion, 
as the subjunctive shows. At idem : ^But yet he.' 


Page 54. 3. dixisset : subjunctive by attraction. A. 342 ; 
G. 666; H. 529, 11. 6. ludicrae artis : ' the drama.' 

9. sorte : after being elected by the comitia, the quaestors had 
their posts assigned them by lot. 10. Eiusdem : ' his.' 

15. non inferior Hannibale : ' not inferior to Hannibal.' 
A. 247; G. 399; H. 417. 16. quidem: ' by the way.' 

19. duobus proeliis : at Chaeroneia and Orchomenos in Boe- 
otia. 21. oppressisset : ' and he would have completely 

defeated him.' 22. qualemcumque pacem : ' peace on any 

142 Notes [Page 56 

terms.' 26. urbanos : ' in the city.' victore : trans. as 
an adjective. 

Page 55. 3. dictator : Sulla's dictatorship had nothing 
in common with those of early Roman history except the name. 
He was virtually king. 4. sponte : = suct sponte. 5. in 
Circo : 'the Circus Maximus ; see note to p. ii, 1. 4, above. 
8. quibus imperarent : ' somebody to rule over.' 

12. etiam : ' still."' Ingens : emphatic position ; note also 
the derivation and meaning of the word. 18. mihi : A. 235, ^ ; 
G. 351 ; H. 389, N. 2. 19. Neque longe progressus : trans. 
as if it were et prmsquatn longe progressus esset. 22. se 
appellavit : ' assumed the title.' 23. tunc : ' just at that 

very time,' when he assumed the title Felix. 23. Faustum : 
Faustus and Fausta are both connected with fav-eo, and mean 
much the same as Felix. 24. paucis annis post : before his 
abdication he enacted laws which greatly diminished the powers 
of the people and increased those of the senate. Among other 
things, he diminished the power of the tribunes of the people. 

Page 56. 2. auderet: A. 320, ^; G. 634; H. 503, i. 

6. id tantum dicens : ' merely remarking.' 7. efficiet ne 
quis : ' will keep any one from.' 14. diixerit : cf. note on 
////;;/ sit, p. 33, 1. I, above. 19. civilis : ' of citizens.' 

23. oorrupit : ' dimmed.' 


The following Exercises have been prepared because it is believed that 
daily practice in translating English into Latin should not cease, as is too 
often the case, when the pupil finishes his first Latin book, but should be 
continued at least throughout his preparatory course. 

The sentences are intended for rapid oral work, to increase the pupi^s 
vocabulary, to train him in expressing himself fluently in Latin, giving 
i7tstantly the equivalent of each English word, and to cuhivate the habit 
of carefully noting the meaning of all Latin words while reading. This 
habit is the only preparation needed for work of this kind. Owing to lack 
of space, the sentences are merely suggestive, and are confined to the first 
few passages, It is strongly recommended that the teacher supplement 
them, or replace them by exercises of his own, and that practice in this oral 
work be a regular part of each recitation. Other exercises of the kind are 
suggested in the HiNTS ON Method on pp. ix fol. 

The continuous passages may be written or recited orally, with or with- 
out previous preparation, as the teacher prefers. It is suggested that when 
they are written, the pupil mark the quantity of the long vowels in all the 

Some of the errors to which beginners are especially incHned are guarded 
against in the following HlNTS, to which references are made by Roman 
numerals (VI, X). References are also occasionally made to the pages and 
Hnes of the Text (as p. lo, 1. 6), to call attention to words or phrases which 
may have been forgotten. A few grammatical references are given, which 
may be explained by the teacher as they occur. Words between parenthe- 
ses are to be omitted in translating into Latin, 


I. Remember that only deponenf verbs have a perfect 
active participle. With other verbs, ' having done this ' 
and similar expressions must be translated into Latin by 


144 Exercises for 

the ablative absoliite, or by a clause introduced by cum^ 
ubi, etc. Do not use the abl. abs. when it may be replaced 
by a participle agreeing with the subject or object of the 
verb : e.g. ' Having put the babes in a trough, he threw 
them into the Tiber,' parvulos alveo impositds in Tiberim 
abiecit (p. i, 1. 7). 

II. The present participle is often used loosely in Eng- 
Hsh. It must be translated into Latin by a perfect participle 
or an equivalent (see I), unless its action is strictly coiitei7i- 
poraneous with that of the verb on which the participle 
depends : e.g. ' Faustukis, noticing the circumstance, took 
them to his cottage,' Faustuius, r^e animadversd, eos tulit in 
casam (p. i, 1. 14). 

III. Tenses are generally used more accurately in Latin 
than in EngUsh. We say, for instance, ^ If he comes, I shall 
see him ' ; the Latin more accurately says, s~i veniet or sl 
venerit (fut. perf.). In translating into Latin, determine the 
exact relations of time, and use the corresponding tenses. 
In indirect discourse the time must be determined with 
reference to that of the verb which introduces the indirect 
discourse. In order to do this, try to reproduce the speak- 
er's words : e.g. *They swore that if they did not accomphsh 
their purpose, they would return to the camp ' ; they said, 
st non impetrdverimus (fut. perf.), in castra red~ibimus ; 
hence, iurdz^runt se, st ndn impetrdssefit, in castra esse 
redituros (p. t^t^, 1. 18). 

IV. Remember how indirect discourse is expressed. 
Read carefully A. 336-339; G. 651-664; H. 522-527. 
While reading Latin, carefully notice the moods and tenses 
in all indirect quotations. With verbs meaning 'to promise,' 
the fut. inf. with subject accusative is commonly used. 

Translation into Latin 145 

Observe that indirect discourse is often implied; see A. 340 ; 
G. 665; H. 528. 

V. Independent statements are much more common in 
Enghsh than in Latin. Hence, in translating Enghsh into 
Latin, many co-ordinate verbs in Enghsh should be made 
subordinate in the Latin in some of the ways suggested in 
I and H. 

VL The Latin pronouns are more numerous and more 
definite than the EngHsh. Where in Enghsh we repeat a 
proper name to avoid ambiguity, or use such paraphrases 
as ' the king,' ' the Carthaginian/ etc, a carefully chosen 
pronoun should be used in Latin. 

VH. Be careful in the use of pronouns. On se and siius 
see A. 196 ; G. 294 and 295, 520 and 522 ; H. 448 and 449. 
In your Latin reading carefully observe the use of pronouns. 

VIIL Purpose may be expressed in various ways (see A. 
318, with a, b, c, and d), but not (in prose) by the infinitive. 

IX. The voluntary agent is expressed by the ablative 
with a preposition ; the means or instrument, by the abla- 
tive withoiit a preposition. 

X. Be careful in translating Enghsh prepositions : e.g. 
' He killed him with a sword,' gladio eum interfecit ; 'he 
went ivitli him,' cum eo ivit ; ' when he heard of this,' cum 
de hoc aud~ivisset ; 'a man of great eloquence,' vir magna 
"eloquentia ; ' the shepherd of the king,' pastor r^egius. De- 
termine the exact force of the Enghsh preposition, and 
translate accordingly. 

XI. In translating into Latin such sentences as ^the man 
I saw,' the relative cannot be omitted. In cases where in 
Enghsh two nouns are connected by a preposition, unless 
the relation can be expressed in Latin by the genitive, a 

146 Excrcises for 

relative clause is generally necessary : e.g. 'The embassy 
from Pyrrhus/ either PyrrJfi iegatio or legatio quae a Pyrrho 
missa est (or erat^ . 

XII. A personal or demonstrative pronoun at the begin- 
ning of a sentence, and sometimes a noun (see VI), is often 
best translated into Latin by a relative pronoun. 

XIII. Note that with personal, and usually with relative 
pronouns, the preposition ciim is enclitic : mecum, fecum. 

XIV. Some conjunctions hke enim, autefu, etc, are post- 
positive ; i.e. they do not stand first in the sentence, but 
after one or more words. This is always indicated in the 
Vocabulary. Inquit, ' said he,' always follows one or more 
words of a quotation. 

XV. Observe that verbs which govern the dative, or 
another case than the accusative, must be used impersonally 
in the passive : e.g. ' He obeys Caesar,' Caesaii, pai-et; but 
* Caesar is obeyed,' Caesari paretur. 

XVI. In expressing the relations of place, the preposition 
is omitted with names of towns ; place where is expressed 
by the locative, which in tlie singular of the first and second 
declensions has the same form as the genitive ; in the third 
declension, and in the plural, the same form as the dative 
or ablative. 

XVII. Prohibitions, or negative commands, addressed to 
a definite person or persons, are expressed by the perfect 
subjunctive, by nolt (pl. iwltte) with the infinitive, or cave 
(pl. caz'ete) with the subjunctive. 

XVIII. Causal clauses introduced by quod, quia, and 
quoniam take the indicative, unless the reason of some 
other person than the speaker or writer be given, when the 
subjunctive is used on the principle of impHed indirect 
discourse (IV). 

Translation ijito Latin 147 

XIX. Note the idiomatic use of certain adjectives : e.g. 
//;. extrlnid ponte, ' at the end of the bridge ' ; in niedici urbe, 
' in the middle of the city ' ; suninius nidns, ' the top of the 
mountain ' ; primus cepit, ' he was the first to take.' 

XX. Distinguish : ' I niay do this,' iieet niiJii hoc facere, 
or licet hoc faciani ; ' I can do this,' hoc facere possum ; ' I 
ought to do this,' hocfacere dedeo, or oportet nie hoc facere ; 
' I niust do this,' nie hoc facere necesse est, necesse est ut hoc 

faciani, or hJjc niihi facienduni. In the past tenses the 
auxiliary becomes past, and not the infinitive as in Enghsh : 
e.g. licint mihi hocfacere. 

XXI. Some verbs are used with either the infinitive or 
the subjunctive with a difference of meaning ; the former 
if the idea is really indirect discourse, the latter if it is 
purpose : e.g. ' He persuades me that this is so,' mihi per- 
suadet hoc ita esse ; ^ he persuades me to do this,' mihi 
persuadet ut hoc faciam. 

XXII. To write good Latin one must not only express 
himself with grammatical correctness, but also idiomatically. 
Many Enghsh expressions cannot be rendered hterally; in 
fact, a continuous passage of idiomatic Enghsh can hardly 
ever be translated word for word into idiomatic Latin. Read 
the passage carefully, and translate the thought, not the 


I. Proca was king of Alba. 2. Numitor and AmuHus 
were the sons of Proca, king of Alba. 3. Numitor was 
older than^ his brother Amuhus. 4. The kingdom was left 
1 Express by abl. ; see A. 247 ; G. 399 ; H. 417. 

1 48 Exercises for 

to Numitor, the elder of Proca's sons. 5. Numitor was 
driven out by^ his brother AmuHus. 6. When this was 
known,^ Rhea Silvia was cast into prison, and the children 
were placed^ in a trough and throvvn^ into the Tiber. 
7. They say thaf* a she-wolf, hearing^ the crying of the 
children, ran to them and acted as their nurse. 8. Faustu- 
lus, the king's shepherd, who had noticed that^ the wolf 
returned again and again to the children, took them to his 
cottage, in order that his wife might bring them up as if 
(they were) her own. 9. The robbers who had lain^ in 
wait for Remus and captured" him, led'' him before Amu- 
Hus and said^ thaf^ he was^'-in-the-habit of making-raids-on 
Numitor's estates. 10. Romulus armed^ the shepherds, 
freed^ Remus, killed'^ AmuHus, and restored^ Numitor to 
his throne. 11. Numitor will come near^ recognizing 
Remus. 12. After this a city was founded by^ Romulus 
and Remus in the place where they had been reared by^ 
Faustulus. 13. When they consult the auspices (as to) 
which-of-the-two shall give his name to the new city, Romu- 
lus sees twelve vultures, while ^ Remus (sees but) six. 
14. When Romulus had surrounded his city with a new wall, 
Remus with-a-laugh leaped over the wall.^ 15. Remus 
was slain by his angry brother, who afterwards ^^ reigned 

Romulus and Remus were grandsons of Numitor, to 
whom the government of Alba had been left by-^ his father 
Proca. When they were ^^ htde children, AmuHus, who had 
driven Numitor from the throne, ordered that they be 

1 IX. 4 IV. r p. 2, 1. 8. 10 p. 2, 1. 18. 

2 abl. abs. ^W. ^ a-ifon. XIV, 11 Js a verb necessary in Latin? 

3V. 6 III. 9 VI. 

Translation into Latin 149 

thrown into the Tiber, which, as-it-happened, had overflowed 
its banks. When the flood subsided/ the children were left 
on dry-land. A she-wolf is said to have acted as their 
mother, until Faustulus, the king's shepherd, noticing^ the 
circumstance, gave them to his vvife to bring up. When 
the boys^ had grown up, Numitor told"* them who their 
grandfather was, and they slew'* AmuUus and restored^ 
Numitor to the throne. Then they resolved to found a new 
city, which, (when) founded, they called Rome from the 
name of Romulus. Romulus gof* angry with his brother, 
because he laughed-at^ the walls of the new city, and slew'* 


I. When Romulus was^king, Rome was the semblance 

of a city rather than a city, because it lacked ^ inhabitants. 

2. Romulus opened an asylum in a grove near by, that the 

shepherds might flee thither for refuge. 3. In order that 

Romukis and the people might have wives, they sent ^ envoys 

to the neighboring states, and asked^ for an alHance and 

the-right-of-intermarriage. 4. As the neighbors^ did not 

listen to the embassy, Romulus concealed ^ his vexation and 

made ^ preparation for games, and gave orders that invita- 

tions be issued to them (trans. as if that the games^ be 

announced to the neighbors) . 5. Among others the Sabines, 

because they desired ^ to see both the games and the new * 

city, came to '^ Rome with their wives and children. 6. When 

the Sabines had turned their attention to the games, their 

daughters, at^ a signal given by Romulus, were carried off" 

by the Romans. 

1 p. 1, 1. 8. 3 VI. 6 XVIII. 7 XVI. 

211. 4 V. 6 abl. abs. 

150 Exercises for 

Titus Tatius made war on the Romans on account of the 
carrying^ off of the Sabine maidens. When the Sabines^ 
approached the city, it happened^ that Tarpeia, whose 
father commanded the Roman citadel, had gone outside 
the walls to'^ get water. Tatius promised that^ he would 
give Tarpeia her choice of a gift, if she would guide ^ his 
army into the citadel. Tarpeia ^" promised to do ^ this, if 
they would give her what they wore on their left arms, 
desiring, of course, their golden rings and bracelets. But 
when she had led them into the citadel, they threvv their 
shields, which they also wore on their left arms, upon her. 

When a battle was fought by the Romans and the Sabines, 
and the Romans '^ had been thrown into confusion by the 
death of a distinguished man named HostiUus, Romulus 
vowed that^ he would dedicate a temple to Jupiter, if the 
army ceased^-to-flee. 

While Romuhis was reviewing the army, a tempest sud- 
denly arose ^ and he disappeared ^ from sight. JuHus Pro- 
culus asserted under oath ^ that Romulus appeared ^ to him 
and told^ him that if the Romans abstained*^ from quarrels 
and gave attention to mihtary affairs, they would be the 
rulers of the world.^*^ 


I . Numa, who was born at^^ Cures, a town ^^ of the Sabines, 
was summoned to Rome to^ succeed Romulus. When he 
had come from Cures to Rome, he is said to have instituted 

1 p. 3. 1. 15. 

4 VIII. 

7 VI. 

1« p. 4. 1. 24. 

2 VI, XII. 

6 IV. 

8 V. 

11 XVI. 

3 Express \iy /orie. 

6 III. 

9 p. 4. ] 

l. 21. 

12 Cf. p. 5, 1. 2, 

Translation into Latin 1 5 1 

many sacred rites, and even to have called Jupiter down 
from heaven into the city. 2. In the reign^ of Numa, a 
shield is said to have fallen from heaven. Numa - gave 
orders that eleven shields of the same form be made, in 
order that no one^ might carry off the one which had fallen 
from heaven. These shields twelve priests, called Sahi, bore 
through the city on the first of March. 3. Numa used to 
say that he had conversations with the goddess Egeria 
by-night,"' and that he did everything which he did^ in- 
accordance-with ^ her advice. 

Numa Pompihus, the second king of the Romans, was a 
man renowned for his justice and his devotion-to-the gods. 
He is said to have consecrated an altar to Vesta, and to 
have appointed'' maidens to^ maintain an eternal fire on 
her altar ; ^ to have divided the year into twelve months ; 
and to have built a temple of Janus. When this temple 
was open, it indicated that the state was at war ; when 
closed, that all the nations round about had been subdued. 
After reigning forty-three years, during which he waged no 
war, Numa died and was buried on Mount Janiculum. 


I. After Numa's death,^ the Romans chose TuUus Hos- 
tilius king. 2. Not only was Tullus unhke Numa, but he is 
said to have been even more warhke than Romukis. 

When war had arisen between the Romans and Sabines, 
in the reign of TuUus, the leaders resolved to settle the 
matter by a contest between the Horatii and the Curiatii, 

1 abl. abs. ^ ne quis. ^ iv, IIL <■ p. 5, 1. i8. 

2 VI. 4 Use an adj. 6 Express by abl. » VIII. 

1 5 2 Excrciscs for 

with whom^ they made-an-arrangement- to^ fight for victory 
and dominion. When theyjoined battle, two of the Romans 
were killed'' and the three Curiatii were wounded.'* But 
when the Albans were shouting for joy, and all hope was- 
beginning-to desert the Romans, the third Horatius, who 
was unhurt, killed the three Curiatii. For, thinking that the 
Curiatii^ would be separated in pursuit (trans. as if would 
follotu at intervals) , he fled. Then he killed the first before 
the second could*^ help his brother, and the second in the 
same manner. When two of the Curiatii had been killed, 
Horatius, unhurt and elated by his double victory, easily 
slew the last. 

Horatius, who killed his sister, because she mourned " for 
one of the Curiatii, to whom she was betrothed, would have 
been condemned to death, if he had not appealed to the 

When the inhabitants-of-Veii and of-Fidenae had made 
war on the Romans, and Tullus had asked aid of Mettius 
Fufetius, leader of the Albans, Mettius^ waited-to-see ^ 
whether the Romans would conquer or not,^ in order that 
he might follow the fortune of war; but the Roman king 
saw ^ his treachery and put ^ him to death. 


Ancus Marcius is said to have been very Hke ^^ his grand- 
father Numa. In the reign of Ancus, the Romans sent^ 
an ambassador and demanded^ satisfaction of the Latins, 
because^ the Latins^ had made a raid on their territory. 

IXIII. 3 VIII. 5 VI. 'XVIII. ^necne. 

2 p. 6, 1. 20. 4 V. 6 p. 7, 1. i6. S exspecto. i^ p^ 2, 1. 9. 

Tmnslatio7i into Latin 153 

The ambassador went^ to the territory of the Latins and 
said ^ that if the satisfaction which he demanded ^ were not 
given- he would declare^ war on the Latins. ' Ancus,' said 
he,^ 'will set out with a large army and destroy many of 
your towns, if you do" not give satisfaction.' 

After Ancus had built a prison in the middle ^ of the city, 
had surrounded Rome with a new wall, and had founded a 
city at the mouth of the Tiber, which he called Ostia, he died 
an untimely death. 


Lucius Tarquinius was born at Tarquinii, a city of Etruria. 
When he^ was moving to Rome, it is said that an eagle took 
the cap from Tarquinius's ^ head and then replaced it, and 
that on this account his wife Tanaquil expected that her 
husband would be king of the Romans. Tarquinius entered 
the city and made himself a home there. When he had 
gained the friendship of Ancus, and had-been-appointed- 
by-will tutor to the king's children, he usurped the throne. 

The two surviving sons of Ancus were indignant that they 
had been robbed of their father's throne. Accordingly they 
ordered two shepherds to kill the king with an axe. While 
one of the shepherds was telHng Tarquinius about their 
pretended quarrel, the other raised ^ his axe and brought ^ 
it down on the king's head. 


Although Servius TulHus was the son of a slave, he became 
king of the Romans after Tarquinius. For on account of 

IV. ^inquit. XIV. 5X11. 

2 IV, III. 4 XIX. 6 VI. 

54 Exercises fo7' 

a wonderful prodigy which happened Tarquinius was ^ per- 
suaded to bring up Servius at his house as if- he were his 
own child. When the shepherds had killed Tarquinius, 
Tanaquil, conceahng his death, said : ' Do not think^ that 
the king has received a fatal wound. Until he recovers, be 
obedient to Servius TuUius.' 

At Ephesus there was a temple of Diana, which had been 
built by the states of Asia in common. The Latin peoples ^ 
were persuaded by Servius to build a temple of Diana on 
the Aventine Hill, (in common) with the Roman people. 
One of the Latins had a cow of wonderful size, and it was 
said that if he had offered it up in the new temple, the 
Latins would have gained^ the supremacy. But he was pre- 
vented from^ sacrificing it by the crafty Roman priest, who 
thus gained dominion for his citizens and glory for himself. 

Servius Tulhus had a daughter who was so cruel that 
when Servius^ had been killed, she ordered the driver" to 
drive her chariot over her father^s*^ body. 


Although Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of the Romans, 
gained the throne wrongfully, yet he was energetic in war. 
The city of Gabii was brought into his power by a clever 
trick of his son Sextus. For when his father had besieged 
the city for a long time, and was not able to take it, Sextus 
felt badly. Therefore he fled^ to Gabii and complained^ of 
his father's cruelty, and when he had been made general 

1 XV. 2 qj^asi with imp. subj. 3 XVII. 

* A. 337, b, I, 2, 3; G. 659, I, 2; H. 527, III. 5 qudminus with the subj. 

6 VI. " p. 13, ]. 24. 8 V. 

Translation into Latin 155 

and killed the chief men of the state, he dehvered the city 
to Tarquinius. Although Tarquinius made no reply to the 
messenger whom Sextus sent, yet he let ' his son - know 
what he wanted ; for because the father knocked off the 
heads of the tallest poppies with his staff, Sextus knew that 
he wished that the chief men of the state be put to death 
(one by one). 


When Porsena, the king of the Etruscans, had taken the 
Janiculum, and great fear had seized the Romans, the city 
would have been taken by the enemy, if it had not been for 
Horatius, who stood alone at the end of the bridge which 
joined^ the Janiculum to the city ; thus he defended the 
bridge until it was cut down. The Etruscans were so amazed 
at his boldness, that after the bridge had been cut down he 
escaped unharmed, by leaping into the river and swimming 
across to his friends. 


Gaius Marcius was a brave patrician, to whom the sur- 
name of Coriolanus is said to have been given because he 
captured the town of Corioh. In-his-youth he took part in 
many battles, and often made his mother happy because 
he had been presented vvith crowns and other prizes. To 
please his mother is said to have been his only desire. 

Because he was unwilhng to sell to the people the grain 
which had been imported from Sicily in time of famine 
excepf* at a high price, he was condemned to death by 

1 effecit ut. 2 VI. 3 p, 10, ]. 12. •* nisi. 

156 Exercises for 

them. But he fled to the Volscians, by whom his valor was 
highly esteemed ; for they made him their leader. Then 
Coriolanus led the Volscians against Rome, and would have 
taken the city, had not his mother and his wife persuaded 
him by their prayers to lead the army away. Some^ say 
that he was put to death by the Volscians, others^ that he 
hved among them for many years. 


Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who claimed - to be descended 
from Achilles, was summoned into Italy by the people-of- 
Tarentum, on whom the Romans had declared war. Although 
he defeated the Romans in the first battle, which was fought 
at Asculum in 280 b.c.,^ yet he lost the flower of his army, 
and said to his friends after the battle that if he should 
gain^ another such battle he would-have-to-return^ to Epirus 
alone. With Pyrrhus came Cineas, a man of great eloquence, 
who tried to persuade the Romans to make peace, but they 
repHed that they would not make peace until Pyrrhus de- 
parted"* from Italy. 

Appius Claudius, though bhnd and old, had great influ- 
ence with the Romans. For when Cineas was trying to 
persuade them to make peace, and the senate seemed on- 
the-point-of-accepting^ the conditions, Appius was carried^ 
into the senate house and persuaded^ them to reply to 
Pyrrhus, that he must^ leave Italy if he wished'' to have 
peace with the Romans. 

That^ Pyrrhus was^ of a merciful disposition is shown by 

1 aliu 3 See A. p. 425. 5 i y, XX. 7 v. 

2 p. 17, J. 15. 4 IV, III. 6 fut. part. 8 inf. 

Translation into Lati^t 157 

his kindness tovvards^ the people of Tarentum ; for although 
they frankly confessed that they had spoken disrespectfully^ 
of^ the king when they were heated with^ wine, he did not 
inflict punishmenf* on them, because he thought it was the 
fault of the wine rather than of the men. 


Many-stories^ are told of the virtue of Gaius Fabricius. 
Although Pyrrhus secretly offered him the fourth part of his 
kingdom, if he would consent ^ to Hve with him, Fabricius 
could not be persuaded'' to desert the Roman cause. But 
on the other hand Pyrrhus's physician could not induce 
Fabricius to promise him a reward in case he should kill^ 
the king.^ Although Fabricius despised money himself and 
could not be turned from the path of integrity by the offer^^ 
of gold, yet when a dangerous war was imminent, he advo- 
cated the election of Rufinus, an avaricious man, as consul, 
because (as he said)^^ he preferred to be robbed rather than 
to be sold. 

It seemed marvellous to Fabricius that Epicurus, a wise 
man of Athens, said that pleasure is the highest good ; he 
said that if the enemies of Rome could be convinced of 
this, it would be easy to conquer them. 


Cicero often tells us that Manius Curius was a man of the 
greatest valor and uprightness. In many respects he is very 

1 erga with acc. ^ supplicium sumere de. 7 XV, i'' Cf. p. 3, 1. 15. 

2 p. 18, 1. 28. 5 multa. 8 IV. 11 XVIII. 

3 X. 6 vold. IV. 9 VI. 

158 Exercises for 

like Fabricius ; for both waged war with the Samnites and 
with Pyrrhus, both Hved frugally, and both contemptuously- 
refused large (sums of) money, which the Samnites offered 
them, because (they said) ^ they did not wish gold, and did 
not think it right to receive gifts from the enemy. And 
yet Curius was accused of embezzlement after the Samnite 
war ; but he swore that the only thing he had turned to his own 
use was a wooden bowl, which he used for sacrificial offerings. 
Curius would have been made consul a second time, to'* 
carry on war with Pyrrhus, had not the king died an igno- 
minious death in^ Argos ; for he was killed with^ a tile 
which was thrown from the roof of a house by a woman. 

The story of the brave death of Regulus is known to all. 
In the second Punic war, after he had defeated the Cartha- 
ginians in many battles, Regulus sailed from Sicily to Africa, 
and pitched his camp at Clypea. Sallying-forth^ from Clypea, 
he defeated the armies of the enemy and devastated their 
fields, until at last they sent an ambassador to the Lace- 
daemonians, to" ask for help. The Lacedaemonians sent 
them Xanthippus, a very skilful leader, who defeated and 
captured Regulus. Then the Carthaginians sent Regulus to 
Rome (to see) about an exchange of prisoners, after he had 
sworn to return to Carthage, if he did ^ not accompUsh-his- 
purpose.'' When he came to Rome, Regulus advised the 
Romans not to ^ exchange prisoners, and although his rela- 
tives and friends tried to detain him, he returned to Car- 
thage, where he is said to have suffered a most cruel death. 

1 XVIII. 3 XVI. ^proficiscor. ' p. 26, 1. 15. 

2 VIII. 4x. 6 IV. III. 8 XXI. 

Translation into Latin 159 

How frugally the Roman consuls lived in tliose times is 
shown by the foUowing story which is told of Regulus. 
When he was in Africa, his slave ran away, taking with him 
his farming tools.^ When Regulus heard of this, and at the 
same time that his command had been extended to the next 
year, he was compelled to ask the senate to send some one 
to Africa to succeed him, so that he might go home and 
cultivate his farm himself. He said that if he did not do 
this, he should not have the-means-of ^ supporting his wife 
and children. 


When Hannibal had captured Saguntum, the citizens of 
which were alhes of the Romans, the Romans sent ambassa- 
dors to Carthage to^ ask that he be surrendered to them. 
When they had arrived at Carthage, and the Carthaginians 
gave-evasive-answers,'^ Quintus Fabius, who was one of the 
ambassadors, making^ a fold in his toga, said that he brought 
them war and peace, and that they might*^ take whichever 
they wished. 

When the Carthaginians had chosen war, Hannibal who 
(when) a boy had sworn eternal hatred against the Romans, 
crossed the Alps with a great army. Coming^ into Italy, 
he defeated the Romans with great slaughter at the Trebia 
river and at Lake Trasimenus. Then Quintus Fabius was 
made dictator. He changed the plan of campaign,'' for he 
did not join battle with Hannibal, but tried to wear out the 
Carthaginian ^ by delay. Once he nearly destroyed Hanni- 
baPs ^ whole army, which he had shut in a narrow pass. 

1 p. 25, 1. 28. 

4 p. 27,1 


5" p. 28, 1 

1. I, 

2 p. 26, 1. I. 

5 11. 

8 VI. 

3 VIII. 

6 XX. 

i6o Exercises for 

Fabius's delay was not agreeable to Minucius, the master 
of horse, who induced the people to make ^ his rank equal 
to that of Fabius. When this had been done, Minucius 
joined battle rashly with Hannibal, and would have been 
conquered had not Fabius come to his rescue. 

After this Hannibal took Tarentum by the treason of 
some of the young nobles. They used to go out of the city 
as if to^ hunt, and when this had become such a regular 
custom ^ that the gate of the city was opened whenever they 
gave a signal by whistUng, they admitted Hannibal with ten 
thousand soldiers. But Fabius took the city with equaP 

Fabius in his old age saw Hannibal driven from Italy, 
and knew that he had saved the Roman state by not fighting 
at a time when Hannibars forces could not be conquered. 
He was worthy of the surname Maximus. 


The Romans were defeated by Hannibal at Cannae on 
account of the rashness of C. Terentius Varro ; for his col- 
league, AemiHus Paulus, preferred delay and did not wish 
to fight. Paulus was killed in the battle, but Varro escaped 
to Venusia with a few horsemen. 

The Romans thought that if Hannibal had ^ proceeded at 
once to Rome, he could have taken the city. Maharbal, 
indeed, who commanded the Carthaginian cavalry, said that 
if Hannibal would send him on to Rome, the Carthaginian 
leader^ might^ banquet in the Capitol within five days; and 

1 p. 29, 1. 2. 8 p. 29, 1. 22. 5 III. 7 XX. 

2 VIII. 4 p. 30, 1. 19. 6 VI. 

Translation into Latin i6i 

when HannibaP refused, Maharbal^ told his generaP that 
he did not know how to use a victory. Hannibal, however, 
went to Capua, which was his Cannae, for the Carthaginian 
soldiers were weakened by the pleasures of a luxurious city. 
Although the Romans had never suffered a greater disas- 
ter than this defeat, they did not ask for peace, and would 
not consent^ to ransom the prisoners which Hannibal had 
taken. When ten of the prisoners had been sent to Rome, 
swearing ^ that they would return if they did not accomphsh- 
their-purpose,'* one of their number tried to free himself 
from his oath by returning to the camp immediately after 
his departure, as if he had forgotten something. He claimed^ 
that thus he had kept^ his oath, and would not have returned 
to Hannibal had not the Romans bound" him and sent'' him 


It is said that PubHus Scipio (when still) a boy saved his 
father in the battle at the Ticinus river. For his father^ was 
just on-the-point-of-falhng^ into the hands of the Cartha- 
ginians, when Scipio interposed.^ 

Afterwards when Scipio was-a-candidate-for the aedileship, 
and the tribunes had opposed him because he was not yet 
of the legal age, he said that if all the citizens wished to 
make him aedile, he was old enough. 

After the defeat at-Cannae^° he was put in command of 
the soldiers who had fled to Canusium, and compelled the 
young nobles who wished to leave Italy to swear that they 
would not desert their country. 

1 VI. 4 p. 26, 1. 15. J" V. 10 adj. 

2 volo. 5 p. 22, 1. 25. 8 fut. part. 

8 II. 6 p. 26, 1. 25. 9 A. 325, b ; G. 581, R. 

i62 Exercises for 

When he was only twenty-four years old he was chosen 
proconsul and sent to Spain, where the Romans had just 
suffered ^ two severe defeats. There he not only captured 
New Carthage, but won-the-favor-of ^ the Celtiberians by his 
justice and kindness. So dear did he become to the Span- 
iards that they wished to call him king, but he said that he 
preferred the title of imperator, which had been given him 
by his soldiers. When Scipio had recovered Spain, he 
crossed into Africa. At Zama he defeated Hannibal, who 
had been recalled from Italy, and won ^ peace on land and 
sea. He was the first Roman to be^ honored with the name 
of the nation he had conquered, being called Africanus. 

Hannibal, after his defeat by Scipio, fled to Antiochus, 
king of Syria, whom he persuaded to become an enemy of 
the Romans. PubUus Scipio's brother Lucius was sent 
against Antiochus,^ Pubhus promising^ to go as his heu- 
tenant. When the brothers^ returned to Rome after defeat- 
ing Antiochus, the tribunes of the people demanded an 
account of the booty, but PubHus Scipio said that there was 
no reason'' why the senate should inquire whether he had put 
a small sum of money into the treasury, when he had filled 
it with Carthaginian gold. Finally, to^ escape the attacks 
of-the-tribunes,^ he left the city and never returned to it. 


Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were the sons of Cornelia, 
the daughter of Scipio Africanus. They received an excel- 
lent education from their mother, who considered well- 

^ P- 35. 1- 5- ^ P- 41. 1- I- ^ VI. ' p. 43, 1. 26. 9 adj. 

2p. 36,1. 9. 4 XIX. 6 11. 8 VIII. 

Translation into Latin 163 

educated children a matron's best jewels. At that time the 
condition of the conuiion people was most wretched, so 
Tiberius Gracchus wished to aid them by giving them land. 
When he wished to be elected tribune a second time, in 
order to finish-carrying-out ^ his plans, he was accused by 
the nobles of ^' wishing to make himself king, and was slain 
with many of his foUowers. 

Gaius Gracchus, not terrified by his brother's death, after 
obtaining the tribuneship, wished to aid the common people, 
and also*^ to give Roman citizenship to all the Itahans. He 
too was accused of being a dangerous"* citizen, and the 
senate made the consul dictator in these words : ' Let the 
consul see to it that the commonwealth suffer no harm.' 
When this had been done, many of the followers of Gracchus 
were slain by the nobles, and he himself was killed by a 
slave in accordance with ^ his own order. 


Gaius Marius was born at Arpinum of a humble family. 
When the younger Scipio was waging war against the Span- 
iards, Marius began his military Ufe,^ and showed great valor 
and enthusiasm. Then he himself waged war successfully 
against Jugurtha, being '^ chosen consul in place of Metellus, 
whom he had accused of- prolonging the war. Jugurtha 
was defeated^ and captured,^ and being'' taken to Rome, 
was at last put to death in prison. 

A few years after this a great danger threatened Rome. 


4 p. 23, 1. 16. 

5^ II. 

2 p. 2, 1. 4. 

5 Express by abl. 

8 V. 

3 idem. 

6 p. 16, 1. 3 ; p. 48, 1 


1 64 Exercises for 

The Cimbri and Teutones, after defeating the Romans in 
many battles, were marching against the city. And they 
would have taken and sacked it, if it had not been^ for 
Marius, who defeated them in two battles and utterly de- 
stroyed them. 

It would have been better if Marius had died after defeat- 
ing the Cimbri, for he suffered many-hardships ^ and brought 
a great disaster on his country. He wished to be sent in 
place ^ of Sulla against Mithridates, the king of Pontus, but 
SuUa came ^ to Rome with an army and took ^ possession of 
the city. Marius fled, but was captured and would have 
been killed, had not the slave ^ they had ordered to kill him 
feared the old man. At last, after being driven from the 
ruins of Carthage, to which he had fled, Marius heard that 
Sulla had set out against Mithridates. Then he returned to 
the city and slew all the distinguished men of the opposite 
faction. But when he had been made consul for-the-seventh- 
time^ he died, to" the great joy of everybody. 


L. Cornelius Sulla was a patrician who spent his youth in 
wantonness. But when he had been made quaestor and 
sent with Gaius Marius against Jugurtha, he immediately 
began to show great abihty. In the war with-the-Cimbri ® 
he did good service^ as Marius's heutenant. Afterwards 
when Mithridates had made war on the Romans, Sulla would 
have utterly-defeated him, if he had not wished to return to 

Ip. 15.1 

• 15- 

4 V. 

' P- 53. J 


2 imilta. 



s xxn. 

6 septimutn. 

9 p. 38, 1 

. 14. 

Translation into Latin 165 

Rome as soon as possible to carry on war with Marius. 
He defeated the partisans of Marius (trans. as if those who 
favored Maiiiis) , for Marius himself had died in the mean- 
time, and taking^ possession of the city, massacred many 
thousands of the opposite faction. Then he made himself 
dictator. But when he had restored power to the senate, 
he resigned the dictatorship, to ^ the great surprise of every- 
body, and retired to his villa in the country, where he died 
a few years aftervvards. 

1 II. 2 cf. p. 53, 1. 13. 



a. = active ; with verbs, active 

or transitive. 

abl. = ablative.. 

abs. = absolute. 

acc. = accusative. 

adj. = adjective. 

adv. = adverb, adverbial. 

causat. = causative. 

chap. = chapter, 

coll. = collective, collectively. 

comp. = co77iparative. 

conj. = conjunction. 

dat. = dative. 

decl. = decloision. 

def. = defective. 

dem. = demonstrative. 
dep. (in vocabulary) = </<?/^- 

desid. = desiderative. 
dim. = diminutive. 
e.g. = exempli gratia = /i^r ^;f- 

Eng. = English. 
etc. = ^/ cetera ■= and so forth. 
excl. = exclamation. 
f. =femini}ie. 

fol. = follozviiig, and %vhat fol- 

freq. =frequentative. 
fut. =future. 
gen. =gejtitive. 
i.e. = z^ ^^/? = ///«/ /5. 
imp. = imperative. 
impers. = impersonal, imperson- 

impf. = imperfect. 
inch. = inchoative. 
indecl. = indeclinable. 

NoTE. — In the definitions of proper names, the quantity is not marked if the 
names have become anglicized. In other cases, it is recommended that the Roman 
pronunciation be retained in the English translation. 

In ahicio, subicio, etc, the actual pronunciation was probably abiicio, subiicid, 
etc, At any rate, the first syllable was in some way long. 


= indefinite. 


= indicative. 


= infnitive. 


= intensive. 


= interrogative. 


= interjectio7i. 


= irregular. 


= literally. 


= masculine. 


= 7ieuter; with verbs, neu- 

ter or intransitive. 


= nominaiive. 


= numeral. 

p., pp. 

= page, pages. 


= participle. 


= passive. 


= person , personal. 


= perfect. 


= plural. 


= pluperfect. 


= positive. 


= predicate. 


= preposition. 


= present. 


= pronoun, pronominal. 


= reflexive. 


= relative. 


. = semi-deponent. 


= singidar. 


= siibjunctive. 


= substantive. 


= superlative. 


= trajisitive. 


= verb. 


= vocative. 

I, 2, 3, 4 

with verbs = ist, 2d, 3d, 

or 4th 



A., with proper names = Aulus, 
a Roman praenomen^ or fore- 

a, ab, and abs, [cf, Eng. of, off], 
prep. with abl., originally imply- 
ing separation,/r(?w, axvay from, 
out of; of place or direction, 
from, out of aty on ; of time, 
from, since, after ; of agency, 
by ; of source, from, through, 
especially with verbs and adjec- 
tives signifying hoping, fearing, 
and expecting. 

abalieno, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 
convey aiuay, remove ; estrange, 
make hostile. 

abditus, -a, -um, [part. of abdo], 
adj., concealed, hidden. 

abd5, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [ab -f- 
do], 3, a., piit azvay, remove ; 
coticeal, hide. 

abdiico, -diicere, -drlxi, -ductum, 
[ab -\r diico], 3, a., lead off, lead 

abeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, — , fut. part. 
abitiirus, [ab+ e5], irr., n., go 
away, depart. 

abicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, [ab 
-f iacio], 3, a., throw away, 
throw down, throw; give tip, lay 

abluo, -luere, -lui, -liitum, [ab 

-f luo], 3, a., wash away; wash, 

bathe, purify. 
abnuo, -nuere, -nui, fut. part. 

-nuitiirus, [ab -f- nuo], 3, a., 

nod away, express dissent by a 

sign, reftcse. 
abripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum, 

[ab -f rapio], 3, a., take forcibly 

azvay, tear away ; drag away, 

hurry off. 
abrogo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ab 

-f rogo], I, a., of a law, repeal, 

annid. magistratum alicui ab- 

rogare, to remove from office., 

to depose. 
abscedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[abs -f cedo], 3, n., go away, 

depart, withdrazv. 
abscido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum, 

[abs -f caedo], 3, a., hezv off, 

cnt off. 
absens, -entis, [part. of absum], 

adj., absent, away. 
absisto, -sistere, -stiti, — , [ab 

-f sisto], 3, n., withdrazv from, 

depart ; cease, desist. 
absolvo, -ere, absolvi, absolii- 

tum, [ab -f solvo], 3, a., set 

free, release ; acquit, declare 




absorbeo; -sorbere, -sorbui or 

-sorpsi, -sorptum, [ab -j- sorbeo] , 

2, a., szvallozu dozvn, sivalloiv. 
abstinentia, -ae, [abstinens, part. 

of abstineo], f., abstijience, self- 

restraint, integrity. 
abstineS, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum, 

[abs -f teneo], 2, a. and n., keep 

back, hold off; refrain froju, ab- 

stain, absent oneself. 
abstuli, see aufero. 
absum, abesse, afui, fut. part. 

afuturus, [ab -f sum], irr., n., 

be azvay, be absent, be distant, be 

far from. 
absum6,-ere, absumpsi,absump- 

tum, [ab + sumo], 3, a., take 

azvay, use up, destroy, cojisufne. 
ac, see atque. 
Acca, -ae, f., Acca, forename of 

Acca Ldrentia, the foster-mother 

of Romulus and Remus, 
accedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[ad + ced5], 3, n. and ^.,go to, 

come to, approach ; assent, ap- 

prove ; enter upon, tindertake ; 

be added. 
accendo, -ere, accendi, accen- 

sum, [ad + unused cando], 3, 

a., set fire to ; infame, aronse, 

accido, -cidere, -cidi, — , [ad + 

cado], 3, x\., fall upon ; come to 

pass, happen, befall. 
accingo, -ere, accinxi, accinc- 

tum, [ad + cingo], 3, a., gird 

on, bind on, gird. 
accio, -cire, -civi, -citum, [ad -{- 

cio, put in motion~\, 4, a., call, 

summon, send for. 

accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

[ad + capio], 3, a., take to one- 

self receive, accept ; welcome ; 

take in, hear, learn, understand. 
accommodo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[ad + commodo, from commo- 

dus], I, 2i.,fit to, acco?nf?iodate to. 
accumbo, -cumbere, -cubui, 

-cubitum, [ad + cumbo], 3, n., 

lie down, recline at table. 
accurro, -currere, -cucurri or 

-curri, -cursum, [ad + curro], 

3, n., run to, hasien to. 
accusatio, onis, [acciiso], f., 

accusator, -oris, [accuso], m., 

accuser, prosecutor, plaintiff. 
acciiso, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad, 

causa], I, a., accuse, blame. 
acer, acris, acre, comp. acrior, 

sup. acerrimus, adj., sharp, 

piercing ; bitter ; eager., fierce, 

acerbe, comp. acerbius, sup. 

acerbissime, [acerbus], adv., 

bitterly, crueliy, severely. 
acerbus, -a, -um, [cf. acer], adj., 

sharp to the taste, bitter ; severe, 

harsh, cruel. 
acetum, -1, [cf. acer], n., vinegar. 
Achilles, -is, m., Achilles, chief 

hero of the Greeks in the Trojan 

acies, -ei, f., sharp edge, sharp 

poifit ; line of battle. 
acriter, comp. acrius, sup. acer- 

rime, [acer], adv., sharply, 
fiercely, energetically. 
Actiacus, -a, -um, adj., of Ac- 

tium, at Actium. 



Actium, -1, n., Actium, a promon- 
tory and town of Epirus on the 
Ambracian Gulf, celebrated for 
the naval victory of Octavianus 
over Antony and Cleopatra, in 
31 B.C. 

ad, prep, with acc, to ; of motion 
and direction, to, towards ; of 
place, at, near ; of time, till, 
imtil ; of purpose,yor, in order 
to ; of other relations, according 
to ; ahnost, abont. 

addico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum, 
[ad + dico], 3, a. and n., give 
assent, be favorahle. 

addo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [ad -J- 
do] , 3, a., put to, add. 

a-ddiico, -ere, adduxi, adduc- 
tum, [ad-f- duco], 3, a., lead to, 
bring to ; injltience, induce. 

aded, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, [ad 
-1- e6],irr., n., go to, approach ; 
enter on, take possession of. 

adeo, [ad-f eo], adv., to this, so 
far ; so, so inuch, so very ; even, 

adequito, -are, -avi, — , [ad -I- 
equito], i, n., ride to, ride up. 

adfero, adferre, attuli, adlatum, 
[ad + fero], irr., a., bring to ; 
announce, report ; give. vim 
adferre, to offer violence, to do 

adficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 
[ad + facio], 3, a., do sotiiething 
to, affect ; visit with, affiict. 

adfinis, -e, [ad + finis], adj., bor- 
dering on, related to ; as subst., 
adfinis, -is, m. and f., relation 
by marriage. 

adfirmo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad -f- 

firmd], i, -x., strcngthen ; assert 

positivcly, dcclare. 
adflatus, -us, [adfl5], m., a blow- 

ing ou, blast.1 breath ; effJuvia. 
adflictus, -a, -um, [part. of ad- 

fligo], adj., cast down ; pitiful, 

zuretched, shattered. 
adfligo, -fligere, -flixi, -flictum, 

3, a., dash at, overthrow ; affict, 

daniage ; subdue, defeat. 
adflo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad+fl5], 

I, a., breathe iipon, blozv towards. 
adhibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, [ad -f 

habe5], 2, a., hold to, apply ; 

furnish, bestoiv ; turn to for coun- 

sel, consult ; suf/wton, invite. 
adhortatio, -5nis, [adhortor], 

f., exhortation, encouragement. 
adicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, [ad 

-f iaci5], 3, a., throxv to ; add 

to,join to. 
adigo, -igere, -egi, -actum, [ad 

-f ag5], 3, a., drive, tirge ; com- 

adipiscor, -ipisci, -eptus sum, 

[ad -f apiscor], 3, dep., a., ar- 

rive at ; obtain by effort, get, 

aditus„-iis, [ade5], m., approach, 

adiximentum, -i, [for adiuva- 

mentum from adiav5], n., help, 

aid, support. 
adiungo, -ere, adiiinxi, adiiinc- 

tum, [ad + iung5], 3, z.., join 

to, add to. 
adiuvo, -are, -iiivi, -iiitum, [ad 

+ iuv5], I, a., help, aid, sup- 




adlicid, -licere, -lexi, -lectum, 

[ad -f lacio], 3, a., entice, attract, 

zvin over. 
adligo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad -f- 

ligo], I, a., bind to, bind fast. 
adloquor, -loqui, -locutus sum, 

[ad + loquor], 3, dep., a., speak 

to, address. 
administro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[ad + ministrd], i, a., manage, 

regulate, direct, govern. 
admirandus, -a, -um, [part. of 

admiror], adj., to be wondered 

at, wonderful, strange. 
admiratio, -5nis, [admiror], f., 

Tvonder, adniiration ; surprise. 
admirator, -oris, [admiror], m., 

admiror, -ari, -atus sum, [ad 

+ miror], i, dep., a., 7vonder 

at, admire ; be astonished at. 
admitto, -ere, admisi, admis- 

sum, [ad -f mitto], 3, a., send 

to, let go ; admit, receive ; per- 

mit ; commit. 
admodum, [ad -1- modum], adv., 

to the limit, qidte, very. 
admoneo, -ere, -ui, -itum, [ad 

-[- moneo], 2, a., remind, ad- 

monish, xvarn. 
admoveo, -ere, admovi, admo- 

tum, [ad -f moveo], 2, a., move 

toivards, bring tip, bring 7iear, 

adnuo, -nuere, -nui, — , [ad + 

nuo], 3, n., express assent by a 

7tod, assent ; indicate, express 

adolesco, -olescere, -olevi, ad- 

ultum, 3, n., grotv up. 

adoperio, -operire, -operui, 

-opertum, [ad + aperio], 4, 

a., cover, veil. 
adopto, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad 

+ opto], I, a., choose ; adopt. 
adorno, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad + 

orno], I, a., provide, furnish, 

equip ; decorate, adorn. 
adoro, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad + 

6r5], I, a,, adore, venerate. 
adquiro, -ere, adquisivi, adqui- 

situm, [ad + quaer5], 3, a., 

get in addition ; acquire, gain. 
adripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum, 

[ad + rapi5], 3, a., snatch, seize. 
adscribo, -scribere, -scripsi, 

-scriptum, [ad + scrib5], 3, a., 

add ; enrol, appoint. 
adsentatio, -5nis, [adsentor, 

fatter'], i.,flattery, adulation. 
adsequor, -sequi, -secutus sum, 

[ad + sequor], 3, dep., a., fol- 

lozv up, overtake ; reach, attain. 
adsideo, -ere, -sedi, — , 2, n., sit 

by; hesiege. Idown. 

adsido, -ere, -sedi, — ,3, n., sit 
adsigno, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad + 

sign5], I, a., mark out ; allot, 

assign, aivard. 
adspicio, -ere, adspexi, adspec- 

tum], [ad + speci5], 3, a., look 

at, observe, examine. 
adsuefacio, -ere, -feci, adsuefac- 

tum, [adsuetus + faci5], 3, a., 

accustom, train. 
adsum, -esse, -fui, [ad + sum], 

irr. n., be present, aid. 
adsiimo, -sumere, -sumpsi, 

-sumptum, [ad + sum5], 3, a., 

take to oneself receive. 



adsurgo, -ere, adsurrexi, adsur- 

rectum, [ad + surgo], 3, n., 

rise up, stand up. 
adulescens, -entis, [part. ofado- 

lesco], 2i(X].,young. As subst., m. 

and f., a yotith. 
adulescentia, -ae, [adulescens], 

f., youth. 
adulor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

adultus, -a, -um, [part. of ado- 

lesco], "xX]., grozvn up, adult. 
adveho, -vehere, -vexi, -vectum, 

[ad 4- vehd], 3, a., carry to, 

bring to, bring. 
advenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 

[ad + venio], 4, cotne to, arrive. 
advento, -are, — , — , [intens. of 

advenio], i, a., advance, press 

forzvard, approach. 
adventus, -us, [cf. advenio], m., 

coming, approach, arrival. 
adversarius, -a, -um, [adver- 

sor], a.d)., opposed, opposite ; hos- 

tile. As subst., m., opponent. 
adversor, -ari, -atus sum, [ad- 

versus], i, dep., a., resist, xvith- 

stand, oppose. 
adversus, -a, -um,[part. of adver- 

to], adj., turned toward, oppo- 

site, infront,facing; unfavorable. 
adversus and adversum, [ad- 

verto], prep. with acc, opposite 

to, against. 
advocatio, -onis, [advoco], f., 

sununoning as counsel. venire 

in advocationem, to act as an 

advocatus, -i, [advoco], m., one 

called to aid, adviser, advocate. 

advoco, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad -f- 
voco], I, a., call to aid, sutn- 

aedes, see aedis. 

aedificium, -i, [aedifico], n., 
building ; house. 

aedifico, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[aedis, cf. facio], i, a., build, 

aedllis, -is, [aedis], m., aedile, 
co/nmissioner of public works, 
the designation of certain magis- 
trates at Rome, who had charge 
of buildings and public works, 
had an oversight of pubhc exhi- 
bitions and dramatic perform- 
ances, and were entrusted with 
the keeping of the decrees of the 
Senate and other public docu- 

aedHitas, -atis, [aedilis], f., 
aedileship, oflicc of aedile. 

aedis or aedes, -is, f., temple ; 
pL house, dwelling. 

aedituus, -i, [aedis, cf. tueor], 
m., custodian of a temple, temple- 

aeger, -gra, -grum, adj., umvell, 
sick, feeble. 

aegre, comp. aegrius, sup. aeger- 
rime, [aeger], adv., painfully ; 
with diflictilty, scarcely ; reluc- 
tantly. aliquid aegre ferre, 
to feel distress, to be vexed at 

aegritudo, -inis, [aeger], f., 
sickness ; grief dissatisfaction , 

aegroto, -are, -avi, — , [cf. 
aeger], i, n., be ill, lie sick. 



Aegyptus, -i, f., Egypt, a country 

in northeastern Africa, about the 

lower course of the Nile. 
Aemilius, -i, m., gentile name of 

L. Aeviilins Paulus ; see p. 31 

and note to p. 31, 1. 13. 
aemulatio, -onis, [aemulor], f., 

rivalry, emulation, cojnpetition. 
aequalis, -e, [aequus], adj., equal. 

As subst., aequalis, -is, m., com- 

panion of equal age, comrade, 

aeque, [aequus], adv., equally, 

in a like manner. aeque ac or 

atque, as . . . as, as much as. 
aequitas, -atis, [aequus], f., 

evenness ; equity, fairness. 
aequo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ae- 

quus], I, a., make equal, place 

on an equality ; compare. 
aequus, -a, -um, adj., even ; equal, 

fair ; calm, patient, favorable. 
aerarium, -i, [aes], n., treasury, 

state-treasury ; public money. 
aes, aeris, n., copper., bronze ; 

money. aes alienum, debt. 
aestimo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

determine the value of ; esti^nate, 

aestivus, -a, -um, [aestas], adj., 

of su77i77ier, su77i77ier-like, su77i- 

aetas, -atis, [for aevitas, from 

aevum], f., life, age, ti77te oflife, 

aeternus, -a, -um, [for aeviter- 

nus from aevum], adj., eternal. 

As subst., aeternum, -i, n., in 

the adverbial accusative, fo7'- 

ever^ eternally. 

Afer, Afra, Afrum, adj., AfHcan. 

As subst., Afer, Afri, m., an 
_ African. 
Africa, -ae, f., Africa, at first re- 

ferring only to the dominions of 

the Carthaginians; afterwards to 

the Roman province of Africa, 

then to whole continent. 
Africanus, -a, -um, adj., Africa^t. 

As subst,, m., surname oiPublius 

Cornelitis Scipio Africanus, the 

conqueror of Hannibal. See 

note to p. 34, 1. I. 
agellus, -i, [dim. of ager], m., 

little field, S7nall estate. 
ager, agrl, [cf. Eng. acre], m,, 

field,far77i, estate; territo7'y, land; 

the country. 
agger, -eris, [ad, cf. gero], m., 

77iass, ba7ik, 77iotmd, da77i. 
aggredior, -gredi, -gressus sum, 

[ad -f gradior], 3, dep., a,, ap- 

proach ; attack ; attempt. 
agito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. of 

ago], I, a., set m viole7it 77iotion ; 

rouse, excite ; co7isider, medi- 

agmen, -inis, [ago], n., troop, 

crowd ; ar7?iy 07i the march, 

77iarchi7ig C0lu77l7l. 

agnosco, -noscere, -novi, -nitum, 
[ad 4- gnosco], 3, a., recognizey 

ago, agere, egi, actum, 3, a., 

put i7t 77iotio7t, drive, lead ; act, 
do, 77ia7iage ; treat, deal, co7ifer, 
arra7ige. vitam agere, to pass 
one's life. actum est de, it was 
all over with. gratias agere, 
see gratia. 



agrestis, -e, [ager], adj., of ilie 
Jiclds or coimtry, riiral ; rough, 
tmciiliivaied, rude. 

aio, pres. ind. aio, ais, ait, aiunt, 
impf. aiebam, 3, def., n., say 
yes ; assent, say, tell. 

alacer, -cris, -cre, adj., lively, 
quick ; eager, exciied. 

alacritas, -atis, [alacer], f., live- 
liness, eagerness, alacrity. 

Albanus, -a, -um, adj., of Alba, 
pertaining to Alba. As subst., 
Albani, -orum, m., pl, inhabit- 
ants of Alba. 

albus, -a, -um, adj., ivhiie. As 
subst., Alba, -ae, f, Alba or 
Alba Longa.1 ' the long white 
city,' an ancient town in Latium, 
fifteen miles southeast of Rome. 

alea, -ae, f., gaine of dice ; by 
metonomy, chance, hazard, risk, 

Alexander, -dri, m., Alexander, 
in this book referring to Alex- 
ander III., surnamed the Great, 
king of Macedonia from 336 to 
323 B.C. For HannibaPs esti- 
mate of Alexander, see p. 42, 

Alexandrea, -ae, f., Alexandria, 
a city in Egypt, at the mouth of 
the Nile, founded by Alexander 
the Great. 

alias, [alius], adv., at another 
time ; in otherrespecis, oihertuise. 

alibi, adv,, elsewhere, in another 

alieno, -are, -avi, -atum, [alie- 
nus], I, a., make strange ; alien- 
ate, estrange. 

alienus, -a, -um, [alius], adj., 

of another, another''^ ; foreign, 

alimentum, -i, [alo], n., nour- 

ishnieni ; in pl. , food, provisions. 
aliquamdiii, [aliquam -1- diul], 

2,dM.,for a while,for some tinie. 
aliquando, [alius -f quando], 

adv., ai some iitne or other, 

once ; at length, at lasi. 
aliquanto, [aliquantus], adv., 

by some little, somezvhat, raiher. 
aliquantum, -i, [aliquantus],n., 

a liitle, a considerable amouni, 

aliquantum, [aliquantus], adv,, 

somezvhai, in some degree, con- 

aliquantus, -a, -um, [alius, 

quantus], adj., some, consider- 

aliqui, aliqua, aliquod, [alius, 

qui], indef. pron, adj., some, 

any, some one or oiher. 
aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, nom. 

and acc. pl. n. aliqua, [alius, 

quis], indef. pron., so7ne one, 

some one or oiher ; pl., sotne, any. 

As subst., aliquid, n., someihing, 

aliquot, [alius, quot], indef. 

num. adj., indecl., some, several. 
aliquotiens, [aliquot], adv., sev- 

eral times. 
aliter, [alius], adv., in another 

way, otherwise. 
alius, -a, -ud, gen. alius, dat. alii, 

adj., another, other, differeni; 

ihe resi of. alius . . . alius, one 

. . , anoiher, ihe one . . . ihe 




other ; pl. alii . . . alii, some 
. . . others. 

al6, alere, alui, altum or alitum, 
3, a., feed, nourish, support, 

Alpes, -ium, f., the Alps. 

alter, altera, alterum, gen. alte- 
rlus, dat. alteri, pron. adj., one 
of two, the one, the other, the 
second. alter . . . alter, the one 
. . . the other ; pl. alteri . . . 
alteri, the one party . . . the 

altercor, -ari, -atus sum, [alter], 
I, dep., n., dispute, rurangle. 

alteruter, -utra, -utrum, gen. 
alterutrius, dat. alterutri, 
[alter + uter], pron. adj., one 
ofthe other, one of two. 

altus, -a, -um, comp. altior, sup. 
altissimus, [part. of alo], adj., 
nourished, groivn great ; high, 
tall, deep. As subst., altum, -i, 
n., the deep, the sea ; pl. alta, 
-orum, greatness ; sup. altissi- 
mum, -i, n., top. 

alveus, -i, m.^hollow ; trough, tray. 

amans, -antis, comp. amantior, 
sup. amantissimus, [part. of 
am5], adj., loving, fond, affec- 
tionate ; wWh gcn.,fond of 

ambi5, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 
[ambi- -f eo] , irr ., a., go around; 
canvass for votes ; solicit, entreat. 

ambitio, -onis, [ambio], f., a go- 
ing around ; desire for favor, 

ambo, ambae, ambo, acc. m. 
ambo or ambos, num. adj., 

amioitia, -ae, [amicus], i.,friend- 

amicus, -a, -um, comp. amicior, 

sup. amicissimus, [amd], adj., 

lovi^ig, friendly, kind. 
amicus, -i, [adj., amicus], m., 

lovcd one, loving one, friend. 
amitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum, 

[a -f mitto], 3, a., send aivay^ 

let go ; lose. 
amnis, -is, m., river, stream. 
amor, -oris, [amo], m., love ; de- 

sire, passion. 
amphora, -ae, f., amphora, a long, 

pointed jar, with two handles at 

the top; wine-jar. 
amplector, -plecti, -plexus sum, 

[am , = ambi-, -f plecto] , 3, 

dep., a., tivine around, encircle, 

amplid, -are, -avi, -atum, [am- 

plus], I, a., widen, enlarge, ex- 

amplius, [comp. of amplus and 

ample], indecl. adj. and adv., 

further, besides, more, more than. 
amplus, -a, -um, comp. amplior, 

sup. amplissimus, adj., great, 

large ; noble, distinguished. 
amputo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

cut around, cut azvay, lop off. 
Amiilius, -i, m., Ajnulius, a son 

of Proca, king of Alba Longa. 

He usurped the throne which 

rightfuUy belonged to his elder 

brother Numitor, but was de- 

posed and slain by Romulus and 

an, conj., introducing the second 

part of a double question, or. 




or rather, or indeed. The first 

member ordinarily has utrum or 

-ne, but is sometimes omitted. 

In direct questions an is often 

not translated; in indirect ques- 

tions, luhether. 
ancile, -is, n., small oval shield, 

sacred shield. See p. 5, 1. 15, 

and the note. 
ancilla, -ae, f., maid-servant, 

Ancus, -i, m., Anciis, forename of 

Anciis Marcius, the fourth king 

of Rome. 
ango, -ere, — , — , 3, a., press tight, 

choke ; vex, trouble, torment, an- 

angor, -oris, [cf. ango], m., stran- 

gling ; torjnent, anguish. 
angnls, -is, m. and f., serpent, 

angustiae, -arum, [angustus], 

f. pl., narrowness ; narroiv 

place ; difficulty, perplexity. 
angustus, -a, -um, [cf. ang5], 

adj., narrow, contracted, difficult. 
anima, -ae, f., air ; breath, spirit, 

life, soul. 
animadverto, -vertere, -verti, 

-versum, [animum + adverto], 

3, a., turn the mind to, notice ; 

censure., punish. 
animal, -alis, [anima], n., living 

thing, animal. 
animus, -i, m., soul, life; mind, 

reason ; courage, spirit ; incli- 

nation, purpose ; feeling. esse 

alicui in animd, to iniend. 
annona, -ae, [annus], f., year's 

produce, harvest ; grain. 

annus, -i, m. , year. 

ante, adv. and prep., before. 

(i) As adv., of space, before, in 
front ; of time, before, pre- 
viously, ago. ante quam or 
antequam, sooner than, be- 
(2) As prep., with acc. only, of 
space and time, before ; in 
comparisons, before, superior 
to, in comparison with. 
antea, [ante + ea], adv., before, 

forjjierly, previously. 
antecedo, -ere, antecessi, ante- 
cessum, [ante -f cedo], 3, n., go 
before, precede ; surpass, excel. 
anteeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, — , [ante 

+ ed], irr., Vi., go before. 
antequam, see ante. 
Antiochus, -i, m., Antiochus. 
(i) The name of several kings 
of Syria. In this book refers 
to Antiochus III., surnamed 
the Great, who was conquered 
by Scipio Asiaticus in 190 B.c. 
(2) A philosopher of Ascalon, 
the teacher of Cicero during 
his studies at Athens in 
79 B.c. 
Antonius, -a, the name of a Ro- 
man gens. In this book are 
mentioned : 
(i) Marcus Antonius, Mark 

Antony, the triumvir. 
(2) C. Antonius Hybrida, the 
colleague of Cicero in his con- 
anulus, -i, m,, ring, finger-ring. 

See note to p. 32, 1. 10. 
anus, -iis, f., old wovtatt. 




anxius, -a, -um, [cf. ango], adj., 

anxious, troubled ; causing anx- 

aper, apri, m., 7vild boar. 
aperio, -ire, -ui, -tum, 4, a., un- 

cover ; open, disclose. 
aperte, [apertus], adv., openly, 

plainly, clearly, manifestly. 
apertus, -a, -um, [part. of ape- 

rio], adj., unclosed ; open, man- 

Apollonia, -ae, f., Apollonia, a 

city in southwestern Illyria. 
Apolldnius, -i, m., Apollbnius, 

surnamed Molon, a teacher of 

rhetoric, under whom Cicero 

studied at Rhodes. 
appareo, -parere, -parui, fut. part. 

appariturus, [ad + pareo], 2, 

n., appear, come in sight ; be 

plain, be manifest. 
appellatio, -5nis, [appello, -are], 

f., designation, nafne. 
appello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum, 

[ad -f pello], 3, a,, drive to, 

bring up., bring to land, go to. 
appell5, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad + 

pell5], I, a., address, call by 

name ; term, entitle ; apply to, 

appeal to, call upon. 
Appenninus, -i, m.,the Appenines, 

a high range of mountains run- 

ning the length of the Italian 

Appius, -i, m., Appius, a Roman 

forename, especially common in 

the Claudian gens. 
applaudo, -plaudere, -plausi, 

-plausum, [ad + plaud5], 3, a., 

strike upon, beat ; applaud. 

appono, -p5nere, -posui, -posi- 

tum, [ad -f p5n5], 3, a., put at, 

place near, set before. 
apprehendo, -ere, -di, -sum, [ad 

-f prehend5], 3, a., seize, lay hold 

of grasp. ^ 
approbo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ad 

+ prob5], I, a., assent to, ap- 

prove, favor. 
appropinquo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[ad + propinqu5], i, a., draw 

near, approach. 
apte, [aptus], adv., fitly, rightly ; 

properly, neatly. 
aptus, -a, -um, adj., fitted ; suit- 

able, fit. 
apud, prep. with acc. only, at, 

near, with, among; in the pres- 

ence of at the house of ; in the 

works of 
Apiilia, -ae, f., Apulia, one of the 

divisions of Italy, in the south- 

eastern part, north of Calabria, 

east of Lucania and Samnium. 
aqua, -ae, f., water, spring. 
aquila, -ae, f., eagle ; by meton- 

ymy, eagle, made of metal and 

carried on a pole as the standard 

of a Roman legion. 
aquilifer, -feri, [aquila, cf. fer5], 

m,, eagle-bearer, standard-bearer. 
ara, -ae, f., altar. 
arbiter, -tri, m., spectator, witness, 

twipire, Judge, arbiter. 
arbitrium, -i, [arbiter], n., Jtidg- 

ment, decision ; authority,power. 
arbitror, -ari, -atus sum, [arbi- 

ter], I, dep., n., testify ; be ofan 

opinion, think, consider. 
arca, -ae, [cf, arce5], f., chest,box. 




arceo, -ere, -ui, — , 3, a., shut up, 

enclose ; kcep off, avert ; kinder, 

arcesso, -ere, arcessivi, arcessi- 

tum, [intens. of accedd], 3, a., 

caiise to come, sununoji, invite. 
Ardea, -ae, f., Ardea, a town in 

Latium, about twenty miles south 

of Rome. 
ardens, -entis, [part. of ardeo], 

2l^]., glowing, fiery, briokt ; ar- 

ardeo, -ere, arsi, arsum, 2,xi.,be 

on fire,burn,gloiu ; be inflained, 

desire eagerly. 
ardor, -oris, [cf. ardeo], m., burn- 

ing, heat ; brightness ; eagerness, 

argenteus, -a, -um, [argentum], 

adj., ofsilver, silver. 
argentum, -i, n., silver ; by me- 

tonymy, money. argentum fac- 

tum, zvrought silver, silver-plate. 
Arglvus, -a, -um, adj., of Argos, 

Argos, -i, n., Argos, a city in Ar- 

golis, in the northeastern part of 

the Peloponnesus. 
arguo, -ere, -ui, -iitum, 3, a., 

niake known ; accuse, complain 

of blame. 
aridus, -a, -um, [are6],adj., dry. 

arma, -orum, n., pl., implements, 

outfit ; imple77ients ofwar, arms, 

armatus, -a, -um. [part. of armo], 

adj., armed, equipped.i under 

arms. armati, -orum, m., pl., 

armed men. 

Armenia, -ae, f., Armenia, a 
country in the northeastern part 
of Asia Minor. 

armilla, -ae, [armus, shoulder, 
arm], f., bracelet, armlet. 

armo, -are, -avi, -atum, [arma], 
I, a., furnish zvith arms, arm, 

Arpinum, -i, n., Arpmtcm, a town 
in the Sabine district, about fifty 
miles southeast of Rome, the 
birthplace of Marius and Cicero. 

ars, artis, f., skill, art; knoxvledge, 
accoinplishment ; device, strata- 

artifex, -ficis, [ars, cf. faci6],m. 
and f., artist, artificer ; builder, 
contriver. [body. 

artus, -uum, m., ^\.,joints ; limbs, 

arx, arcis, [cf. arce6], f., castle, 
citadel, stronghold. 

as, assis, m., tmit ; as, the unit 
of the Roman coinage, originally 
a pound of copper, gradually 
reduced in weight to half an 
ounce; a penny. 

ascendo, -ere, -scendi, -scensum, 
[ad -f scand6], 3, n. and a., 
mount, climb, ascend. 

Asia, -ae, f., Asia, usually refer- 
ring to Asia Minor. 

Asiaticus, -a, -um, adj., of Asia, 
Asiatic. As subst., Asiaticus 
-i, m., surname of L. Scipio 
Asiaticus, the conqueror of An- 

asper, -era, -erum, comp. aspe- 
rior, sup. asperrimus, adj., ad- 
verse ; rough, harsh, violent, 




asperitas, -atis, [asper], f., 

roughness, harshness, asperity, 

crtielty ; acidity. 
aspernor, -ari, -atus sum, [a + 

spernor], i, dep., a,, disdain, 

aspis, -idis, f., asp, viper. 
astutus, -a, -um, adj., 7vary, 

shrewd, cimning. 
asylum, -i, n., place of refuge, 

at, coiij., but, but yet; however, 

nevertheless ; but on the con- 

Athenae, -arum, f., pl., Athens, 

chief city of Greece, situated 

in Attica, in the southeastern 

part of central Greece. 
Athesis, -is, m., the Athesis, a 

river in southern Venetia, flow- 

ing into the head of the Adri- 

atic Sea ; near it Marius de- 

feated the Cimbri. It is now 

called the Adige. 
Atilius, -i, m., gentile name of 

AI. Atilius Reguhis. See p. 24, 

1. lyfol. 
atque, before consonants ac, [ad 

-f que], conj., and also, and, 

and moreover ; with words im- 

plying comparison, as, than. 
atqui, [at-fqui], conj., but, but 

yet, and yet. 
atrociter, [atrox], adv , fiercely, 

atrox, -ocis, cump. atrocior, sup. 

atrocissimus, adj , savagc^ferce, 

cruel. harsh, horrihle. 
attingo, -tingere, -tigi, -tactum, 

[ad \ tango]. 3, a., iouch, rcach. 

Attus, -i, m., Attus, forename 

of Attus Ndvius, an augur of 

the time of Tarquinius Pris- 

attonitus, -a, -um, [part. of at- 

ton5], adj., thunderstruck, as- 

tounded, awe-struck. 
auctor, -oris, [augeo], m., pro- 

ducer ; pronioter, authority ; 

originator, cause ; an attesting 

auctoritas, -atis, [auctor], f., 

authority, power ; infiuence, 

dignity ; weight, prestige, im- 

aucupium, -i, [avis, cf. capio], 

n., bird-catching, fo7vIing. 
audacia, -ae, [audax], f., daring, 

boldness; audacity, rashness,pre- 

audeo, -ere, ausus sum, 2, semi- 

dep., a. and n., dare, venture, 

audio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 4, 

a., hear ; listen to ; assent to. 

dicto audientem esse alicui, 

to be obedient to anyone. 
aufero, auferre, abstuli, abla- 

tum, [ab-hfero], irr., a., take 

away, carry azvay, remove ; 

aufugio, -fugere, -fiigi, — , [ab 

-ffugio], 3, n. and a., flee 

azvay, escape ; flee from. 
auged, augere, auxi, auctum, 

2, a. and n., increase, enlarge, 

augur, -uris, [avis], m. , diviner, 

soothsayer, augur. See note to 

p. II, 1. 8. 




augurium, -1, [augur], n., ob- 

servance of oniens^ divination, 

atigu>y ; omen. 
augustus, -a, -um, [cf. augeo], 

adj., consecrated, sacred ; majes- 

tic, noble. 
Augustus, -1, [augustus], m., 

Augustus, a title given to Octa- 

vianus Caesar as emperor. 
aulaeum, -1, n., curtain, canopy. 
aureus, -a, -um, [aurum], adj., 

ofgold, golden. 
auris, -is, [cf. audio], f., ear. 
aurum, -i, n., gold. 
auspicium, -i, [avis, cf. specio], 

n., divination by the fiight of 

birds, augury, auspices. 
aut, conj., marking an important 

difference, or ; corrective or em- 

phatic, or at least, or rather, or 

else. aut . . . aut, either . . . or. 
autem, conj., always postpositive, 

bid, hozvever, moreover, and now. 
auxilium, -i, [cf. augeo], n., 

help, aid ; pl. often auxiliary 

troops, auxiliaries. 
avaritia, -ae, [avarus], i.,greed, 

avarus, -a, -um, adj., greedy, 

grasping, covetous. 
Aventlnus, -i, ni., (sc. mons), the 

Avottine, the most southern of 

the seven hills of Rome. 
Aventinus, -a, -um, adj., of the 

Aventine, on the AveJitine. 
aveo, -ere, — , — , imper. ave, 

aveto, 2, n., only in salutations, 

be well, fare well. 
averto, -ere, averti, aversum, 

[a -f verto], 3, a., turn away, 

turn aside, keep off, avert. se 

avertere, to turn aside. 
avidus, -a, -um, adj., desirous, 

eager, greedy. 
avis, -is, f., bird ; sign, ofnen. 
avoco, -are, -avi, -atum, [a -f 

voco] , I , a., call off, call away. 
avolo, -are, -avi, -atum, [a -1- 

V0I6], I, n., ffy a-iuay ; flee, 

hasten away. 
avunculus, -i, [dim. of avus], 

m., uncle. 
avus, -i, m., grandfather. 

baculum, -i, n., staff, stick. 
Bagrada, -ae, f., the Bagrada, a 

river in northern Africa, near 

ballista, -ae, f., ballista, an engine 

for hurling stones, hurling- 

balneum, -i, n., bath, bathitig-place. 
barba, -ae, f., beard. 
barbarus, -a, -um, adj., ofstrange 

speech, foreign, strange ; barba- 

rous, uncivilized. As subst., bar- 

barus, -i, foreigner, barbarian. 
bellator, -5ris, [bello], m., war- 

rior, soldier. 
bellicosus, -a, -um, [bellicus], 

adj., warlike, given tofghting. 
bellicus, -a, -um, [bellum], adj., 

ofzuar, inilitary ; warlike. bel- 

licum (sc. signum) canere, 

give the signal for battle. 
bello, -are, -avi, -atum, [bel- 

lum], I, n., wage war, fight^ 





bellum, -i, [for duellum froni 

duo], n., -war. 
belua, -ae, f., beast, wild beast ; 

used especially of the elephant. 
bene, comp. melius, sup. optime, 

[bonus], adv., well, successfully ; 

beneficium, -i, [bene, cf. facio], 

n.,favor, kindness, service. 
benevolentia, -ae, [bene, cf. 

vol5], f., good-ivill, kindness, 

benigne, [benignus], adv., in a 

friendly nianner, kindly, courte- 

benignus, -a, -um, adj., 'kind., 

good, favorable. 
bibliotheca, -ae, f., library. 
bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitum, 3, 

a., drink. 
Bibulus, -i, m., Bibulus, the name 

of a family of the Calpurnian 

gens. In this book, L. Calpur- 

nius Bibulus, the colleague of 

Julius Caesar in his consulship, 

as vvell as in his aedileship and 

praetorship. Being in sympathy 

veith the aristocratic party, he 

opposed Caesar to the best of 

his ability. 
biduum, -i, [bi = bis, cf. dies], 

n., period of tzvo days, two days. 
bini, -ae, -a, gen. binum, num. 

adj., two by two, two at a time. 
bis, num. adv., twice. 
blanditia, -ae, f., caressing, flat- 

tering ; pl. blandishments, al- 

Blossius, -i, m., Blossius, gentile 

name of C. Blossius Cwnanus, 

a friend and partisan of C. Grac- 

Bocchus, -i, m., Bocchus, a king 

of the Gaetuli, conquered by 

Boiorix, -icis, m., Boiorix, leader 

of the Cimbri, conquered by 

Marius near Vercellae in loi 

bonus, -a, -um, comp. melior, 

sup. optimus, adj., good. As 

subst., boni, -5rum, m., pl., the 

good,good men ; bona, -5rum, n., 

pl., goods, possessions. 
bos, bovis, gen. pl. boum, dat. 

b5bus or biibus, m. and f., oxy 

biill, cozv. 
bracchium or brachium, -i, n., 

forearm, arm. 
brevi, [brevis], adv., in a little 

7vhile, in a short time, soon. 
brevis, -e, adj., short, brief. 
Britanni, -5rum, m., pl., the in- 

habitants of Britain, British. 
Brundisium, -i, n., Brundisium, 

a seaport in Calabria in south- 

eastern Italy, the usual point of 

departure for Greece; modern 

Briitus, -i, m., Brutus, a surname 

of the Junian gens. In this book 

are mentioned : 

(i) Z. lunius Brutus, the liber- 
ator and first consul of 

(2) M. lunius Brutus, the 
leader, with Cassius, of the 
assassins of JuHus Caesar. 
buUa, -ae, f., a bubble ; the bulla, 

an amulet worn on the neck by 



children of free birth. See note 
to p. II, 1. i6. 


C, originally = C and G ; with 

proper names = Gaius, a Ro- 

man forename. 
cadaver, -eris, [cado], n., a dead 

body^ corpse. 
cado, cadere, cecidi, casum, 3, 

n., fall; be killed ; take place, 

caecitas, -atis, [caecus], f. , 

caedes, -is, [cf. caedo], f., kill- 

ing, slanghter, nmrder, massa- 

caed5, caedere, cecidi, caesum, 

3, a., cut, cut to pieces, kill, slay ; 

vanqtiish, destroy. 
caelestis, -e, [caelum], adj., 

of heaven, froni heaven, heav- 

Caelius, -i, m.,(sc. mons), ///,? Cae- 

lian hill, in the southeastern 

part of the city. 
caelum, -i, n., the sky, heaven, 

caenosus, -a, -um, [caenum], 

adj., filthy, fonl. 
caenum, -i, n., dirt, filth, nmd, 

Caesar, -aris, m., Caesar, the 

name of a famous family of the 

Juhan gens. In this book are 

mentioned : 

(i) C. Iidius Caesar, the dicta- 
tor. See p. 67. 

(2) C. lulius Caesar Octavia- 
nus Augustus, the first emperor 
of Rome. See p. 84. 
caesaries, — , acc. -em, only in 

sing., f., hair, hair of the head, 

calamitas, -atis, f., loss, injury, 

harni ; calamity, disaster. 
callidus, -a, -um, [calleo], adj., 

practised, sJireivd, cunning. 
Calpurnius, -a, the name of a 

Roman gens. In this book are 

mentioned : 

(i) Calpurnia, wife of Juhus 

(2) L. Calpurnius Bibulus. See 
calvitium, -i, [calvus], n., bald- 

ness, a bald-spot. 
calvus, -a, -um, adj., bald. As 

subst., Calvus, -i, m., a Roman 

surname, in this book referring 

to C. Licinius Macer Calvus, 

the orator and poet, a contem- 

porary of Catullus. He lam- 

pooned Julius Caesar. 
Camers, -ertis, m., inhabitant of 

Camerinum., a town in Umbria, 

in northeastern Italy. 
Campania, -ae, f., Campania, a 

district in central Italy, southeast 

of Latium, noted for its beauty 

and fertility. 
Campanus, -a, -um, adj., of Cam- 

' pania, Campanian. As subst., 

Campanus, -i, m., a Campa- 

campus, -i, m., plain, level field; 

often = Campus Martius, the 

Campus Martius, a grassy plain 




in the northwestern part of Rome 
lying along the Tiber, the place 
where reviews and the elections 
were held. 

Caninius, -i, m., gentile name of 
C. Cantnius Rebilus, who held 
the consulship for a few hours 
in 45 B.c. See p. 84. 

canis, -is, m. and f., dog. 

Cannae, -arum, f., pl., Catinae, a 
town in Apulia, in southeastern 
Italy, the scene of the defeat of 
the Romans by Hannibal in 
216 B.c. 

Cannensis, -e, adj., of Cannae, at 

cano, canere, cecini, cantum, 3, 
n. and a., sing, chant ; sound. 

cantus, -iis, [cano], m., song, 
chant ; cry, note. 

Canusium, -i, n., Canusium, a 
town in Apuha, near Cannae. 

capesso, -ere, -ivi, -itum, [desid. 
of capi5], 3, a., take eagerly, 
seize ; hetake oneself to, resort to. 

capillus, -i, [cf. caput], m., hair 
of the head, hair. 

capio, capere, cepi, captum, 3, 
a., take hold of take, seize ; take 
captive, niake prisoner ; with 
loca, choose ground for a 

Capitolinus, -a, -um, adj., ofthe 
Capitol ; at the Capitol. 

Capitolium, -ii, [caput], n., tfie 
Capitol, a temple on Mons Satur- 
nius dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, 
and Minerva; often the Capito- 
line Hill, the hill on which the 
Capitol stood. 

capra, -ae, f., she-goat. Caprae 

paliis, the Goafs Pool, a marsh in 

the Campus Martius. 
captivus, -a, -um, [capio], adj., 

takenprisoner, captive. As subst., 

m. and f., prisoner, captive. 
capto, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. of 

capio], I, a., seize eagerly, strive 

to seize ; snatch at, strive for. 
Capua, -ae, f., Capua^ a city in 

Campania, 136 miles southeast 

of Rome, noted for its luxury. 
capulus, -i, [capio], m., lit. that 

which is grasped ; handle, hiltoi 

a sword. 
caput, -itis, n., head; by meton- 

ymy, life, person. 
Carbo, -onis, m., Carbo, family 

name of C. Paplrius Carbo, an 

opponent of SuUa who was de- 

feated by Pompey. 
carcer, -eris, m., prison, dun- 

geon; especially the Tullianuni, 

the Roman state-prison. See 

note to p. 10, 1. 9. 
carnifex, -ificis, [caro, cf. facio], 

m., executioner, butcher. 
carpentum, -i, n., carriage ; at 

Rome a covered vehicle with two 

carpo, -ere, carpsi, carptum, 3, 

a., pick, pluck, seize, pluck out. 
Carthaginiensis, -e, adj., of Car- 

thage, Carthaginian. As subst., 

m., a Carthaginian. 
Carthago, -inis, f., Carthage, a 

city on the northern coast of 

Africa, near the modern Tunis. 
Carthago Nova, New Carthage, 

a city in eastern Spain. 




canis, -a, -um, adj., dear, pre- 
cious ; behn'cd : costly. 

casa, -ae, f., small house, cottage, 

Casca, -ae, m., Casca, surname of 
C. Servilius Casca, one of the 
assassins of Caesar. 

Cassius, -i, m., Cassius, gentile 
name of C Cassius Longinus, 
originator of the conspiracy 
against Caesar. 

castellum, -i, [dim. of castrum], 
n., castle,fort, stronghold. 

castigo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 
correct, punish ; reprove. 

castrum, -i, n., fortress, castle. 
Pl. castra, -5rum, canip. 

casus, -us, [cado], m., fall ; 
event, occurrence ; chance, for- 
iune ; overthrozv, destruction ; 

catapulta, -ae, f., cataptdt, an 
engine for hurlingmissiles; hurl- 

catena, -ae, f., chain, fetter. 

Catilina, -ae, Catilina, Catiline, 
family name of L. Sergius Cati- 
ftna, who formed a dangerous 
conspiracy against the state, 
which was suppressed by Cicero. 

catillus, -i, m., sDiall dish, plate. 

Cato, -onis, [catus, shrervd'], m., 
Cato, name of a noted family of 
the Porcian gens, of which the 
only member mentioned in this 
book is M. Porcius Cato Uticen- 
sis, so called from Utica in Af- 
rica, where he committed sui- 
cide in 46 B.C., rather than 
surrender to Caesar. 

catulus, -i, m,, young animal, 

whelp, cub. 
Catulus, -i, m., Catulus, family 

name of Q. Lutatius Catuhis, 

who opposed the Gabinian and 

Mamilian laws, which gave ex- 

traordinary powers to Pompey. 
CatuUus, -i, m., Cattdlus, family 

name of C. Valerius Cattdlus, 

one of the greatest of Roman 

lyric poets. He was born at 

Verona in 87 b.c. 
cauda, -ae, f., tail. 
causa, -ae, f., cause, reason ; op- 

portunity ; excuse ; condiiion, 

situation ; case at law ; abl., 

causa with preceding gtn.,for 

the sake of, for the purpose of. 

causam dicere, to plead a case. 
cautus, -a, -um, [part. of caveo], 

adj., carefid, caidious, wary. 
caveo, cavere, cavi, cautum, 2, 

a. and xv., be on ojte^s guard, take 

care, beware of. 
celebratus, -a, -um, [part. of 

celebr5], adj., frequented ; fa- 

mous, renozvned. 
celebro, -are, -avi, -atum, [ce- 

leber], i, a., throng; celebrate ; 

make famous, praise. 
celer, -eris, -ere, adj., swift, 

speedy, quick, lively. 
celeritas, -atis, [celer], f., szvift- 

jiess, qidckness, speed. 
cella, -ae, f., chamber ; of a temple, 

snnctuary ; shrine. 
celo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., hide, 

conceai, keep secret. 
Celtiberi, -5rum, m., the Celtiberi, 

a tribe of central Spain. 




cena, -ae, f., dinner, the principal 
meal of the Romans, taken in 
the early times at noon, after- 
wards later in the day. 

ceno, -are, -avi, -atum, [cena], 

1, n. and a., dijie, eat dinner ; 
eat, dine Jipon. 

censeo, censere, censui, censum, 

2, a., assess; be ofthe opinion;sup- 
pose,think; determine, decide. 

censor, -oris, [censeo], m., cen- 
sor, a Roman magistrate. Two 
censors were chosen every five 
years, and served for eighteen 
months. They held the census 
or rating of the citizens; chose 
the members of the senate from 
those ehgible to that dignity, 
and removed them for cause; 
exercised a general supervision 
over pubUc morals; and admin- 
istered the finances of the state. 

census, -us, [censeo], m., regis- 
tration of citizens and property 
by the censors; census, rating. 

centiens, [centum], num. adv., 
a hundred times. 

centum, indecl. num. adj., htm- 

centuria, -ae, [centum], f., divis- 
ion of a hundred, division of 
the people and of the army, 
century. See p. 11, 1. 6, with 
the note. 

centurio, -onis, [centuria], m., 
commander of a century, cen- 
turion, captain. 

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretum, 

3, a., separate ; perceive, see ; 

certamen, -inis, [certo], n., con- 
test, battle ; match, trial of 
strength or skill; rivalry, com- 

certatim, [certo], adv., in ri- 
valry, emulously, zealously. 

certe, comp. certius, [certus], 
adv. , certainly, surely, really. 

certo, [certus], adv., certainly, 
surely, infact. 

certo, -are, -avi, -atum, [certus], 
I, n., vie ivith; contend, strug- 
gle ; rival, emulate. 

certus, -a, -um, [old part. of 
cerno], adj., determined, Jixed, 
certain ; definite, specified ; cer- 
tain, assured. aliquem certi- 
orem facere, to inform any one. 

cervix, -icis, f., neck, throat. 

cesso, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 
of cedo], I, n., be remiss ; delay, 
be inactive. 

cetera, [ceterus], adv., for the 
rest, othertvise. 

ceterum, [ceterus], Q.dY.,for the 
rest, in other respects, but. 

ceterus, -a, -um, nom. sing. m. 
not found, adj., other., the other, 
rest ; pl., the rest, the other. As 
subst., ceteri, -orum, m., pl., the 
rest, every one else. cetera, 
-orum, n., pl.,///<? rest, everythitig 

charta, -ae, f., leaf oi the Egyp- 
tian papyrus, paper ; writing. 

Chrysogonus, -i, m., Chrysogo- 
71US.I surname of L. Cornelius 
Chrysogonus, a freedman of 
Sulla. He accused S. Roscius 
Amerinus of parricide. Cicero 




defended Roscius in his first 
public oration. 

cibarius, -a, -um, [cibus], adj., 
pcrtaiiiiug to food. res cibaria, 

cibus, -i, m.,food, victuals. 

cicatrix, icis, f., scar. 

Cicero, -onis, [cicer, chickpea'], 
ni., Cicero, name of a family 
of the Tullian gens. In this 
book, M. Ttillius Cicero, the 
orator and statesman. See p. 


Cimber, -bri, m., Cimbrian, one of 
the Cimbri, a Teutonic tribe 
which invaded Cisalpine Gaul, 
and was annihilated by Marius 
near Vercellae in loi B.c. 

Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj., of the 
Citnbri, Cinibrian. 

Cineas, -ae, m., Cineas, a friend 
and counsellor of Pyrrhus, famed 
for his eloquence. 

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctum, 
3, a., go around, encompass ; 
gird, gird on ; surround, in- 
vest, blockade. 

cinis, -eris, m., ashes. 

Cinna, -ae, m., family name of 
L. Cornelius Cinna, leader of 
the popular party b.c. 87-84, 
and associated with Marius in 
a massacre of the aristocracy. 

circa, adv. and prep. with acc, 
around, round about. 

circum, adv. and prep. 

(i) As adv. , about, around, 

round about. 
(2) As prep. with acc, around, 
about ; among, near. 

circumaro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[circum + aro], i, a., plougk 

circumdo, -dare, -dedi, -datum, 
[circum + do], i, a., place 
around ; surroimd, encompass, 

circumeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, cir- 
cumitum, [circum + eo], irr., a., 
go arotind, snrround, enclose. 

circumfundo, -fundere, -fudi, 
-fusum, [circum + fundo], 3, 
a., pour around, surround, en- 

circumsto, -stare, -steti, — , 
[circum + sto], i, n. and a., 
stand around ; encompass, sur- 
round ; besiege. 

circumvenio, -venire, -veni, 
-ventum, [circum + venio], 4, 
a., conie around, go around ; en- 
circle, beset ; cheat, defraud. 

circus, -i, m. , circle, enclosure for 
athletic sports, circus. Often = 
Circus Maximus, the Circus 
Maximus, an enclosure for char- 
iot races and gymnastic contests, 
lying between the Palatine and 
Aventine hills. 

citatus, -a, -um, [part. of cit6], 
adj., quick, rapid, speedy, at full 

cito, -are, -avi, -atum, [intens. 
of cieo], i, a., put in motio?i, 
rouse, excite, urge at full speed ; 

civicus, -a, -um, [civis], adj., 
of citizens, civil, civic. corona 
civica, civic crozvn. See note 
to p. 68, 1. II. 




civHis, -e, [civis], adj., of citizens, 

civil, civic ; courteous, polite, 

Civis, -is, m. and f., citizen, fellow- 

civitas, -atis, [civis], f., citizen- 

ship ; state. 
clades, -is, f., destruction, disaster, 

overthrozv, defeat. 
clam, [cf. celo], adv. and prep. 

with acc, secretly., without the 

knoivledge of 
clamito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of clam5], i, n., cry aloud, shout 

loudly, vociferate. 
clamo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a. 

and n., cry, shout ; call tipoji, 

ifivoke ; proclaijii. 
clamor, -oris, [clamd], m., cry, 

shout ; shouting, Jioise. 
clandestinus, -a, -um, [clam], 

adj., secret, concealed, clandestine. 
clangor, -oris, m., sound, clang, 

clarus, -a, -um, adj., clcar, hright ; 

loud ; conspicuous, fainous. 
classis, -is, f., class, division of 

the people ; arniy ; fleet. 
Claudius, -i, m., Claudius, the 

name of a famous Roman gens. 

In this book are mentioned : 

(i) Appius Claudius Caecus,ce\- 
ebrated for his eloquence, who 
in his old age was carried into 
the senate and prevailed on 
the members not to listen to 
the terms of peace ofifered by 

(2) Appius Claudius Pulcher, 
who fought at the battle of | 

Cannae, and was, with Pub- 

lius Scipio, raised to the chief 

command of the troops which 

fled to Canusium. 

claudo, claudere, clausi, clau- 

sum, 3, a., shut, close ; iniprisoji, 


clausula, -ae, [claudo], f, close, 

conclusion, fnish ; of a play, 

' ^'^,?'-' 

clausus, -a, -um, [part. of claudo], 
adj., closed, shut. 

clavus, -i, m., nail ; purple stripe 
on the tunic. 

clemens, -entis, adj., mild,gentle, 
kindly, compassionate. 

clementer, [clemens], comp. cle- 
mentius, sup. clementissime, 
adv., quietly, with forbearance, 

clementia, -ae, [clemens], f. , 
forbearance, niercy. 

Cleopatra, -ae, f. , Cleopatra^ 
queen of Egypt, famous for her 
wit and beauty, who with Mark 
Antony was defeated by Octavi- 
anus Caesar at Actium in 31 B.C. 

cliens, -entis, m. , dependent, cli- 
ent, foUower. 

clivus, -i, m., declivity, slope, hill. 
Clivus Capitolinus, ascent to 
the Capitol from the Forum, a 
continuation of the Sacred Way. 

Clodius, -i, m., form of Claudius, 
gentile name of P. Clodius Pul- 
cher, a bitter enemy of Cicero. 
He was active in promoting the 
exile of Cicero. 

Clusinus, -a, -um, adj., of Clu- 
siutn, a powerful city in Etruria, 




the capital of Porsena. res 

Clusina, ihe cominonwcalth of 

Clypea, -ae, f., Clypea, a small 

fortress in northern Africa, not 

far from Carthage. It was the 

headquarters of Regulus in the 

First Punic War. 
Cn., see Gnaeus. 
Cocles, -itis, m., Cocles (one- 

eyed), a surname of Iloycitius 

Cocles. See Horatius. 
coepio, -ere, coepi, coeptum, 

pres. not found in classical 

Latin, 3, def. a. and n., begin, 

coerceo, -cere, -cui, -citum, 

[com- -\- arceo], 2, a., confine 

on all sides, shiit in ; hold in 

check, control, tame. 
cogitatio, -onis, [c5git6], f., 

consideration, refection. 
cognatio, -onis, [cognatus], f., 

blood-relationship, connection by 

cognatus, -a, -um, [com- + gna- 

tus], adj., related hy blood. 
cognatus, -i, [adj. cognatus], 

m., kinsnian, blood-relation. 
cognomen, -inis, [com- -f gno- 

men], n., surname, family 

name ; name. 
cognosco, -gnoscere, -gnovi, 

-gnitum, [com- -f gnosco], 3, 

a., become acquainted with ; 

learn, perceive, understand, rec- 

cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum, 

[com- -f ag5], 3, a, di-ive to- 

gether ; collect ; force, compel. 

cohors, -hortis, f., cohort, the 

tenth part of a legion, co??ipany. 
CoUatinus, -i, m., Colldtinus, 

family name of L. Tarquinius 

Colldthius, husband of Lucretia, 

and colleague of Brutus in his 

CoUatia, -ae, f., Colldtia, a town 

of the Sabines, not far from 

coUis, -is, m., elevation, hill. 
coUum, -i, n., neck. 
C0I6, -ere, colui, cultum, 3, a. 

and n., till, cultivate ; divell in, 

inhabit ; clothe, adorn ; honor, 

revere, esteem. 
colonia, -ae, [cf. col5], f., colony, 

columba, -ae, f., dove, pigeon. 
com-, prep., old form of cum, 

used only in composition. See 

comburo, -iirere, -iissi, -ustum, 

[com- -f iir5J, 3, a., burn up, 

comes, -itis, [com-, cf. e5], n., 

companion, comrade ; retainer. 
Cominius, -i, m., Coniinius, gen- 

tile name of Postumus Cominius 

Arujicus, consul in 501 B.C. 
comitas, -atis, [c5mis], f., couj-- 

tesy, kindness, affability. 
comitatus, -iis, [comitor], m., 

escort, train, retinue. 
comitia, -5rum, [pl. of comi- 

tium], n. pl., Comitia, the Ro- 

man people in assembly; elec- 

comitium, -i, [com- -f e5], n., 

place of meeting; at Rome, the 




Comiiiiwi^ an open place in 
which assemblies were held; it 
was north of the Forum, from 
which it was separated by the 

comitor, -ari, -atus sum [comes], 
I, dep., a., attend, accompany. 

commendo, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- 4- mando], i, a., entrust, 
commit ; recommend, ask favor 
for, defend. 

commigro, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- -f migrd], i, n., remove, 

committo, -ere, commisi, com- 
missum, [com- -|- mitto], 3, a., 
bring together, nnite ; match,en- 
gage in; entrust, commit. pug- 
nam committere, tojoin battle. 

commode [commodus], adv., 
properly, rightly, suitably, ap- 

commodus, -a, -um, comp. com- 
modior, sup. commodissimus, 
[com- -f modus], adj., with due 
measure, suitable, fit, appropri- 

commoveo, -movere, -movi, 
-motum [com- + moveo], 2, a., 
put in motion, stir ; agitate, 
excite. bellum commovere, to 
begin 7var. 

commiinis, -e, [com-, miinus], 
adj., common, general. 

commiiniter, [commiinis], adv., 
in com77ion, together. 

commuto, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- -f- miito], i, a., alter 
wholly, change ; exchange^ sub- 

como, comere, compsi, comp- 

tum, [com- -f emo] , 3, a. , cof7ib, 

arrange., dress. 
compar, -paris, [com-, par], adj., 

like, equal to ; corresponding, 

comparo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- -f pard], i, z.., prepare, 

77iake ready, provide ; obtain. 
comparo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[compar], i, a., match, co77ipare. 
compello, -ere, compuli, com- 

pulsum, [com- + pello], 3, a., 

drive together, collect ; force, 

compello, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[compelld], i, a., accost, ad- 

dress ; sta 7 1771071. 
comperio, -ire, comperi, com- 

pertum, 4, a., obtai^i kfiowledge 

of fnd out, learn. 
compes, -pedis, f., fetter for the 

feet; pl. bo7ids, chai7is. 
compilo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

plii7ider, rob. 
complector, -plecti, -plexus sum, 

[com- + plecto, braid^, 3, dep., 

a., clasp, e77ibrace, encircle, sur- 

compleo, -plere, -plevi, -pletum, 

[com- + ple6], 2, a., fill full, 
fill ; co77iplete,fi7iish. 
comploratio, -onis, [comploro], 

f., la77ie7itatio7i, bezuailifig. 
compliires, -a or -ia, gen. com- 

plurium, [com- + pliires] , adj., 

pl. , 7na7iy, several. 
compono, -ere, composui, com- 

positum, [com- + pono], 3, a., 
put together, unite ; set i^i order, 




arrange, allay, qidet. pacem 
componere, to conclude peace, to 
come to terins. 
compos, -potis, [com-, cf. pos- 
sum], adj., master of, powerful 
ovcr, participating in. v^ti 
compotem fieri, to attain one's 


compositum, -i, [compond], n., 
agreement, compact. ex com- 
posito, by agreement, by pre- 

comprehendo, -hendere, -hendi, 
-hensum, [com- -f prehend5], 3, 
a., bi)id together ; scize, catch, 
grasp ; understand, comprehend. 

comprimo, -primere, -pressi, 
-pressum, [com- + prem5], 3, a., 
press together, compress; restrain, 

comprobo, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- + prob5], i, a., approve, 
assent to ; prove., confirm. 

computo, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- -f put5], I, a., sum up, 
reckon, compute. 

concedo, -ere, concessi, conces- 
sum, [com--f ced5], 3, a. ancl n., 
go azuay, depart ; yield, submit ; 
conccde, allozv, give tip. 

concilio, -are, -avi, -atum, [con- 
cilium], I, a., bring together ; 
win over, conciliate ; cause, bring 
about, zuiji. 

concilium, -i, n., meeting, as- 

concipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 
[com- + capi5], 3, a., take in, 
receive ; imagine, conceive ; 

concito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of conci5], I, a., put in motion ; 

rouse, excite ; move, instigate. 
conclamo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- -f clam5], i, n., cry out 

togethcr, shout, cry. 
concordia, -ae, [concors], f., 

union, harmony, concord. 
concupisco, -cupiscere, -cupivi, 

-cupitum, [com- -f cupi5], 3, 

inch., a., greatly desire, long for, 

strive after. 
concurro, -currere, cucurri or 

-curri, -cursum, [com-f curr5], 

3, n., run together., assemble ; 

rush together, engage iji combat, 

fight ; coincide, happen. 
concursus, -iis, [concurr5], m., 

ruiniing togetlicr, concourse, 

tJirong ; attack ; mccting. 
condemno, -are, -avi, atum, 

[com- -f damn5], i, a., con- 

demn, find guilty, sentence. 
condicio, -5nis, [con, cf. dico], 

f., agreement, condition. 
condo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, 

[com- -f d5], 3, a., put together, 

found, build ; lay away, conceal. 
condono, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- -f d5n5], i, a., surrender, 

remit, pardon. 
conduco, -ere, condiixi, conduc- 

tum, [com- -f duc5], 3, a., draw 

together, assemble ; hire, employ ; 

contribute to, profit, serve. con- 

ducit (impers.), it is profitable. 
confectus, part. of c5nfici5. 
confero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, 

[com- -f fer5], irr., a., bring to- 

gether, collect ; compare ; consult. 




confer ; devote, apply ; bestotv. 

se conferre, betake oneself, go. 
confessio, -onis, [confiteor], f., 

confession, acknowledgtnent. 
confestim, [com-, cf. festino], 

adv., iniviediately, forthivith. 
conficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 

[com- -f- facio], 3, a., niake 

ready, acconiplish, niake ; end ; 

exhanst ; kill. 
confidentia, -ae, [confidens], f, 

conftdencc, holdness, assurancc. 
confido, -ere, -fisus sum, 3, semi- 

dep., n., trust, rely on. 
confirmatus, -a, -um, [part. of 

c5nfirm5], adj., confident, cour- 

ageous, resolute. 
confirmo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com + firm5, i, a., strengthen : 

encoiirage ; assert. 
confiteor, -eri, -fessus sum, 

[com- 4- fateor], 2, dep., a., ac- 

knoivledge, confess. 
conflagro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- -f flagr5], i, n. and a., 

burn, be consumed, be destroyed 

by fire. 
confligo, -fligere, -flixi, -flictum, 

[com- -1- flig5], 3, a. and n., dash 

together, collide ; contend,fight. 
conflo, -are, -avi, -atum, [com- 

-f fl5], I, a., blow up ; kindle ; 

bring together ; cause. aes ali- 

enum conflare, to contract debt. 
confluo, -fluere, -fluxi, — , [com- 

-f flu5], 3, n.,flow together,fiock 

together, assetnble. 
confodio, -fodere, -fodi, -fossum, 

[com- -f fodi5], 3, a., dig tip ; 

stab, pierce. 

confugio, -fugere, -fiigi, — , 
[com- -f- fugi5], 3, n., fiee., take 
refuge ; have recourse, resort. 

congero, -ere, cougessi, conges- 
tum, [com- -H ger5], 3, a., heap 
together, accumulate ; build, con- 

congredior, -gredi,-gressus sum, 
[com- -f gradior], 3, dep., n., 
vieet together ; contend, join bat- 

congressus, -rLs, [congredior], 
m., meeting, interview ; eticoun- 

congruo, -gruere, -grui, — , 3, 
n., coincide, agree ; harmonize, 

conicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 
[com- -f iaci5], 3, a., throtv to- 
gether, unite ; throw, hurl ; put, 
place ; conjecture. 

coniungo, -ere, coniiinxi, con- 
iiinctum, [com- -f iung5], 3, a., 
fastefi together, join, unite. 

coniiinx, or coniux, -ugis, [cf. 
coniung5], m. and f., married 
person, husband, wife. 

coniiiratio, -5nis, [coniiir5], f., 
union under oath, conspiracy. 

coniiiratus, -a, -um, [part. of 
coniiir5], adj., bound together by 
an oath, allied, cotispiring. As 
subst., pl., m., conspirators. 

coniiiro, -are, -avi, -atum, [eom- 
-f iiir5], i, n., swear together, 
form a conspiracy, conspire. 

conlaudo, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- -f laud5], i, a., praise 
highly, extol. 

conlega, -ae, m., colleague, asso- 




conligo, -ligere, -legi, -lectum, 

[com- -f lego], 3, a., collect, as- 

semble, gather. 
conloco, -are, -avi, -atum, [com- 

-\- loco], I, a., set right, arrange ; 

place, station ; establish in mar- 

conloquium, -i, [conloquor], n., 

cojii^ersation, conference. 
conloquor, -loqui, -locutus sum, 

[com- + loquor], 3, dep., n. , 

tatk, confer, parley. 
conor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

a., endeavor, attenipt, try. 
conqueror, -queri, -questus sum, 

[com- -f queror], 3, dep., n., 

cofnplain, lament, deplore. 
conquiro, -quirere, -quisivi, 

-quisitum, [com- -f quaero], 3, 

a., seek for, search for, seek ont, 

hunt up. 
consaliito, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- + saluto], i, a., greet, 

salute cordially. 
conscendo, -scendere, -scendi, 

-scensum, [com- + scando], 3, 

a., f?iount, ascend ; go on board 

a ship. 
conscientia, -ae, [conscio], f., 

jointkno7vledge, knotvledge shared 

by others ; consciousness ; con- 

conscisco, -ere, conscivi, consci- 

tum, [com- -f scisc5], 3, a., 

approve of decree, determine. 

mortem sibi consciscere, com- 

mit suicide. 
conscribo, -scribere, -scripsi, 

-scriptum, [com- + scribo], 3, 

a., write together, enroll, enlist. 

conscriptus, -i, [part. of con- 
scribo], m., one enrolled, esp. in 
thc e.xpression patres conscripti 
= patres et conscripti, fathers 
and elect, senators, senate. 

consecro, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- + sacro], i, a., dedicate, 
devote, consecrate. 

consensus, -iis, [consentio], m., 
agrcement,-unanimity, concord. 

consentio, -ire, consensi, consen- 
sum, [com- + senti5], 4, n., 
agree together, be in accord ; 
conspire, plot. 

consequor, -sequi, -seciitus sum, 
[com- + sequor], 3, dep., a., 
follow, follow up ; overtake, come 
Mp with ; attain, acquire, get, 

consero, -serere, -serui, -sertum, 
[com- + ser5], 3, a., connect, 
join. piignam or manus c5n- 
serere, to joiji battlc. 

conservo, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[com- + serv5], i, a., retain, 
keep safe, preserve, kecp. 

consessus, -iLs, [c5nsid5], m., 
convention, assembly. 

considero, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 
a., look closely at, examine ; con- 
sider, reflect upon. 

consido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum, 
[com- + sid5], 3, n., sit dozun, 
be seated ; settle ; encamp. 

consilium, -i, [cf. c5nsul5], n., 
council, assembly ; deliberation, 
counsel ; plan ; advice ; judg- 
ment, wisdom, prudence. 

consisto, -ere, c5nstiti, c5nsti- 
tum, [com- + sist5], 3, n., stand 




still, stand, take position ; stop, 

halt ; he firtn, endnre, continue. 
consobrinus, -i, [com- + soror], 

m.., first cousin. 
conspeotus, -us, [conspicio], ni,, 

sight, view. e c5nspectu, out 

of sight. 
conspicio, -ere, c5nspexi, c5n- 

spectum, [com- -\- specio], 3, a. 

and n., get sight ofi, perceive, see. 
conspicuus, -a, -um, [cf. con- 

spici5], adj., in view, apparent ; 

conspicuous, illustrious. 
constans, -antis, [part. of c5n- 

st5], adj., firm, constant, stead- 

fiast, consistent. 
constanter, comp. c5nstantius, 

sup. c5nstantissime, [c5n- 

stans] , adv., fiirmly, steadfiastly, 

constantia, -ae, [c5nstans], f., 
firmness, steadiness ; persever- 

ance ; faithfulness. 
consterno, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- + stern5], i, a., con- 

fiound, terrifiy, afiFright. 
constituo, -ere, c5nstitui, c5n- 

stitutum, [com- -f statu5], 3, 

2i.,put, place ; set in order, drazu 

np, fiorm, organize ; resolve, de- 

constitutus, -a, -um, [part. of 

c5nstitu5], adj., appointed, ar- 

consto, -stare, -stiti, fut. part. 

-staturus, [com- -f st5], i, n., 

agree ; standfirm, be fixed ; con- 

sist ofi. sibi c5nstare, to be con- 

sistent. Itnpers. c5nstat, // is 

agreed, it is well known. 

consuesco, -suescere, -suevi, 
-suetum, [com- + suesc5], 3, 
a. and n., accustom, inure ; ac- 
custon oneselfi, be accustomed. 

consuetudo, -inis, [c5nsuetus], 
f., custofn, habit. 

consul, -ulis, m., consul, title of 
the two chief magistrates of 
Rome. See note to p. 15, 
1. 6. 

consularis, -e, [c5nsul], adj., ofi 
a consul, consular, ofi consular 
rank. As subst., c5nsularis, -is, 
m., a man ofi consular rank, ex- 

consulatus, -iis, [c5nsul], m., 

consulo, -ere, -ui, -tum, 3, a. 
and n., take counsel, consult. 

consulto, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[freq. of c5nsul5], i, n. and a , 
take counsel ; considt ; conspjrc. 

contemno, -temnere, -tempsi, 
-temptum, [com- + temn5], 3, 
a., esteem lightly, disdain, despise. 

contemptor, -oris, [contemn5], 
m., contemner, despiser. 

contendo, -ere, -tendi, conten- 
tum, [com- + tend5], i, a., 
stretch ; hasten, march rapidly ; 
fight, contend, insist. 

contentio, -5nis, [contendS], f., 
straining, efi^ort ; dispute, con- 

contentus, -a, -um, [part. of 
contine5] , adj ., satisfied, pleased, 

continentia, -ae, [continens 
from contine5], f., restraint,^ 
continence, moderation. 




contineo, -ere, -tinui, conten- 
tum, [com- -f tened], 2, a., 

hold togctlier, coiitaiii ; shiU in, 

kccp, rcstrain ; ciirb^ riilc. 
contingo, -ere, contigi, contac- 

tum, [com- + tango], 3, a. and 

n. , touch, takc hold of ; exteiid to ; 

happen, fall to the lot of 
continuo, [continuus], adv., 

forthwith, straightway. 
continuus, -a, -um, [cf. con- 

tineo], adj., continuous, unin- 

tcrrnpted, successive. 
contio, -onis, [for conventio, 

from convenid], f., vieeting, as- 

sembly ; harangue, speech. 
contra, adv. and prep. : 

(i) As adv., opposite, in front 
of; face to face ; on the con- 

(2) As prep., with acc, only, 
against, before, opposite to, 
contrary to ' in reply to. 
contraho, -ere, contraxi, con- 

tractum, [com- -|- trali5] , 3, a., 

draiv together, collect. 
contrarius, -a, -um, [contra], 

adj., opposite ; contrary, opposed. 
contubernalis, -is, [com- + ta- 

berna] , m., tent-coiupanion ; 

conirade, companion. 
contumelia, -ae, [com-, cf. tu- 

meo], f., reproach, insult, ahuse. 
contundo, -ere, contudi, contu- 

sum or -tunsum, [com- + tundo] , 

3, z..,beat, bruise ; crush, dcstroy. 
contus, -i, m., pole, pike. 
conubium, -i, [com-, cf. niibo], 

n., marriage, wedlock ; right of 


convalesco, -valescere, -valui, 

— , [com- + valeo], 3, inch. 

n., rccovcr, groio strong, gain 

convello, -ere, convelli, convol- 

sum or -vulsum, [com-+ vello], 

3, a., tear azvay,pluck up ; shat- 

ter, destroy. 
conveniens, -entis, [part. of con- 

veni5], adj., agreeing, consistent, 

convenio, -ire, conveni, conven- 

tum, [com- + veni5], 4, n. and 

a., come together, assemble ; agree ; 

meet. Impers. convenit, it is 

converto, -ere, converti, conver- 

sum, [com- + vert5], 3, a. and 

n., turn around, turn ; change ; 

of the sight, fix, rivet, attract; 

use for, use as ; divert, misuse. 
convinco, -ere, convici, convic- 

tum, [com- + vinc5], 3, a., 

overcome, convict, refute. 
convivium, -i, [com-,cf.viv5],n., 

fcasting together, banquet, feast. 
convoco, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[com- + voc5], I, a., call to- 

gether, summon. 
coorior, -oriri, -ortus sum, [com- 

+ orior], 4, dep., n., come forth, 

arise, appear. 
cophinus, -i, m., basket. 
copia, -ae, [co-opia, from com- 

+ ops], f., abundance, abundant 

supply, plenty ; opporttmity ; 

mostly in pl., resources, forces, 

copiose, [c5pi5sus], adv., abun- 

dantly ; fiuently, eloquently. 




copiosus, [copia], adj., abtin- 
dant, luell snpplied, aboiindiiig 

coram, [com-, cf. 5s], adv. and 
prep. with abl., before : 
(i) As adv., before the eyes,pres- 

ent, in person. 
(2) As prep., with abl. only, be- 
fore, in the presence of. 

Coriolanus, -i, [Corioli], m., 
Coriolanus, surname of C. 
Marcius Coriolamis, See p. 

Corioli, -orum, m. pl., Coriofi, a 
town of Latium, about sixteen 
miles southeast of Rome. 

corium, -i, n., skin, hide. 

Cornelius, -a, the name of a 
Roman gens which contained a 
number of distinguished fami- 
lies. See Cinna, Lentulus, 
Scipio, Sulla. To this gens 
belonged Cornelia, -ae, f , Cor- 
nelia, the daughter of Scipio 
Africanus the elder, and mother 
of the Gracchi. 

comeus, -a, -um, adj., of comel- 

cornii, -iis, n., horn ; luing of an 

corona, -ae, f., croivn, ' tureath. 
See note to p. 16, 1. 5. 

corpus, -oris, n., body ; person ; 
dead body, corpse. 

corrigo, -rigere, -rexi, -rectum, 
[com- -f rego], 3, a., make 
straight ; correct, improve ; re- 
store, calm. 

corripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum, 
[com- -t- rapio], 3, a,, seize. 

grasp ; catch tip. morbo cor- 
ripi, to fall sick. 

corrumpo, -ere, corriipi, corrup- 
tum, [com- -|- rump5], 3, a., de- 
stroy, ruin, spoil; corrupt, se- 
duce, mislead. 

corvus, -i, m., raven. 

c6s, c5tis, {., fli7it-stone,ivhetstone. 

cottidianus, -a, -um, [cottidie], 
adj., of every day, daily ; ustial, 
ordinary, common. 

Crassus, -i, m., Crassus, cogno- 
men, or family name, of M. Li- 
cinius Crassus Dives, triumvir 
with Caesar and Pompey in 60 
B.C. He was defeated and slain 
by the Parthians at Carrhae, b.c. 

creber, -bra, -brum, adj., thick, 

frequent, nuf/ierous, ahundajit. 
credo, credere, credidi, credi- 

tum, 3, a. and n.,give as a loaii, 

lend ; believe in ; believe, be of 

the opinion, think. 
credulitas, -atis, [credulus], f., 

belief, credulity. 
cremo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

biirn, consume by fire. 
Cremona, -ae, f., Cremona, a 

town in Cisalpine Gaul, on the 

creo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

produce, create ; make, choose, 

cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum, 

[cre5], 3, inch., n,, spring up, 

gro7u, increase. 
criminor, -ari, -atus sum, [cri- 

men], i, dep., a., accuse of com- 

plain of denotmce. 




crlnis, -is, m., hair of the head, 

cruciatus, -us, [crucio], m,, tor- 

tiire, torment ; executioii. 
cruci6,-are, -avi, -atum, [crux], 

I, a., tortiire, tornient ; grieve, 

criidelis, -e, adj., rude, unfeeliiig, 

criidelitas, -atis, [crudelis], f., 

crudeliter, [crudelis], adv., cru- 

cruentus, -a, -um, [cf. cruor], 

adj., siaincd with blood, bloody. 
crumena, -ae, f., money-bag, 

cruor, -oris, m., blood,gore ; blood- 

criis, criiris, n., leg. 
crux, crucis, f., gallows, cross. 
crystallinum, -i, n., (sc. vas), a 

vase of crystal. 
cubiculum, -i, [cubo], n., sleep- 

ing- ch a m ber, bedch a m ber. 
cubo, cubare, cubui, cubitum, 

I, n., lie down, recline ; lie sick. 
ciiias, -atis, inter. pron., zvhence ? 

ofwhat country ? 
culpa, -ae, i.,fault, error, blame, 

culter, -tri, m., knife, butcher's 

cultus, -us, [cold'], m., /abor, care, 

ctdtivaiion ; civilization, refine- 

tnent, luxury ; dress, attire. 
cum, prep., with abl. only, with ; 

of association, with., in company 

with ; of comparison, with, com- 

pared with ; of time, together I 

with, at the same time zvith ; of 

manner and circumstance, with. 
In composition the form com- 

is used. 
cum, conj., of time, when, ivhile, 

as long aSy whenever, whereas ; 

of cause or concession, since, in- 

asmiich as, although. cum . . . 

tum, both . . . aitd, noi only . . . 

but also. 
cunctatio, -onis, [cunctor], f., 

delaying, lingering, hesitation, 

Cunctator, -oris, [cunctor], m., 

Cunctator, the Delayer, the Lin- 

gerer, a name applied to Q. Fa- 

bius Maximus. See p. 27. 
cunctor, -ari, -atus sum, i, n., 

dclay, linger, hesitate. 
cupide, [cupidus], adv., eagerly. 
cupiditas, -atis, [cupidus], f., 

longing, desire, eagerness, am- 

cupidus, -a, -um, comp. cupi- 

dior, sup. cupidissimus, [cu- 

pio], adj., longing, desirous, 

eager ; greedy, covetous. 
cupio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 4, 

a., longfor, desire, wish. 
ciir, [for older quor, from early 

dat. qnoi 4- rei] , adv., why : 

(i) Interrog., why ? for what 
reason ? 

(2) Rel., why, tvherefore, on ac- 
count ofzvhich. 
ciira, -ae, f., care, anxiety ; dili- 

Cures, -ium, f. pl., Ctires, a town 

of the Sabines, the birthplace of 

Numa Pompihus. 




curia, -ae, f., curia, association, 
one of the ten divisions of each 
of the original three Roman 
tribes; by metonymy, senate- 
house, place of meeting of the 
senate, either the Curia Hostilia, 
in the Forum, named from Tul- 
lus Hostilius, or the Curia Pom- 
peia, in the Campus Martius. 

Curiatius, -i, m., Curiatius, the 
name of three brothers of Alba, 
who fought with the Horatii. 

Curius, -i, m., Curius, gentile 
name of Manius Curius Den- 
tatus. See p. 23. 

curo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ciira], 
I, a., care for, take pains for, 
attend to ; with gerundive, see 
to it that. 

currus, -us, [currd], m., chariot, 

cursus, -us, [curro], m., run- 
ning ; passage, course ; speed. 

curulis, -e, [currus], adj., of a 
chariot. sella curulis, the cu- 
rule chair. See note to p. 5, 1, 7. 

custodia, -ae, [custos], f., watch- 
ing, guard, protection ; guard- 
house, prison. 

custodio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [cus- 
t5s] , 4, a., xvatch, guard, defend. 

custos, -odis, m. and f., guard, 

Cyrus, -i, m., Cyrus, the founder 
of the Persian monarchy. 

Dacus, -i, m., Dacian, an inhabi- 
tant of Dacia, on the northern 

bank of the Danube; pl., the 

damno, -are, -avi, -atum, [dam- 

num], I, a., judge guilty, con- 

demn, sentence. 
damnum, -i, n., hurt, damage, 

injury ; loss,fine. 
de, prep. with abl., denoting sepa- 

ration, from ; of place and 

motion, from, out of; of time, 

after, during, in ; of source, 

from, out of; of cause, o?i ac- 

count of through ; of relation, 

concerning, in respect to. 
dea, -ae, [deus], i.,goddess. 
deambulo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[de + ambulo], i, n., take a 

ivalk, promenade. 
debeo, debere, debui, debitum, 

[de 4- habeo] , 2, n., withhold ; 

owe, be in debt, be under obliga- 

tion ; ought, must, should. 
debilis, -e, [de -fhabilis], adj., 

lame, weak, disabled, crippled, 

decedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[de -|- cedo], 3, n., go away, 

zvithdraw, cease, die. 
decem, num. adj., indecl., ten. 
December, -bris, -bre, [decem], 

adj., of the tenth ; of the tenth 

month (counting from March), 

of December. 
decerno, -ere, decrevi, decre- 

tum, [de -f cerno], 3, a. and n., 

decide, determine, settle, resolve ; 

decree, voie, entrust by a decree; 

contend, fight. 
decimus, -a, -um, [decem], adj., 





Decimus, -i, abbreviated D., 
[decimus], m., Dccimus, a Ro- 
man forenamc. 

decipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

[de -t- capio], 3, a., catch, cheat, 

declaro, -are, -avi, -atum, [de, 

cf. clarus], i, a., 7}iake evident, 

disclose, sJioiv. 
declino, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a. 

and n., bend aside, turn aside ; 

avoid, shuji. 
decretum, -i, [decerno], n., de- 

cree, decision.^ vote ; deten/iina- 

decurro, -currere, -cucurri or 

-curri, -cursum, [de -f curro], 

3, n., rtm doivn, hasten down ; 

run^ hasten. 
decus, -oris, n., grace, glory, 

honor, splendor. 
decutio, -ere, decussi, decus- 

sum, [de -t- quatio], 3, a., shake 

off, shake down, strike off. 
dediticius, -a, -um, [deditus], 

adj., surrejidered. As subst., 

dediticius, -i, m., a captive. 
deditio, -5nis, \^^6iO\, i., giving 

tip, surrendering ; surrender. 
deditus, -a, -um, [part. of dedo], 

a.d].,given tip, surrendered. 
dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditum, 

[de -)- do], 3, 2i.,give up, surren- 

der ; abandon. 
deduco, -ere, deduxi, deduc- 

tum, [de-i-duc5], 3, a., lead 

axvay, zuithdrazv ; conduct ; es- 

cort, attend. 
defatigatio, -onis, [defatigS], f., 

weariness, fatigue, exhaustion. 

defendo, -ere, defendi, defen- 

sum, [de -|- fend5], 3, a., 7vard 

off, repel ; defend, protect. 
defensio, -5nis, [defend5], f., 

defending, defence. 
defensor, -5ris, [defend5], m., 

defender, protector. 
defero, -ferre,-tuli, -latum, [de -f 

fer5], irr., a., bring away, carry 

off, remove ; carry ; transfer, de- 

liver ; drive azvay ; give., allot, 

offer ; report, submit. 
defessus, -a, -um, [part. of defe- 

tiscor], adj., worn out, weary, 

deficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 

[de -1- faci5], 3, n., -ivithdrazv, 

revolt, desert ; fail, disappear, 

run out, give out. 
defigo, -figere, -fixi, -fixum, 

[de -I- fig5], 3, a., fix, plant ; 

astoujid, strike xvith amazement. 
deflecto, -flectere, -fiexi, -flexum, 

[de -f flect5], 3, a. and n., bend 

aside, avert ; turn away, turn. 
deformitas, -atis, [def5rmis], 

f., ugliness, disfigurement. 
defungor, -fungi, -fiinctus sum, 

[de -f fungor] , 3, dep., n., have 

done with, perform,finish ; have 

done with life, die. 
dego, degere, degi, — , [de -f 

ag5], 3, a., of time, spend, pass. 
dehonestamentum, -i, [deho- 

nest5] ,n. disfigurejnent, blemish. 
dehonesto, -are, — , — , i, a., 

disgrace, dishonor ; disfigure. 
deicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, [de 

4- iaci5], 3, a., throzv down, 

throiv ; lay dozvn ; kill, destroy. 




deinceps, adv., one after the other, 

in snccession ; next. 
deinde, or dein, adv., then, next ; 

thereafter, from that time on. 
delabor, -labi, -lapsus sum, [de 
-f labor], 3, dep., n.,glide down ; 
fall, sink, descend. 
delecto, -are, -avi, -atum, [in- 
tens. of unused delicio, entice~\, 
I, a., allure, charm, delight. 
delectus, -a, -um, [part. of de- 
ligo], adj., chosen, picked, choice, 
delectus, -iis, [delig5], m., 
choosing, picking out ; levy, 
deleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, 2, a., 

erase ; blot oiit, destroy. 
deliberabundus, -a, -um, [de- 
liberd], adj., pondering, rejiect- 
dellbero, -are, -avi, -atum, [de, 
cf. libra, balance'], i, a. and n., 
zveigh ivell, consider, deliberate. 
delicatus, -a, -um, [cf. deliciae], 
adj., alluring, charming, delight- 
ful; given to pleasure, luxuri- 
ous, effeminate. 
deliciae, -arum, [cf. delecto], 
f., pl., delight, pleasure ; allure- 
jnent ; luxury. 
deligo, -ligere, -legi, -lectum, 
[de-f lego], 3, a., choose, pick 
out, select. 
deligo, -are, -avi, -atum, [de + 
ligo], I, a., bind together, bind 
delitesco, -litescere, -litui, — , 
[de + latesco], 3, inch., n.,hide 
aivay, lie hid. 

demigro, -are, -avi, -atum, [de 
-f migro], I, n., migrate, de- 
part, go away. 

demisse, [demissus], adv., hum- 
bly, modestly, abjectly. 

demitto, -ere, demisi, demissum, 

[de + mitto]. 

send down. 

let dozvn, cast dozvn; put. 
demoror, -ari, -atus sum, [de + 
moror], i, dep., a. and n., re- 
tard, delay ; linger, remain. 
demum, [de], adv., at length, at 
last,finally. tum demum, then 
ijideed, then at last, not till 
denarius, -a, -um, [deni], adj., 
of ten each, worth ten asses. As 
subst., denarius, -i, m., denarius, 
a silver coin originally worth ten, 
afterward sixteen, asses ; — about 
denego, -are, -avi, -atum, [de 
+ nego], I, a. and n., reject, re- 
fuse, deny ; say 710. 
denique, adv., and thereafter ; 

afterwards, at last, finally. 
denuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, [de 
+ nuntio], i , a., announce, 
declare, proclaim ; denounce, 
threateti ; order. 
deosculor, -ari, -atus sum, i, 

dep., a., kiss. 
depello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum, 
[de + pello], 3, a, drive out, ex- 
pel, dislodge. 
depereo, -perire, -perii, fut. part. 
-peritiirus, [de+ pereo], 4, n., 
go to ruin, perish. amore de- 
perire aliciiius, to be desperately 
in love wiih any one. 




depono, -ere, deposui, deposi- 

tum, [de + pono], 


dowii, set down,place ; lay aside. 
deposco, -poscere, -poposci, — , 

[de -h posc5], 3, a., demand, 

reqncst earnestly. 
deprecor, -ari, -atus sum, [de 

-fprecor], i, 6.Q.^.,z..,avert by 

prayer, plead against ; decline. 
deprehendo, -hendere, -hendi, 

-hensum, [de + prehend5], 3, 

a., take aivay ; seize, catch ; sur- 

prise ; detect, discover. 
descendo, -scendere, -scendi, 

-scensum, [de 4- scando], 3, 

n., climb doivn, come doivn, de- 

scend; inarch doivn ; dis7nount. 
descisco, -ere, descivi, desci- 

tum, [de + scisc5], 3, n., ivith- 

dra7v, desert, depart., rebel. 
describo, -scribere, -scripsi, 

-scriptum, [de + scrib5], 3, 

a., copy off, zvrite down ; de- 

scribe ; mark off, define. 
desero, -serere, -serui, -sertum, 

[de + ser5, join'], 3, a., leave, 

forsake^ abandon. 
desertus, -a, -um, [part. of de- 

ser5], adj., deserted, desert, soli- 

tary ; lonely. 
desiderium, -i, [desider5], n., 

longing, desire ; grief, regret. 
desilio, -silire, -silui, -sultum, 

[de + sali5], 4, a., leap down. 
desino, -sinere, -sii, -situm, [de 

+ sino], 3, a, and n., cease, give 

up, leave off. 
desipiens, -entis,[de + sapiens], 

2i6.].,foolish, silly. As subst., m,, 

crazy 7nan, madman. 

desisto, -sistere, -stiti, -stitum, 

[de + sist5], 3, n., leave off, 

cease, give tip. 
desperatio, -5nis, [desper5], f., 

desperation, despair. 
despero, -are, -avi, -atum, [de 

+ sper5], I, n. and a., be hope- 

less ; despair of give up. 
despicio, -ere, despexi, despec- 

tum, [de + speci5], 3, n. and 

a., look do7vn upon, despise, dis- 

desponsus, -a, -um, [part. of 

desponde5], adj., promised in 

marriage, betrothed. 
destino, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

make fast, fix ; resolve, design, 

intend ; assign, devote. 
destringo, -stringere, -strinxi, 

-strictum, [de + string5], 3, a., 

strip off; of a sword, unsheathe, 

desum, deesse, defui, [de + 

sum], irr., n., be away ; be 

xvanting., be absent, be miss- 

desiimo, -sumere, -siimpsi, — , 

[de + siim5], 3, a., take, choose, 

select ; take upon oneself. 
desuper, [de + super], adv.,yr^/« 

detego, -tegere, -texi, -tectum, 

[de + teg5], 3, a., uncover, ex- 

pose ; reveal, betray. 
deterreo, -ere, deterrui, deter- 

ritum, [de + terre5], 2, a., 

frighten off ; deter, avert. 
detineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum, 

[de + tene5], 2, a., hold off; 

check, hinder. 




detraho, -ere, detraxi, detrac- 
tum, [de -f traho], 3, a., draw 
off, remove, withdraw, deprive. 

detrecto, -are, -avi, -atum, [de 
-f tractd], I, a., declijie, refiise ; 

detrimentum, -i, [detero, rub 
away\, n., loss, damage, detri- 

deus, -i, vi\.,god., deity. 

deverto, -vertere, -verti, — , 
[de -f verto], 3, n., turn aivay, 
turn aside, betake oneself. 

devinco, -ere, devici, devic- 
tum, [de-f vinco], 3, a., con- 
quer completely., subdue, over- 

devolo, -are, — , fut. part. devo- 
laturus, [de + V0I6], i, n., fly 
dozvn ; fiy away, hasteji. 

dexter, -tera or -tra, -terum or 
-trum, adj., to the right, on the 
right ; skilful. As subst., dex- 
tera, -ae, f., (sc. manus), the 
right hand. 

diadema, -atis, n., diadem,.royal 

Diana, -ae, f., Diana, an ancient 
Italian goddess of the moon, 
later identified with the Greek 
Artemis, goddess of the chase. 

dicio, -onis, [cf. dic5], f., only 
sing., nom. not found, dojninion, 
sovereignty, sway. suae dicid- 
nis facere, to bring under one^s 

dico, dicere, dixi, dictum, 3, a. 
and n., say, speak ; tell, name, 
call; mean; appoint. ius dicere, 
administer justice, hold court. 

dictator, -oris, [dicto], m., dic- 
tator, a Roman magistrate of 
unlimited power, at first ap- 
pointed only in great emergen- 
cies. See note to p. 27, 1. 25. 

dictatura, -ae, [dictator], f., 
offce of dictator, dictatorship. 

dictito, -are, -avi, -atum, [dico], 
I, intens., a., say often, assert, 

dictum, -i, [dic5], n., saying, 
zvord, remark ; command. 

didiico, -diicere, -diixi, -ductum, 
[di- 4- duc5], 3, a., draiu apart, 
separate, sever., part. 6s didu- 
cere, to open the inotith. 

dies, diei, m., sometimes f. in 
sing., day ; appoijited tinie. 
diem dicere alicui, to bring a 
complaint against, arraign. in 
dies, from day to day. 

difficilis, -e, comp. difficilior, 
sup. difficillimus, [dis- -f faci- 
lis], adj., hard, difficult ; troiible- 
sojne ; jnorose, ill-natured, surly. 

difficiliter, [difficilis], adv., with 

difficultas, -atis, [difficilis], f., 
diffcidty., distress, need. 

diffldo, -fidere, -fisus sum, [dis- 
+ fido], 3, semi-dep., n., dis- 
trust, be distrustful of 

dignitas, -atis, [dignus], f., 
worth, merit ; rank, eminence ; 
reputation, honor. 

dignus, -a, -um, adj., worthy, de- 
serving ; proper, becoming. 

diligenter, comp. diligentius, 
sup. diligentissime [diligens], 
adv., industrioiisly, assiduously. 




diligentia, -ae, [diligens], f., 

attc}itiveness, diligencc, indus- 

diligo, -ligere, -lexi, -lectum, 

[di- + leg6], 3, a., single out ; 

valuc, prize, love. 
dHucesco, -liieescere, -luxi, — , 

3, incli., n., grozu light, dawn. 
dimicatio, -onis, [dimico], f., 

fight, struggle ; contest. 
dimico, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n., 

figJit, strugglc, contend. 
dimitto, -ere, dimisi, dimissum, 

[di- + mitto], 3, a., send in 

different directions, disniiss. 
dlrigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectum, [de 

+ rego], 3, a., direct., steer. 
dirimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum, 

[dis- + emo], 3, a., take apart, 

separate ; iiiterrupt, break off. 
diripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum, 

[di- + rapio] , 3, a., tear asun- 

der ; plunder,pillage ; take away. 
diruo, -ruere, -rui, -rutum, [di- 

+ ruo], 3, a., tear asunder ; 

overthrozo, demolish, destroy. 
dis, ditis, n. dite, comp. ditior, 

sup. ditissimus, [cf. dives], 

adj., rich, wealthy, opulent. 
dis- or di-, inseparable prep., 

apart, asunder, in different di- 

rections ; not, un- ; titterly, en- 

discedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[dis- + ced5] , 3, n., go apart, 

separate ; go away, withdraw ; 

come off, remain ; give up, resign. 
discerpo, -ere, discerpsi, dis- 

cerptum, [dis- + carp5], 3, a., 

tear in pieces, rend, viangle. 

discipulus, -i, [disc5], m., 

learner, scholar, pupil, fol- 

disco, discere, didici, — , 3, a., 

learn, become acquainted witJi ; 

learn Jiow. 
discrimen, -inis, [discerno], n., 

intervening space ; diffcrence ; 

turning-point, decision ; crisis, 

peril. . 
discurro, -currere, -cucurri or 

-curri, -cursum, [dis- + curr5], 

3, n., run different ways, run 

about ; wander, roam. 
discutio, -ere, discussi, discus- 

sum, [dis- + quati5], 3, a., 

strike asunder ; remove, dispel ; 

scatter, disperse ; destroy. 
disertus, -a, -um, comp, diser- 

tior, sup. disertissimus, [part. 

of dissero], adj., skilful ; clear, 

well-spoken, fluent. 
dispensator, -5ris, [dispens5], 

m., stezvard, attendant ; treas- 

dispicio, -ere, dispexi, dispec- 

tum, [di- + speci5], 3, n. and 

a., descry, perceive; consider, re- 

flect upon. 
displiceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, [dis- 

+ place5], 2, n., displease, be 

dispono, -ere, disposui, dis- 

positum, [dis-+p5n5], 3, a., 

place Jiere and there ; array, 

arrange ; adjust, order, dis- 

disputo, -are, -avi, -atum, [dis- 

+ put5], I, n., zueigh, examine, 

discuss ; argue. 




dissensio, -onis, [dissentio], f., 

disagreement ; strife. 
dissentio, -ire, dissensi, dis- 

sensum, [dis- -f- sentid], 4, n., 

differ, disagree, dissent. 
dissero, -serere, -serui, -sertum, 

[dis- -f ser5], 3, n., argiie, dis- 

cnss ; speak, treat. 
dissimilis, -e, [dis- -f similis], 

ad)., dissiviilar, different. 
dissimilitudo, -inis, [dissimi- 

lis], f., nnlikeness, diffrence. 
dissimulo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[dis- -f simulo], i, a. and n., 

make tinlike, disgnise ; dissem- 

ble, conceal ; disregard, ignore. 
dissipo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

spread abroad, scatter ; destroy, 

squander, dissipate ; disperse, 

dissuadeo, -ere, dissuasi, dis- 

suasum, [dis- + suadeo], 2, n., 

advise agai?ist, dissuade. 
distraho, -ere, distraxi, dis- 

tractum, [dis- -f traho], 3, a., 

pull asunder, divide ; tear azvay, 

separate ; estra?ige. 
distribuo, -ere, distribui, dis- 

tributum, [dis- + tribuo] , 3, 

a., divide, distribute, apportio??, 

ditior, ditissimus, see dis. 
dito, -are, -avi, -atum, [dis], i, 

a., e?irich. 
diu, comp. diutius, sup. diutis- 

sime, [cf. dies], adv., by day, 

all day ; a lo?ig ti??ie, lo??g. 
diuturnus, -a, -um, [diu], adj., 

of long duratio?t, lo?ig ; linger- 

i?ig, prolo?iged. 

diversus, -a, -um, [part. of di- 

verto], adj., tur?ied differe?it 

ways, opposite, co?itrary ; sepa- 

rate, differe?it. in diversa, 

apart, aszmder. 
dlves, -itis, no n. pl. nom. or 

acc, [cf. dis], adj., rich^wealthy. 
divido, -videre, -visi, -visum, 

3, a., dividc, force asimder, 

part ; distribute, share. 
divlnitus, [divinus], z.di\., fro??i 

heave?i, by divi?ie i?iflue?ice, by 

i?ispiratio?i ; 7?ia?'vellously. 
dlvlnus, -a, -um, [divus], adj., 

of a god, godlike, divi?ie. 
dlvus, -a, -um, adj., of a deity, 

godlike ; deified, sai?ited, a term 

applied to Julius Caesar and to 

many of the Roman emperors, 

after death. 
do, dare, dedi, datum, i, ^..,ha?id 

over, surre?ider ; give, prese?it. 

poenas dare, to suffer pu?iish- 

doceo, docere, docui, doctum, 

2, a., cause to k?iow, teach, in- 

strzict ; shoiv, tell. 
doctor, -oris,[doce6], m., teacher, 

doctrlna, -ae, [doceo], f., teach- 

i?ig, instructio?? ; lear?ii?ig. 
doctus, -a, -um, comp. doctior, 

sup. doctissimus, [part. of do- 

ce5], adj., lear?ied, skilled, expe- 

dolor, -5ris, [dole5], m., pai?i, 

s??iart ; trouble, afflictio??. 
dolose, [dol5sus], adv., craftily, 

deceitfully ; with i?ite?it to de- 





domicilium, -i, [domus], n., Jiah- 

itatioi, (.hvclliiig ; dwelliiig-place. 
domiiiatio, -onis, [dominor], f., 

rule^ dominion, siipreniacy, des- 

dominatus, -us, [dominor], m., 

rulc, coniniand, niasteiy. 
dominor, -ari, -atus sum, [do- 

minus], i, dep., n., be lord, 

ruie, have doniinion. 
dominus, -i, [domo], m., master, 

rulcr, lord. 
domo, -are, domui, domitum, 

I, a., domesticate ; tame, subdue^ 

domus, -us, f., house, dwelling., 

home. Loc. domi, at honie. Acc. 

domum, hojnewards, home, to the 

donativum, -i, [d5n6], n., lar- 

gess,gift, distributioii ofmoney. 
donec, conj., as long as, zvhile, 

dono, -are, -avi, -atum, [do- 

num], I, a., give as a present, 

prese7tt, bestow. 
donum, -i, n., gift, present, re- 

dormio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, 4, n., 

dorsum, -i, n., back of a beast 

of burden; range, ridge, cliff. 
dos, dotis, f., marriage portion, 

dotalis, -e, [dos], adj., of a 

dowry, given as a dowry. do- 

talia dona, wedding presents. 
dubito, -are, -avi, -atum, [du- 

bius], I, n. and a., zvaver, be 

in doubt ; hesitaie ; deliberate. 

dubius, -a, -um, adj., doubtful, 

uncertain, undecided ; critical. 
ducenti, -ae, -a, num. adj., two 

diico, ducere, duxi, ductum, 3, 

a., lead, conduct, guide, direct ; 

prolong ; consider, reckon. uxo- 

rem ducere, in matrimonium 

diicere, marry. 
dulcis, -e, adj., szveet ; agreeable, 

dum, conj., ivhile, as long as, 

tintil ; provided, if only. 
dummodo, [dum -f modo], conj., 

provided, if only. 
duo, -ae, -o, num. adj., txvo ; 

duodecim, [duo + decem], num. 

adj., twelve. 
duodeni, -ae, -a, [cf. duodecim], 

num. adj., tzvelve each, twelve 

duplex, -icis, [duo, cf. plico], 

adj., double, tivofold. 
duplico, -are, -avi, -atum, [du- 

plex], I, a., dotible, repeat, niul- 

tiply by two. 
diiro, -are, -avi, -atum, [diirus], 

I, a. and n., make hard, harden ; 

eiidure, hold out, continue. 
diirus, -a, -um, 2.(X].,hard ; rough, 

rude, nncultivated ; pitiless, un- 

feeling, cruel. 
dux, ducis, [cf. diico], m., leader, 

conductor, guide ; commander, 

gene -al. 
Dyrrachium, -i, n., Dyrrachium, 

formerly called Epidafnnus, a 

town in Illyria, nearly opposite 




e, prep., see ex. 

ecquid, inter. adv., at all? merely 

emphasizing the question, and 

often not translated in words. 
edico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum, 

[e-|-dico], 3, a., declare, pnb- 

iish, make known, antioimce. 

diem edicere, to appoint a day. 
edictum, -i, [edicoj, n., procla- 

mation, edict. 
edo, -ere, esi, esum, 3, a., eat, 

edo, edere, edidi, editum. [e + 

do], 3, a., give out, put forth ; 

give birth to, bear ; publish, an- 

nounce ; perform, perpetrate. 
edoceo, -docere, -docui, -doctum, 

[e -f doceo], 2, a., teach thor- 

oughly, instruct, teach. 
educatio, -onis, [educ5],f.,7v^r- 

ing, training, education. 
educo, -diicere, -diixi, -ductum, 

[e -I- duco], 3, a., lead forth, 

lead out ; bring up, rear. 
educo, -are, -avi, -atum, [e, cf. 

diico], I, a., bj-ing up, rear, 

train, educate. 
effeminatus, -a, -um, [part. of 

effemin5, from ex and femina], 

adj., luomanish, effeminate. 
efferatus, -a, -um, [part. of ef- 

fer5], adj., ivild, savage,fierce. 
effero, -ferre, extuli, elatum, 

[ex+fer5], irr., a., carry out, 

take a7uay ; raise, lift ; elate. 
effero, -are, -avi, -atum, [effe- 

rus, savage^ i, a., make wild, 

make savage. 

efficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 

[ex -f- faci5], 3, a., work out ; 

bring to pass; make, cause, effect. 
efflagito, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex 

-f flagit5], I, a., demand earn- 

estly, solicit, insist. 
effodio, -fodere, -f5di, -fossum, 

[ex -f fodi5], 3, a., dig out, dig 

up, excavate. oculum eflfodere 

alicui, to put out one''^ eye. 
effugio, -fugere, -fiigi, — , [ex + 

fugi5], 3, n. and 2,., Jlee away, 

escape ; avoid, shun. 
effundo, -fundere, -fiidi, -fiisum, 

[ex+fund5], 3, ^., pour out, 

shed, spread abroad ; throng ; 

squander, lavish, zuaste. 
effusus, -a, -um, [part. of ef- 

fund5], 2id]., poured out ; unre- 

strained, lavish. 
egeo, egere, egui, — , 2, n., be 

lacking ; be needy, be in want, 

be poor ; lack, need. 
Egeria, -ae, f., Egeria, one of the 

Camenae, or Muses, from vvhom, 

according to the legend, Numa 

received counsel. 
egredior, egredi, egressus sum, 

[e + gradior], 3, dep., n., go 

out, march out, go away ; disem- 

egregie, [egregius], adv., excel- 

lently, exceedingly, singularly. 
egregius, -a, -um, [e, grex], 

adj., select, extraordinary; dis- 

tinguished, excellent. 
eicio, eicere, eieci, eiectum, [e + 

iaci5], 3, a., cast out ; drive out, 

expel ; cast ashore. se eicere, to 





elabor, elabi, elapsus sum, [e + 

labor], 3, dep., n., slip a7vay, 

glidc off; escape. 
elaboro, -are, -avi, -atum, [e + 

lab5ro], i, a. and n., labor, eji- 

dcavor ; work oiit. 
elanguesco, elanguescere, elan- 

gui, — , 3, inch., Xi.,grow faint ; 

fail, slacken. 
elatus, -a, -um, [part. of. eflfero], 

adj., exalted, lofty, high ; elated. 
electio, -onis, [electus], f., choice, 

elegans, -antis, [for eligens, 

part. of eligo], adj., acctistomed 

to select, nice, fastidiotis ; select, 

eleganter, [elegans], adv., tvith 

good jndgmcnt, jtidicioiisly ; ele- 

elegantia, -ae, [elegans], f., 

taste, propriety, grace, elegance. 
elephantus, -i, nom. sing. usu- 

ally elephas or elephans, 

[-antis], m., elephant. 
elicio, elicere, elicui, — , [e + 

unused lacio], 3, a., drazo out, 

lure out, elicit ; call dozvn from 

heaven, evoke. 
elido, elidere, elisi, elisum, [e + 

laedo], 3, a., strike out, dash out ; 

shatter, crush. 
eligo, eligere, elegi, electum, 

[e + lego], 3, a., pick out ; 

choose, select. 
eloquentia, -ae, [eloquens], f., 

emineo, -minere, -minui, — , 2, 

n., stand out, project ; be promi- 

nent, be conspicuous. 

emitto, emittere, emisi, emis- 

sum, [e + mitto], 3, a., send 

out, send forth ; drive, hurl ; 

let loose; give Jitterance to. 
emo, emere, emi, emptum, 3, a., 

buy, purchase ; acquire, obtain. 
en, interj., lo ! behold ! see ! 
enim, conj., postpositive, for, be- 

cause ; namely, in fact. 
eniteo, enitere, enitui, — , 2, n., 

shine forth ; be emijient, be dis- 

enitor, eniti, enixus or enisus 

sum, [e + nitor], 3, dep., n., 

force a zvay up, mount ; make an 

effort, strive. 
ensis, -is, m., two-edged sivord, 

eo, ire, ivi or ii, itum, irr., n., go ; 

walk, ride, march, move. 
eo, [cf. is], adv., on that account ; 

to that place, thither ; to that 

degree, so far. 
Ephesius, -a, -um, adj., of Ephe- 

sus, Ephesian. 
Ephesus, -i, ["E^eaos], f., Ephesus, 

a celebrated lonian city on the 

western coast of Asia Minor, 

celebrated for its magnificent 

temple of Artemis (Diana). 
epigramma, -atis, \_eTrl'ypaiJ.fxa], 
_ n., inscription ; epigram, poevi. 
Epirus, -i, ["HTretpos], m., Epirus, 

a country northwest of Greece 

and west of Thessaly. 
epistula or epistola, -ae, [eTrt- 

aro\ri\, f., letter, epistle. 
epulor, -ari, -atus sum, [epu- 

lum], I, dep., n.,feast, banquet^ 





eques, -itis, m., korseman, rider ; 

cavalrytnan ; knight, metnber of 

the equestrian order. See note 

to p. 4,1. 14. 
equester, -tris, -tre, [eques], 

adj., of a horseman, equesirian ; 

of cavalry, cavalry- ; of the 

equito, -are, -avi, -atuin,[eques], 

I, n., ride. 
equus, -i, m., horse, steed. 
erectus, -a, -um, [part. of erigo], 

adj., directed upivards, tipright, 

erect ; lofty, noble. 
erga, prep. with acc., toivards, to, 

with respect to. 
ergo, adv., consequently, there- 

erigo, erigere, erexi, erectum, 

[e + reg5], 3, a., raise up, 

erect ; rouse, stir up. 
error, -oris, [cf. erro], m., ?£/««- 

dering, straying ; error, juistake. 
erubesco, erubescere, erubui, 

— , 3, inch., Xi., grow red, hlush ; 

feel ashained. 
erudio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [e, ru- 

dis], 4, 2l., polish ; educate, in- 

erumpo, erumpere, eriipi, erup- 

tum, [e + rumpo], 3, a. and n., 

cause to break out ; break out, 

burst forth. 
eruo, eruere, erui, erutum, [e + 

ru6], 3, a., cast forth, throw out ; 

destroy utterly. 
esca, -ae, {., food, bait. 
Esquilmus, -i, m., (sc. mons),///^ 

Esquiline Hill, the largest of the 

seven hills of Rome. 

et, adv. and conj. 

(i) As adv., also, too, even. 

(2) As conj., and, and yet, but. 
et . . . et, both . . . and. 
etiam, [et -f iam], adv. and conj., 

and also, also, even. 
Etriiria, -ae, f., Etruria, a coun- 

try in Italy, northwest of Rome; 

modern Tuscany. 
Etriisci, -orum, m., pl., the Etrus- 

cans, Tuscans, the inhabitants of 

etsi, [et + si], conj., although, 

even if and yet. 
Euripides, -is, m., Eurtpides, a 

great tragic poet of Athens, born 

480 B.c, died 406. 
Europa, -ae, f., Etirope. 
evado, evadere, evasi, evasum, 

[e + vado], 3, n., go away, go 

forth ; get azvay, escape. 
eveho, evehere, evexi, evectum, 

[e + vehd], 3, a., carry out ; 

lift, raise, elevate. 
evenio, evenire, eveni, eventum, 

[e + venio], 4, n., come out, 

come forth ; come to pass, happen. 
eventus, -iis, [evenio], m., otit- 

come, result ; occurrence, acci- 

dent, event. 
everto, evertere, everti, ever- 

sum, [e + verto], 3, a., over- 

turn, overthroiv ; destroy, ruin. 
evoco, -are, -avi, -atum, [e + 

voco], I, a., call out, call forth, 

summon, evoke. 
ex, before consonants often e, 

prep. , with abl. only, out of out 

from ; of. place, fro?n, out of; 

of time, fro7n, since ; of source 




and material,y;'^/;/, of ; of cause, 
fro/n, by reason of; of measure 

and correspondence, according 

to, wiih, in, by, on. 
examino, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 

a., 2ueigh, ponder, consider ; ex- 

amine, test. 
exanimo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex- 

animus, from ex -f anima, 

breath'], I, ?i., put out of breath, 

exardesco, -ere, exarsi, exar- 

sum, [ex+ ardesc5], 3, inch., 

n., blaze out ; be provoked, rage. 
exaro, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex-f 

aro], I, a., plough out ; raise ; 

exaspero, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex, 

asper], i, z..,inake rough ; irri- 

tate, provoke, exaspcrate. 
exaudio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [ex -f 

audi5], 4, a., hear clearly, dis- 

tinguish ; discern, hear. 
excedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[ex -f ced5], 3, vl., go out, go 

forth, depart, zuithdrazv ; go be- 

yond., surpass. 
excelsus, -a, -um, adj., lofty, ele- 

vated, high ; distinguished, noble. 

As subst., excelsum, -i, n., an 

elevated station, height. 
excerpo, -ere, excerpsi, excerp- 

tum, [ex -f carpo], 3, a., pluck 

oi{t, extract ; choose, select. 
excidium, -\,n.,overthrozv; ruin, 

excipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

[ex -f capi5] , 3, a., take out, 

withdrazv ; rescue ; receive, cap- 

ture, take. 

excito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of exci5], I, a., call forth, bring 
forth ; rouse, excite. 
exclamo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex 

-f clam5], I, n., call out, cry 

aloud, exclaim. 
excludo, -ere, exclusi, exclu- 

sum, [ex -f claud5], 3, a., shut 

out, exchuie. 
excolo, -colere, -colui, -cultum, 

[ex -f col5], 3, a., cultivate, im- 

prove; ennoble, refine. 
excubiae, -arum, [ex -f cubo], 

f., pl., lying out on guard, xvatch- 

ing ; watch, zvatchman. 
exciisatio, -5nis, [excus5], f., 

excuso, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex, 

causa], I, a., excuse, make ex- 

cuse for. 
excutio, -cutere, -cussi, -cussum, 

[ex-f quati5], 3, a., shake out, 

cast off., reinove. 
exemplum, -i, n.,speciinen, copy, 

exatnple, precedent. boni ex- 

empli servi, slavcs ofhigh char- 

exeo, -ire, -ii, -itum, [ex -f e5], 

irr., n., go out, go azvay, retire ; 

march out ; pass azvay, perish; 

turn out, result. 
exerceo, -cere, -cui, -citum, [ex 

-f arce5], 2, a., drive, keep busy ; 

exercise, employ, drill. 
exercitus, -iis, [exerce5], m., 

disciplined body of men, army. 
exhaurio, -ire, exhausi, exhaus- 

tum, [ex -f hauri5], 4, a., drazv 

out, empty, exhaust ; bringtoan 





exhibeo, -ere, exhibui, exhibi- 

tum, [ex -f habeo], 2, a., hold 

forth, present ; sho7u, display, ex- 

exhorresco, -ere, exhorrui, — , 

[ex + horresco], 3, inch., n. 

and a., trejiible, shndder, be 

afra id, shrink fro/n . 
exigo, -igere, -egi, -actum, [ex 

-f ago], 3, a., drive oiit, expel ; 

finish ; pass, spend ; consider. 
exiguus, -a, -um, adj., scanty, 

SDiall, short, brief ; poor. 
eximius, -a, -um, [cf. eximo], 

adj., taken out ; select, choice ; dis- 

tingiiished, excellent, remarkable. 
eximo, -imere, -emi, -emptum, 

[ex + em5] , 3, a., take otit, re- 

viove ; free, release, deliver. 
existimo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex 

+ aestimd], i, a., estiuiate, 

value ; judge, think, suppose. 
exitium, -i, [exeo], n., destruc- 

tion, ruin, mischief death. 
exitus, -us, [exeo], m., going 

out, departure ; close, conclu- 

sion ; end of life, death. 
exordium, -i, [exordior], n., be- 

exorior, -oriri, -ortus sum, [ex 

-f orior], 4, dep., n., coine forth, 

rise, appear ; begin. 
expedio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [ex, 

pes], 4, a., disengage, let loose, 

set free ; prepare, procure. 
expello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum, 

[ex -f pello], 3, a., drive out, 

expendo, -ere, expendi, expen- 

sum, [ex + pendo], 3, a., weigh 

out, weigh ; pay out ; estimate, 

experimentum, -i, [experior], 

n., proof test, experiment. 
experior, -periri, -pertus sum, 

4, dep., a., try, prove, test ; ex- 

perience, know by experience. 
expeto, -ere, expetivi, expeti- 

tura, [ex-j-pet5], 3, a., seek 

after ; ai?n at ; demand, desire, 

expio, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

make amends for, atone for; 

avert, counteract an evil omen; 

expleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, [ex -H 

pleo], 2, 2..,fillup,fillfiill; sup- 

ply, make good. 
explorator, -5ris, [expl5r5], m., 

explorer, spy, scout. 
expono, -ere, exposui, exposi- 

tum [ex -f p5n5], 3, a., set 

forth, exhibit ; land., disembark ; 

abandon, expose ; relate, explaiti. 
exposco, -poscere, -poposci, — , 

[ex -f posc5], 3, a., ask ur- 

gently, reqiiest, demand. 
expositio, -5nis, [exp5n5], f., 

setting forth, narration ; expos- 

ure, abandonment. 
exprimo, -ere, expressi, expres- 

sum, [ex -f prem5], 3, a., press 

out, force ont ; titter, express, 

expiignatio, -5nis, [expiign5], 

f., taking by storm, storming ; 

ivinning over by entreaties. 
expiigno, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex 

-f pugn5], I, a., take by storm, 





exquiro, -ere, exquisivi, exqui 

situm, [ex -f quaerd], 3, a. 

search out, seek diligently; in 

qidre, ask. 
exquisitus, -a, -um, [part. of 

exquiro], adj., carcfully sought 

out, choicc, ejcquisite. 
exsilium, -i, [exsul], n., banish- 

f/iciit, exile. 
exsisto, -sistere, -stiti, — , [ex 

4- sistd], 3, n., step out, come 

forth; arise, becoine, coine to be ; 

exist, be. 
exspectatio, -5nis, [exspectd], 

f., axuaiting, expecting, anticipa- 

tion ; longing, desire. 
exspecto, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 

a,, look out for, await, expect ; 

wait, wait to see. 
exspTro, -are, -avi, -atum, [ex 

-f spiro], I, a. and n., breathe 

out, exhale ; breathe oiie^^s last, 

expire, perish. 
exstinguo, -stinguere, exstinxi, 

exstinctum, [ex -f stinguo, 

quench\ 3, a., put out, extin- 

guish ; kill, destroy. 
exsto, -stare, — , — , [ex-f sto], 

I, n., stand out, stand forth ; 

exist, be. 
exstruo, -ere, exstriixi, ex- 

striictum, [ex -f struo], 3, a., 

pile up, heap up, build. 
exsulto, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of exsili5], i, n., leap up ; exzdt, 

delight in ; boast. 
exterreo, -ere, exterrui, exter- 

ritum, [ex -f terre5], 2, a., 

strike with terror, terrify, af 

exter or exterus, -a, -um, adj., 
on the ozitside, foreign, strange. 
Comp. exterior, -us, outer, ex- 
terior. Sup. extremus, -a, -um, 
outerinost, last, last part of 

extimesco, -timescere, -timui, 
— , [ex + timesc5], 3, inch., n. 
and a., be greatly terrified ; fear 

extollo, -tollere, — , — , [ex -f 
toll5], 3, a., lift tip, exalt; 
praise, extol. 

extra, [exter] , adv. and prep. : 
(i) As adv., on the outside, zvith- 

(2) As prep. with acc. only, out- 
side of beyond, except. 

extraho, -ere, extraxi, extrac- 
tum, [ex -f trah5], 3, a., drai.v 
out, pull out ; protract, pro- 

extraordinarius, -a, -um, [extra 
+ 5rdinarius, from 5rd5], adj., 
out of the common order, ex- 
traordinary, uncommon. 

extremus, -a, -um, see exter. 

exuo, -uere, -ui, -utum, 3, a., 
draw out,pull off; strip, despoil. 

faber, -bri, [cf. faci5], m., zvork- 

inan, smith, carpenter. 
Fabius, -a, the name of a dis- 

tinguished Roman gens. See 

Fabricius, -i, m., Fabricius, gen- 

tile name of C. Fabricius Lus- 





fabrico, -are, -avi, -atum, [cf. 

faber], i, a., make, biiild, con- 

fabula, -ae, [cf. for, speak'], f., 

na7->'ation, sto)'y ; play ; fable. 
facete, [facietus], adv., wittily. 
facetus, -a, -um, adj., witty, hu- 

facinus, -oris, [cf. facio], xi.,deed, 

action ; bad deed, crime. 
facio, facere, feci, factum, 3, a. 

and n., fnake ; do, perform ; 

bring aboiit, caztse ; choose, ap- 

point ; grant. Pass. fio, fieri, 

factus sum, be done ; happen, 

factio, -onis, [cf. facio], f., par- 

tisanship, faction. 
factum, -i,[factus, part. offacio], 

n., deed, act. 
facultas, [facilis], f., capability, 

skill ; opportnnify ; snfficient 

nnmber, abnndance. 
facuiidia, -ae, [facundus], f., 

eloquence, flnency. 
Falernus, -a, -um, adj., Faler- 

nian, of the Ager Falernus, a 

district in Campania famous for 

its wine. 
fama, -ae, [cf. for, speak'], {., re- 

port, rnmor, tradition ; pnblic 

opinion, fame, reputation. 
fames, -is, f. , hunger ; famine, 

familia, -ae, [famulus, servant'], 

{., slaves in a household, family 

servants ; estate ; family, honse. 
familiaris, -e, [familia], adj., of 

a house or honsehold : familiar, 

intimate. res familiaris, prop- 

erty. As subst., familiaris, -is, 

m., friend, intimate acqtiaint- 

familiaritas, -tatis, [familiaris] , 

f., fa??iiliarity, inti^nacy, friend- 

famosus, -a, -um, [fama], adj., 

much talked of famed, re- 

famula, -ae, f., [famulus, ser- 

vant'], {., maid-servant, hand- 

fanum, -i, [cf. for, speak'\, n., 

shrine, sanctuary, teniple. 
fascis, -is, m., biindle, faggot ; pl., 

\.\\Q fasces, a bundle of rods tied 

about an axe, carried before the 

highest Roman magistrates as a 

symbol of authority. 
fasti, orum, [fastus, sc. dies], 

m., register of court days, cal- 

endar, annals. 
fastus, -a, -um, [fas], adj., not 

forbidden ; hence with dies, court 

day. See note to p. 5, 1. 22. 
fatalis, -e, [fatum], adj., of fate, 

fated ; fatal ; deadly, destructive. 
fateor, fateri, fassus sum, [for], 

2, dep., a., confess, acknotvledge. 
fatigo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

faiigue, wea7'y ; torment, vex, 

fatum, -i, [for], n., ntterance, 

oracle, prediction ; destiny, fate. 
fauces, -ium, f., YA.^throat; nar- 

rozv 7uay, pass. 
Faustulus, -i. [dim. of faustus], 

m., Faustidns, name of the shep- 

herd who found and reared Rom- 

ulus and Remus. 




Faustus, -i, [faveo], m., Faustiis, 

the Lucky, surname of a son of 

Fausta, -ae, [faveo], f., Fausta, 

thc Lucky, surname of a daugh- 

ter of Sulla. 
faveo, favere, favi, fut. part. fau- 

turus, 2, n., be favorable,favor, 

be propitious. 
favor, -oris, [faveo], m., favor, 

fax, facis, [cf. facio], f., torch, 

felix, -icis, adj., fruitful ; favor- 

able, propitious ; lucky, fortu- 

nate. As subst., m., surname 

of L. Cornelius Sulla. 
femina, -ae, i.,female, xvonian. 
femur, -oris or -inis, n., thigh. 
fere, adv., almost, about ; usti- 

ferme, [for ferime, sup. of fere], 

adv., about, almost ; ustially. 
fero, ferre, tuli, latum, irr., a. 

and n., bear, cariy ; lead ; bring 

forth, produce ; endure, stiffer ; 

report,tell ; allow,permit; pass., 

be borne, rush. leges ferre, to 

pass laws. 
ferox, -ocis, [cf. ferus], adj., 

7vild, bold ; coufident, high- 

spirited ; courageous, warlike. 
ferreus, -a, -um, [ferrum], adj., 

made of iron, iron ; hard, cruel ; 
fir7ji, enduritig. 
ferrum, -i, n., iron ; by me- 

tonymy, iron tool, sivord, axe. 
ferus, -a, -um, adj., wild, tm 

tafued ; uncultivated ; waste. 

desolate ; savage, barbarous. 

fessus, -a, -um, adj., ivearied, 

tired, fatigued ; zveak, infirm, 

festinatio, -onis, [festin5], f., 

hastejiing ; haste, speed. 
festino, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n. 

and a., hasten, viake haste ; do 

fetialis, -e, adj., speaking, nego- 

tiating. As subst., (sc. sacer- 

dos), treaty-priest, who made 

declarations of war and treaties 

of peace. 
fidelis, -e, [fides], 2.^)., faithful, 

fideliter, [fidelis], adv., faith- 

Fidenates, -ium, m., inhabitants 

of Fidenae, a town on the 

Tiber, about five miles north of 

fides, fide or fidei, f., trust,faith, 

belief ; pledge ; good faith. 
flducia, -ae, [fidus], f., trust, 

confidence, reliance ; selfconfi- 

dence, courage, boldness. 
filia, -ae, [filius], f., daughter. 
fllius, -i, m., S071. 
fingo, fingere, finxi, fictum, 3, 

a., touch, handle ; form, fash- 

ion ; think ; devise, feign. 
finio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [finis], 4, 

a., limit, botmd ; end ; fiuish. 
finis, -is, m., boimdary, limit ; ter- 

finitimus, -a, -um, [finis], adj., 

bordering on, neighboring. As 

subst., finitimi, -orum, m., pl., 

fio, fieri, factus sum, see facio. 




firmo, -are, -avi, -atum,[f irmus], 

I, a., make strong, strengthen ; 

firmus, -a, -um, adj., strong, pow- 

erfnl ; jirm, trusty, faithful. 
flagito, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a. , 

de/nand urgently, require, so- 

flamen, -inis, m., priest,flamen. 

See note to p. 5, 1. 6. 
Flaminius, -i, m., Fldminius, 

gentile name of C. Fldminius, 

defeated and slain by Hannibal 

at Lake Trasimenus in 217 B.c. 
flamma, -ae, f., hlazingfire, blaze, 

flebilis, -e, [fleo], adj., to be ivept 

over, deplorable ; zoeeping, dole- 

flebiliter, [flebilis], adv., mourn- 

fully, dolefully. 
flecto, flectere, flexi, flexum, 3, 

a. and n., bend,turn ; persuade, 

fleo, flere, flevi, fletum, 2, a. and 

n., zveep ; weepfor, bewail. 
florens, -entis, [part. of floreo], 

adj., blooming, flourishing, excel- 

lent. florens iuventa, youthful 

floreo, -ere, florui, — , [fl5s, 

flozver'], 2, n., bloom, blossom ; 

flourish, be prosperous, be siic- 

cessful. . 
fluctus, -iis, [cf. fluo], m., fiood, 

tide, wave, billow ; commotion. 
flumen, -inis, [cf. fluo], n., flow- 

ing stream, river. 
fluvius, -i, [cf. flu5], m., river, 


focus, -i, xn.,freplace, hearth. 
foede, [foedus], adv., foully, 

foederatus, -a, -um, [cf. foedus], 

adj., lcagued, allied. 
foedus, -a, -um, adj., foid, filthy, 

ugly ; shafneful. 
foedus, -eris, [cf. fid5], n., 

league, treaty ; agree??ient. 
fons, f5ntis, m., sprijig, fountain ; 

foras, [cf. foris], adv., out of 

doors, forth, out. 
foris, -is, f., door, gdte ; ^\., fold- 

ing-door, entrance. 
foris,, [foris], adv., out of doors, 

forma, -ae, i., form, shape,figure ; 

formidolosus, -a, -um, [for- 

mid5, dread'], adj., producing 

fear, dreadful, terrible. 
fors, f5rtis, f., found only in nom. 

and abl., chance, hap, hazard; 

good fortune. 
fortasse, adv., perhaps, possibly. 
forte, [abl. of f5rs], adv., by 

chance, accidentally, as it hap- 

fortis, -e, adj., strong, pozverful ; 

brave, cotirageous. 
fortiter, comp. fortius, sup. for- 

tissime, [fortis], adv., bravely, 

fortitiido, -inis, [fortis], f., 

strength ; bravery, resolution, 

fortiina, -ae, [f5rs], f., chance, 

luck, fortune ; good-fortune ; ill- 

fortune ; personified, Fortum, 




fonim, -1, [foris], n., open place, 

market-place ; esp. Forum R6- 

manum, the J\oman Forum, the 

Forum, an open space between 

the Palatine and Capitoline hills, 

surrounded by public buildings 

and shops, where the political 

and commercial life of the Ro- 

man world centred. 
fossa, -ae, [fodio], f., ditch, trenchy 

foveo, fovere, fdvi, fotum, 2, a., 

ivarm, keep wartn ; cherish,fa- 

fragmentum, -i, [cf. frango], n., 

piece broken off, fragment, hit. 
fragor, -oris, [cf. frango], m., 

crashing., noise, thunder-peal. 
frango, frangere, fregi, fractum, 

3, a., break in pieces, break ; 

break doivn, subdue, overcome. 
frater, -tris, m., brother. 
fraternus, -a, -um, [frater], adj., 

of a brothcr, brotherly, frater^ial. 
fraudo, -are, -avi, -atum,[fraus], 

I, a., cheat, defraud, rob. 
fraus, fraudis, f., cheating, deceit, 
fraud, treachery ; injury,harm. 
frendo, frendere, — , — , only 

pres. part., 3, n., gnash, gnash 

the teeth. 
frenum, -i, n., pl. m., freni, 

-orum, pl. n., frena, -orum, 

bridle, bit ; pl., reins. 
frequens, -entis, adj., often, regu- 

lar, repeated ; in great mwibers.^ 

crowded, filled, populous. 
frequenter, [frequens], adv., 

often, frequetitly ; in great num- 


frequentia, -ae, [frequens], f., 

assembly in numbers, concourse, 

frigidus, -a, -um, adj., cold, cool, 

frons, frontis, f., broiv, forehead ; 

frugalitas, -atis, [friigalis], f., 

econo??iy, thriftiness, frugality ; 

virtue, zoorth. 
friimentarius, -a, -um, [friimen- 

tum], adj., of corti, of provi- 

sio?is ; concer?iing corn. res 

friimentaria, provisio?is. 
friimentum, -i, [fruor] , n., corny 

grai?i ; sta?idi?ig cor?i. 
fruor, frui, friictus sum, fut. 

part. fruitiirus, 3, dep., n., en- 

joy, delight i?i. 
friistra, [fraus], adv., i?i error ; 

without effect, i?i vai?i. 
Fiifetius, -i, m., Fufetius, gentile 

name of Mettius Fufetius, leader 

of the Albans against Tullus 

Fiifidius, -i, m., Fnfiditts, a fol- 

lower of Sulla. 
fuga, -ae, [cf. fugio], {.,fleeing, 

fugio, fugere, fugi, fut. part. fugi- 

tiirus, 3, n. and z..,flee,flyy take 

to flight ; avoid. 
fugiens, -entis, [part. of fugio], 

adj., flyi?tg, fleei?ig. As subst., 

m., a fugitive. 
fugo, -are, -avi, -atum, [fuga], 

I, a., put to flight, rout. 
fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi, — , 2, n., 
flash, lighte?? ; glitter, glea??i ; be 





fulmen, -inis, [cf. fulgeo], n., 

lightnhig Jlash, thiinderbolt ; 

crushing bloiv. 
Fulvius, -i, m., Fulvius, gentile 

name of A. Fulvius, put to death 

by the order of his own father, 

because he joined Catiline's con- 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum, 3, 

a., pour, pour out ; scatter, 

fundus, -i, m., bottom ; piece of 

land, farin, estate ; foundation. 
fungor, fungi, functus sum, 3, 

dep., n., be engaged in, perfor?n, 

funus, -eris, n., funeral proces- 

sion, funeral. 
furax, -acis, [cf. furtum], adj., 

given to stealing, thievish. 
Furius, -i, m., Furius, gentile 

name of P. Furius Philus, who, 

after the battle of Cannae, formed 

a conspiracy among the young 

nobles to leave Italy. 
furor, -oris, {ivxb,rage^,m..,rav- 

ing, raging., madness, frenzy. 
fiirto, [fiirtum], adv., by stealth, 

fiirtum, -i, n., theft, robbery ; arti- 

fice, trick. 
futiirus, -a, -um, [part. of sum], 

adj., going to be, to come, ftit- 

Gabii, -orum, m., pl., Gabit^ a 
tovvn of Latium, about twelve 
miles east of Rome. 

Gabinus, -a, -um, adj., of Gabii. 

As subst., Gabinus, -i, m., an 

inhabitant of Gabii. 
Gades, -ium, f., pl., Gades, a 

town on the southern coast of 

Spain, the modern Cadiz. 
Gaetull, -orum, m., pl., the Gae- 

tufi, a tribe dwelling in northern 

Gaius, -i, abbreviated C, m., 

Gaius, a Roman forename. 
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul, comprising the 

regions now occupied by France, 

Belgium, Holland, and the west- 

ern parts of Germany and Swit- 

gaudium, -i, [gaudeo], n., joy, 

gaza, -ae, f., treasure, riches, 

geminatus, -a, -um, adj., tivinned, 

equal ; consecutive, double. 
geminus, -a, -um, adj., born to- 

gether, tzvin ; tzvofold. As 

subst., gemini, -5rum, m., pl., 

gemo, gemere, gemui, — , 3, n. 

and a., sigh, groan ; sigh over, 

grieve over. 
gener, -eri, m., son-in-law. 
gens, gentis, f., clan, gens, com- 

posed of famihes having a 

common ancestor, a common 

name, and certain rehgious 

rites in common ; tribe, people, 

genii, -us, n., knee. 
genus, -eris, n., race, birth, de- 

scent ; kind, class. 
Germania, -ae, f., Germany. 




gero, gerere, gessi, gestum, 3, 

a., bcar, carry ; loear ; carry o)i, 

wage, keep iip. se gerere, to 

conduct oneself, act, beliave. res 

gestae, exploits, deeds. 
gesto, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

c)f ger5], I, a., bear, carry, 

uneld ; wear. 
gestus, -us, [gero], m., bearing. 

carriage ; gesture, jnove?)ient. 
gigno, gignere, genui, genitum, 

3, a., produce, give birth to, 

gladius, -i, m., szuord. 
gloria, -ae, f., glo)y, fa>ne, re- 


glorior, -ari, -atus sum, [gl5ria], 
I, dep., n., boast, brag, pride 

gloriose, [gl5ri5sus], adv., glo- 

gloriosus, -a, -um, [gl5ria], adj., 
glorioiis, fa)}ioics, re)iow)ied. 

Gnaeus, -i, abbreviated Cn., m., 
G)iaeus, a Roman forename. 

Gracchus, -i, m., Gracchus^ the 
name of a family of the Sempro- 
nian gens. In this book are 
mentioned Tiberius Ser?iprd)iius 
Gracchus and Gaius Se))ipro- 
nius Gracchus. See p. 45. 

gradus, -us, m., step, pace ; gait ; 
stage, period, degree ; pl., steps, 

Graecia, -ae, f., Greece. 

Graeculus, -i, [dim, ofGraecus], 
m., a poor Greek. 

Graecus, -a, -um, adj., Grecia)i, 
Greek. As subst., Graecus, -i, 
m., a Greek. 

grandis, -e, adj., full-grown, 

iaige, great. 
granum, -i, n., grain, seed. 
graphium, -i, n., stilus for writ- 

ing, pe)i, poicil. 
gratia, -ae, [gratus], f.^/az^or, ^.r- 

teeni, regard ; thanks, gratitude. 

gratia, with preceding gtr\.,for 

the sake of gratiam habere, to 

feelgratitude. gratias agere, to 

express gratitude, to tha)ik. gra- 

tiam referre, tc show gratiiude, 

to requite. 
gratulor, -ari, -atus sum, [gra- 

tus], I, dep., n., show joy, be 

glad ; co)tgratulate. 
gratus, -a, -um, adj., pleasing, 

dear, acceptable; thankful, grate- 

ful; strong, infiuential. 
gravis, -e, adj., heavy ; severe, dif- 

jictdt ; ofzveight, of authority. 
gravitas, -atis, [gravis], f., 

weight, heaviness ; i))iporta)ice, 

dig)iity, i))fi.ue)ice. 
graviter, [gravis], comp. gra- 

vius, sup. gravissime, adv., 

weightily; severely; with dig)iity. 
gravor, -ari, -atus sum, [gravis], 

1, dep., n., be bzirdoied, be vexed ; 
take a))iiss, do relucta))tly. 

grex, gregis, m.,flock, herd ; co))i- 

))io)i herd ; ba)ia. 
gubernator, -5ris, [gubern5], 

m., steers)?ia)i, hel)?is))ia)i ; di- 

rector, ruler. 


habeo, habere, habui, hahitum, 

2, a., ha7)e, hold. keep ; treat, 
tise ; co)isider, recard ; roider. 




habito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq, 
of habeo], i, a. and n., dwell, 
abide, reside ; inkabit. 

habitus, -us, m., co)iditio?i, state, 
habit ; dress, attire. 

halitus, -us, m., breath. 

Hamilcar, -aris, m., Hamilcar, 
brother of Hannibal. 

Hannibal, -alis, m., Hamiibal, 
a famous general of the Cartha- 
ginians, who waged war against 
the Romans from 218 to 202 
B.C. See extracts xv., xvi., and 

Hanno, -onis, m., Hanno, a Car- 
thaginian statesman, a contem- 
porary of Hannibah He was 
the leader of the party opposed 
to Hannibal. 

hariispex, -icis, [cf. specio], m., 
soothsayer, diviner. 

hasta, -ae, f., stoff, pole ; spear. 

haud, adv., not, not at all, by no 

herba, -ae, f., herb ; grass, herb- 

Hercules, -is, m., Hercules, the 
Roman name of the Greek 
Heracles, famed for his strength 
and mighty deeds. He was said 
to have passed through Italy, 
and is mentioned in the legends 
connected with the founding of 

hereditas, -atis, [heres], f. , 
keirship, inheritaiice ; an in- 

heres, -edis, m. and f., heir, 

heri, adv., yesterday. 

hic, haec, hoc, gen. hiiius, dem. 

pron., this, the present ; the fol- 

loioing ; he, she, if. 
hic, [hic], adv., here ; now, kere- 

npon, then. 
hiems, hiemis, f., winter, rainy 

season, storin. 
Hierosolyma, -ae, f., Jerusalem, 

chief city of Judaea, captured by 

hilare, comp. hilarius, sup. hila- 

rissime, [hilarus], adv., cheer- 

ftilly, gladly, gaily. 
hilaris, -e, adj., cheeiful, gay, 

hilaritas, -atis, [hilaris], f., 

cheerfulness, merriment, hi- 

hinc, [hic], ^(l\.,from this place, 

kence ; on this account, from 

this. hinc . . . hinc, on this 

side . . . on that, on tke one 

side . . . on tke otker. 
Hispani, -orum, m., Spaniards. 
Hispania, -ae, f., Spain. 
Hispaniensis, -e, [Hispania], 

adj., in Spain, Spanisk. As 

subst., Hispaniensis, -is, m., a 

hodie, [ho = hoc, die], adv., to- 

day ; noiv. 
homo, -inis, m. and f., kumajt 

being, man, person. 
honestas, -atis, [honos], f., honor 

received from others, repute, 

reputation ; uprightness, integ- 

honeste, comp. honestius, sup. 

honestissime, [honestus], adv., 

konorably, properly, virtuously. 




honestus, -a, -um, [honos], adj., 

Iionored, respected : iioble. 
honorifice, [honorificus] , adv., 

hoiiorably., li.nth ho)!or, with re- 

honorificus, -a, -um, [honds, cf. 

facio], adj., that does houor, 

honos, or honor, -oris, m., houor, 

repiite, esteein ; public office ; per- 

sonified, Honor. 
hora, -ae, f., hour, time, season. 
Horatius, -a, the name of a Ro- 

man gens. In this book are 

mentioned : 

(i) The Horatii, triplets, prae- 
noniina not given, who fought 
with the Curiatii. 

(2) Horatius Cocles^ pracnoinen 
not given, who defended the 
bridge against the Etruscans. 
horrendus, -a, -um, [part. of 

horreo], adj., dreadful, fear- 

ful, horrible, awful. 
horreo, horrere, horrui, — , 2, 

n. and a., stand on end, bristle, 

be rough ; treinble, shudder ; 

shudder at, be disinclined to. 
horror, -oris, [horreo], m., trein- 

bling., shaking ; dread, horror, 

hortatio, -onis, [hortor], f., en- 

courageinent, exhortation. 
hortus, -i, m., garden. 
hospes, -itis, m., entertainer, 

host ; guest ; stranger. 
hospita, -ae, f., hostess ; guest. 
hospitium, -i, [hospes], n., en- 

tcrtainment, hospitality, friend- 

ship ; lodging, inn. 

hostia, -ae, f., aninial sacrificed, 

victiiii . 
hostilis, -e, [hostis], adj., of an 

eneiiiy, hostile. 
hostiliter, [hostilis], adv., like 

an eneiny, in a hostile nianner. 
HostTlius, -a, name of a Roman 

gens. In this book are men- 

tioned : 

(i) Hostus Hostilius, a general 
of the Romans in the time of 

(2) Tullus Hosfilius, the third 
king of Rome. 
hostis, -is, m. and f., stranger ; 

hiic, [hic], adv., hither ; to this, 

hiiiuscemodi, adv., of this kind, 

ofsuch a kind. 
hiimanitas, -atis, [humanus], f., 

huinanity ; kindliness ; refine- 

humanus, -a, -um, [homo], adj., 

of inan, hunian ; humane, kind. 
humilis, -e, [humus], adj., low, 

lozuly ; siiiall, slight ; cominon, 

hydra, -d^e, L,water-snake ; esp. 

the Hydra, a monster with fifty 

heads, slain by Heracles (Her- 


laceo, lacere, lacui, — , 2, n., 

lie, be prostrate ; lie dead ; be 
situated ; be despised. 
iactatio, -onis, [iact6],f., tossing, 
shaking ; boasting, display. 




iacto, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. of 

iacioj, I, a., throw, cast, hiirl ; 

speak, say ; boast, take pride in. 
iam, adv., at present, now ; al- 

ready ; im/nediately ; soon , pres- 

iamdudum, adv., a long tinie ago, 

this long tiine. 
laniculum, -i, [lanus], n., the 

Jajiiciilum, a hill lying across 

the Tiber from Rome, connected 

with the city by a wooden bridge 

called the Pons Sttblicius. It was 

the seat of a mythical citadel of 

ianua, -ae, f., door ; entrance. 
lanus, -i, [cf. ianua], m., Janns, 

an old Italian god of begin- 

nings. See note to p.- 5, 1. 22. 
larbas, -ae, m., larbds, a king of 

Mauritania, themodern Morocco. 
ibi, adv., in that place, there ; on 

that occasion, therenpon. 
ibidem, adv., in the same place, 

jiist there. 
ic6, icere, ici, ictum, in classical 

prose only in the perf. system, 

3, a., hit, strike. foedus icere, to 

i7iake a leagiie, niake a treaty. 
ictus, -iis, [ico], m., bloia, stroke, 

idem, eadem, idem, gen. eius- 

dem, [is], dem. pron., the sanie ; 

often with the force of an adv., 

also, besides, too. 
ideo, [id-f eo], adv., for that 

reason, on that account, there- 

Idiis, -uum, f., the Ides, the middle 

ofthe month, the i^th of March, 

May, July, and October, and the 

I3th of the other months. 
igitur, adv., then, therefore. 
ignavia, -ae, [ignavus], f., ijiac- 

tivity, idleness, sloth. 
ignis, -is, m..,fire. 
ignobilis, -e, [in- + (g) nobilis], 

adj., tmknozvn, undistinguished, 

ign oble ; sh a m eful. 
ignominia, -ae, [in- + (g)n6- 

men], f., disgrace, dishonor ; 

ignoro, -are, -avi, -atum, [unused 

ignorus], i, a. and n., not knozu, 

be unaware of ; be unacqiiainted 

with, take no notice of 
ignosco, -ere, ign5vi, ignotum, 

[in- + (g)n6sco], 3, 2.., pardon, 

forgive, excuse. 
ignotus, [in- -f (g)n6tus], adj., 

tinknoivn, strange; tinacquainted 

with, ignorant of 
ilico, [in -f loc6], adv., 07t the 

spot, there ; straightway, iuime- 

ille, illa, illud, gen. illius, dem. 

pron., that ; //t', she, it ; the 

famous, the well-known. 
illic, [ille], adv., in that place, 

there, yonder. 
illuc, [ille], adv,, to that place, 

thither, there ; thereto ; to such 

a point. 
imago, -inis, [cf. imitor], f., im- 

itation, likeness, image. 
imbecillus, -a, -um, adj., weak, 

imbellis, -e, [in-+ bellum],adj., 

unwarlike, cozvardly. 
imber, -bris, m., rain, shower. 




imbuo, -ere, imbui, imbutum, 

3, a., wet, Jiioisten ; instruct 

superficially, inibue. 
imitor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

a., imitate ; co/>}', portray, 
immatiinis, -a, -um, [in- -f ma- 

turus], adj., unripe ; unti/nely, 

immineo, -minere, — , — , 2, n., 

project over, overhang ; be near, 

border on ; threaten, menace. 
immitto, -ere, immisT, immis- 

sum, [in -f- mitto], 3, a., send 

in, adniit, introduce. 
immo, adv., no indeed, by no 

nieans, nay ; yes indeed, cer- 

immolo, -are, -avi, -atum, [in, 

cf. mola, sacred meal'\, i, a., 

sprinkle with sacrificial meal ; 

hence sacrifice, inimolate. 
immotus, -a, -um, [part. of im- 

moveo], adj., unmoved, motion- 

less ; stea dfa st, firm . 
impar, -paris, [in--fpar], adj., 

uneven, unequal ; not a match 

for., weaker. 
impatiens, -entis, [in- 4- pati- 

ens], adj., intolerant, impatient. 
impedio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [in, 

cf. pes], 4, a, entangle, ha/n- 

per ; hinder, check. 
impendium, -i, [impendo], n,, 

money laid out, outlay, cost. 
impensa, -ae, [impendo], f., out- 

lay, cost. 
imperator, -oris, [impero], m., 

commander-in-chief general ; 

imperator (see n. to p. 37, 


imperfectus, -a, -um, [in- -|- per- 

fectus], adj., unfinished, i?>iper- 

imperium, -i, [impero], n., com- 

mand, authority, control ; mili- 

tary authority ; sovereignty, do- 

minion ; the state, state. 
impero, -are, -avi, -atum, [in -H 

par5], I, a. and n., conwiafid, 

order ; rule, govern ; make re- 

quisition for, levy. 
impetro, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

gain one^s end, get, obtain, pro- 

cure by request or influence. 
impetus, -us, [in, cf. peto], m., 

attack, assault, onset ; impidse, 

vehemence, excitement ; violence, 

impietas, -atis,[impius] , f., irrev- 

erence, impiety ; undutifulness. 
impiger, -gra, -grum, [in- -f- 

piger], adj., not indolent ; active, 

impius, -a, -um, [in- -f pius], 

adj., irreverent, undutiful ; 

wicked, inipious. 
impleo, -plere, -plevi, -pletum, 

[in + pleo], 2, a., fill up, fill 

implico, -are, -avi or -ui, -atum 

or -itum, [in + plic5], i, a., in- 

fold, envelop ; involve. 
impono, -ere, imposui, imposi- 

tum, [in-|-p5n5], 3, a., place 

upon, put in, put on board ; 

infiict, dictate terms of peace. 
imprimis, [primus], adv., espe- 

improvisus, [in-, cf. pr5vide5], 

adj., not foreseen, unexpected. 




impugno, -are, -avi, -atum, [in 
+ pugno], I, a., fight against, 

attack ; oppose. 
impiinitus, -a, -um, [in- -f- puni- 

tusj, adj., tmpunished, sectire. 
in, prep. with acc. and abl. : 

(i) With acc. : of place, after 

verbs of motion, into, to, tip 

to, totvards, against ; of time, 

into, iill ; of purpose, for ; 

of result, to, unto ; of other 

relations, to, in, respecting, 


(2) With abl. : of place, in, on, 

Mpon, aniong ; of time, in, in 

the course of, during, while ; 

of other relations, involved iti, 

in case of respecting. 

in-, inseparable prefix, [cf. Eng. 

UN-, not'] ; prefixed to adjectives 

it negatives or reverses their 


inaestimabilis, -e, [in- + aesti- 

mabilis), adj., not to be judged 

of inestiniable, beyond compari- 


inambulo, -are, — , — , [in -f am- 

bul5], I, n., jva/k up and dowji. 

inanis, -e, adj., empty, void ; life- 

less ; 7i<orthless, vain. 
inauditus, -a, -um, [in- + audi- 
tus], adj., unheard of unusual, 
strange, nezv. 
incalesco, -calescere, -calui, — , 

[in + calesco], 


groiv warm, be heated ; be in- 
incautus, -a, -um, [in- 4- cau- 

tus], adj., unsuspecting, improv- 
ident, off ojie''^ guard. 

incedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[in -j- cedo], 3, n., advance, 

march ; approach ; happen. 
incendium, -i, [incend5], n., 

burning, fire, flame. 
incendo, -ere, -cendi, -censum, 3, 

a., setfire to, kindle; rouse, excite. 
inceptum, -i, [incipi5], n., be- 

ginning, atte?npt, undertaking. 
incesso, -ere, — , — , [freq. of 

inced5], 3, a., fall upon, assail, 

incido, -cidere, -cidi, -casum, 

[in + cad5], 3, n., fall in, fall ; 

occur, arisc, happen. incidere 

in aliquem, to happen in the 

time of anybody. 
incipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

[in + capi5] , 3, a., take in hand, 

begin, originate ; instigate. 
incito, -are, -avi, -atum, [in + 

cit5], I, a., set in motion, urge 

on ; rouse, excite. 
inclamo, -are, -avi, -atum, [in 

+ clam5], I, n. and a., 7nake a 

lo7id cry, call out ; appeal to, in- 

voke ; exclaim against. 
inclmo, -are, -avi, -atum, [in + 

clin5], I, a. and n., cause to 

lean, turn ; bend, incline. 
inclitus, -a, -um, adj., celebrated, 

famoHS, renowned. 
includo, -cludere, inclusi, inclu- 

sum, [in + claud5], 3, a., shut 

tip, enclose, imprison ; include. 
incola, -ae, [incol5], f., inhabi- 

tant, resident. 
incolo, -colere, -colui, — , [in + 

col5], 3, a. and n., be at home, 

abide, divell ; dxvell in. 




incolumis, -e, adj., zinimpaired, 

iDiiujured, safe. 
inconstantia, -ae, [inconstans], 

f., ineousisteiicy, changeableness, 

inconsulte, [inconsultus], adv., 

loiadvisedly, inconsiderately. 
inconsultus, -a, -um, [in- -f con- 

sultus], adj., tinadvised, incon- 

incredibilis, -e, [in- -f credibi- 

lis], adj., 7tot to be believed, in- 

increpo, -are, -ui, -itum, i, n. 

and a., soimd, resound, clash; 

upbraid.1 scold. 
incresco, -crescere, -crevi, — , 

[in-}- cresco], 3, n..,grow tipon; 

grotv, increase. 
incumbo, -ere, -cubui, -cubitum, 

[in-f cumbo], 3, n., lie upon, 

lean ; press upon ; make an effort, 

apply ojteself; incline, choose. 
incuriosus, -a, -um, [in- -f curi- 

osus], adj., careless, negligent. 
incursio, -onis, [incurro], f., 

running against; onset, attack, 

inde, di(\w.,fro?n that place, thence ; 

froni that tiine ; after that, there- 

upon ; from that, therefore. 
index, -icis, [cf. indico], m. and 

f, oneioho points out.i informer ; 

index, mark, sign, proof 
indicium, -1, [cf. indico], n., 

notice, sign, indication. 
indico, -are, -avi, -atum, [in- 

dex], I, a., point out, inform ; 

make known, reveal ; betray, 

indico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum, 

[in -f dico], 3, a., declare pub- 

licly, proclaim, announce ; ap- 

point ; impose, inflict. 
indictus, -a, -um, [in--f dictus], 

adj., tinsaid. indicta causa, 

without a hearing. 
indigeo, -ere, -ui, — , [indu, old 

form of in, -f ege5] , 2, a. , need, 

want; demand, require. 
indignatio, -onis, [indignor], f, 

displea s ure, i n dignatio n . 
indignatus, -a, -um, [part. of in- 

dignor], adj., angered, i?idig- 

indigne, [indignus], adv., un- 

7uorthily, shaniefully ; indig- 

naiitly. indigne ferre, to take 

amiss, to be vexed at. 
indignus, -a, -um,[in- -f dignus] , 

adj., undeserving, tcnfit : shame- 

indo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [in-f 

do], 3, a., insert, put into ; give, 

indoles, -is, f., inbom quality, 

character, disposition. 
induco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum, 

[in + duco], 3, a., lead in, bring 

in, introduce ; lead, induce. 
industria, -ae, [industrius], f., 

diligence, industry, activity. 
industrius, -a, -um, adj., active, 

diligent, industrious. 
ineo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, [in 

-f eo], irr., a. and n., go into, 

enter ; enter upon, undertake. 
inermis, -e, [in- -f arma], adj., 

unarmed, without weapons^ d(- 





infamis, -e, [in-+ fama], adj., of 

ill repute^ notorious, infanious. 
infans, -antis, [in- 4- fans, from 

for], adj., that cannot speak, 

speechless ; young, infant. As 

subst., m. and f , infant, babe. 
iifectus, -a, -um, [in--f factus], 

adj., 7iot done, unaccomplished. 
inferior, -ius, [comp. of inferus], 

adj., lozver, inferior. 
infero, -ferre, intuli, inlatum, 

[in -f fer5], 3, a., bring in, in- 

troduce, bring against. se in- 

ferre, to betake oneself to rush. 
infesto, -are, — , — , [infestus], 

I, a., annoy, disturb, infest ; tres- 

pass on. 
infestus, -a, -um, adj., unsafe, 

disturbed ; hostile, threatening. 
inficio, -ficerej -feci, -fectum, 

[in -1- facio] , 3, a., stain, dye, 

color ; infect, corrupt. 
infirmus, -a, -um, [in- -f firmus], 

adj., not strong, iveak, feeble. 
inflatus, -a, -um, [part. of inflo], 

adj., bloivn up, inflated ; puffed 

tip, proud. 
inflo, -are, -avi, -atum, [in -f flo], 

I, a., bloxv into, inflate ; inspire, 

informo, -are, -avi, -atum, [in 

-f-formd], I, a., shape, mould, 

fashion ; organize ; inform, in- 

infra, adv. and prep. with acc, 

beloxv, underneaih ; inferior to. 
infula, -ae, f., band,fillet. 
infundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusum, 

[in-f fundo], 3, a., pour in, 

press in ; communicate, impart. 

mgemisco, -gemiscere, — , 


inch., n. and a. 

groan ; groan over. 
ingenium, -i, [in, cf. gigno], n., 

innate quality, nature ; charac- 

ter, disposition. 
ingens, -entis, [in-, cf gigno], 

adj., beyond the natural size; 

prodigious, vast, great ; mighty, 

ingenuus, -a, -um, [in, cf. 

gigno], adj., native ; free-born, 

noble, ingenuous , liberal. 
ingratus, -a, -um, [in- -f gratus], 

adj., unpleasant, disagreeable ; 

thankless, ungrateful. 
ingredior, -gredi, -gressus sum, 

[in -|- gradior], 3, dep., n. and 

a., advance, march, proceed, 

enter ; enter upon, undertake. 
inhibeo, -ere, -hibui, -hibitum, 

[in -f habeo], 2, a., hold in, re- 

strain, prevent ; exercise, use, 

inicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, [in 

-f iacio], 3, a., throzv in ; hurl 

in, put in ; inspire, suggest, 

inimicus, -a, -um, [in--fami- 

cus], adj., unfriendly, hostile. 

As subst., inimicus, -i, m.,per- 

sonal enemy. 
inique, [iniquus], adv., un- 

equally, unfairly, unjustly. 
iniquus, -a, -um, [in--f aequus], 

adj., uneven, steep ; unequal ; 

excessive, unfavorable, mtfair, 

initium, -i, [ineo], n., going in, 

entra nce ; begin n ing. 




iiiiuria, -ae, [in- + ius], f., injus- 

fice, 7v>-ofig; injiiry ; instdt. 
inlido, -lidere, -lisi, -lisum, [in 

+ laed5], 3, a., dash against, 

inliistris, -e, adj., bright ; clear ; 

disiinguished, illustrious, re- 

innitor, -niti, -nisus, or -nixus 

sum [in + nitor], 3, dep., n., 

lean on, support oneself by. 
innocentia, -ae, [innocens], f., 

blanielessness, innocence ; integ- 

innotesco, -notescere, -notui, 

— , [in + ndtesco], 3, inch., n., 

beconie knoiun, become conspicu- 

innoxius, -a, -ura, [in- + noxius], 

adj., hari/iless ; blameless, inno- 

innumerabilis, -e, [in- + nume- 

rabilis], adj., countless, iiinu- 

innuo, -nuere, -nui, — , [in + 

nuo], 3, n., nod, give a sign, 

inopia, -ae, [inops], f., want, 

lack ; needjpoverty, scarcity. 
inopinatus, -a, -um, [in- + opi- 

natus], adj., zmexpected, sur- 

inops, -opis, [in- + ops], adj., 

zvithout resources, helpless,%veak ; 

poor, needy, without ; pitiful. 
inqaam, inquis, inquit, def., n., 

always postpositive, say. 
inquietus, -a, -um, [in- + qui- 

etus], adj., restless, unquiet, dis- 


inquino, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

bcfoul, stain, defile, pollute. 
inrideo, -ridere, -risi, -risum, 

[in + ride5], 2, a., laugh at, 

jeer at, ridicule. 
inrito, adv., in vain, to no pur- 

inruo, -ruere, -rui, — , [in + 

ru5], 3, a., rush in, invade, 

make an attack. 
inscientia, -ae, [insciens], f., 

zvant of knowledge, inexperi- 

ence, ignorance. 
inscius, -a, -um, adj., not knoiv- 

ing, ignorant, unazvare. 
insequor, -sequi, -seciitus sum, 

[in + sequor], 3, dep., a., fol- 

low, come next ; pursue ; over- 

insero, -serere, -serui, -sertum, 

[in + sero], 3, a., put in, in- 

sert ; introduce, join, enroll. 
insideo, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum, 

[in+sede5], 2, n. and a., sit 

upon ; settie on, occupy ; be fixed, 

be inhcretit in, adhere to. 
insidiae, -arum, [cf. inside5], f., 

pl., snare, trap, ambush ; arti- 

fice., plot. 
insidior, -ari, -atus sum, [insi- 

diae], i, dep., n., lie iji wait 

for, ivatchfor, plot against. 
insigne, -is, [insignis], n., mark, 

indication ; badge ; honor. 
insignis, -e, [in + signum], adj., 

distinguished by a mark, con- 

spicuous ; noted, eminent,promi- 

insitus, -a, -um, [part. of insero], 

adj., ingrafted, inborn, innate. 




insolens, -entis, [in + solens, 
part. of sole5], adj., tmaccus- 
toined ; immoderate^ haiighty, in- 
insolenter, comp. insolentius, 
sup. insolentissime, [insolens], 
adv., unusiially ; haughtily, in- 
insperabilis, -e, [in- -f sperabi- 
lis], adj., not to be hoped for, 
unhoped for. 
instinctus, -a, -um, [part. of in- 
stingud], adj., instigated ; ani- 
mated, inspired. 
instituo, -ere, -stitui, -stitutum, 
[in 4- statud] , 3, a. and n., put 
in place, plant, fix ; arrange ; 
found^ establish ; begin ; teach, 
institiitum, -i, [part. ofinstituo], 
n., purpose, ijitention, design ; 
institution, ordinance, decree. 
instriictus, -a, -um, [part. of 
instrud], adj., furnished, pro- 
vided ; arranged ; ittstructed, 
instriimentum, -i, [instru5], n., 
itnplement, tool, instrument ; 
coll. in sing., instruments, stock. 
instruo, -ere, -struxi, -structum, 
[in + stru5], 3, a., bttild in ; 
make ready, provide ; of troops, 
draw up, array. 
insusurro, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 

a., whisper to ; suggest. 
insum, -esse, -fui, [in + sum], 
irr. n., be in, be upon ; belong to. 
intactus, -a, -um, [in- + tactus, 
from tang5], adj., untouched, 
uninjured, intact ; untried. 

integer, -gra, -grum, [in-, cf. 
tang5], adj., untouched, whole ; 

uiiinjured, umvounded ; fresh, 

intellego, -legere, -lexi, -lectum, 

[inter + leg5], 3, a., come to 

knozv, perceive, understand. 
intendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentum or 

-tensum, [in + tend5], 3, a., 

stretch out, extend ; aim, direct ; 

intentus, -a, -um, [part. of in- 

tendo], adj., attentive, intent. 
inter, prep. with acc. only, among; 

of position and relation, hetiveen, 

among, into the midst of; of 

time, betiveen, during, in, within. 
intercalarius, -a, -um, adj., for 

insertion, intercalary. 
intercalo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 

a., insert in the calendar, inter- 

intercipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

[inter + capi5], 3, a., seize in 

passing, intercept ; usurp ; inter- 

interdico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum, 

[inter+ dic5], 3, a. and n., in- 

terpose by speaking, interdict, 

interdiii, [inter + diii], adv., in 

the daytime, by day. 
interdum, [inter+dum], adv., 

someti?Hes, occasionally, noiv and 

interea, [inter + ea], adv., mean- 

while, in the meantime. 
intereo, -ire, -ii, -itum, [inter 

+ e5], irr., n., go among ; be 

lost^ perish, die. 




interfector, -6ris, [interficio], 

111., slayer, assassiii. 
interficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 

[inter 4- faci5], 3, a., piit oiit 

of the luay, destroy, kill. 
interlcio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 

[inter + iacio], 3, a., throzv be- 

tzaeen, set betzveen ; interpose, in- 

interim, adv., meamvhile, in the 

interimo, -imere, -emi,- emptum, 

[inter + emo], 3, a., take aivay ; 

kill, destroy. 
interitus, -us, [intereo], m., 

overthrow, fall, destruction. 
interniintius, -i, [inter -f nun- 

tius], m., go-beiiveen, iiies- 

interpretor, -ari, -atus sum, 

[interpres], i, dep., a., explain, 

interpret ; understand. 
interrogo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[inter -1- rog5], i, a., ask, ques- 

tion, exaiiiine. 
interrumpo, -rumpere, -riipi, 

-ruptum., [inter + rump5], 3, 

a., break apart, break through, 

break dozvn. 
intersum, -esse, -fui, [inter + 

sum], irr., n., lie between : in- 

tervene ; be present. Impers., 

interest, it inakes a difference ; 

it concerns. 
intervallum, -i, [inter + val- 

lum], n., space between pali- 

sades ; interval, distance; inter- 

val of time. 
intervertS, -ere, -verti, -versum, 

[inter + vert5], 3, a., turn 

aside, intercept, embezzle, iitis- 

intimus, -a, -um, adj. sup., comp. 

interior, inmost, deepest, pro- 

foHiid ; intiinate. 
intolerabilis, -e, [in- + tolera- 

bilis], adj,, irresistible, intoler- 

able, tmendurable. 
intra, adv. and prep. with acc. 

only, within ; of time, during. 
intro, adv., to the inside ; within. 
intro, -are, -avi, -atum, [cf. 

intra], i, a., go into, enter ; 

penetrate, reach. 
introduco, -diicere, -duxi, -duc- 

tum, [intr5 + diic51, 3, a., lead 

in., bring in. 
introrumpo, -ere, -riipi, -ruptum, 

[intr5 + rump5], 3, a., break in, 

enter by force, rush in. 
intueor, -tueri, -tuitus sum, [in 

+ tueor], 2, a., look upon, look 

closely at. 
intumesco, -tumescere, -tumui, 

— , 3, inch., n., sivell up, 

rise ; becoine angry ; swell with 

inundo, -are, -avi, -atum, [in + 

und5, from unda, 7vave~\, i, a., 

overfto7v, inundate ; spread. 
iniisitatus, -a, -um, [in- + iisita- 

tus], adj., unusual, uncoiii- 

invado, -vadere, -vasi, -vasum, 

[in + vad5], 3, a., go into, 

enter ; attack, invade ; seize, 

take possession of 
invalidus, -a, -um, [in- + vali- 

dus], adj., not strong, weak, 





inveho, -vehere, -vexi, -vectum, 

[in + veho], 3, a., carry in, 

carry io ; pass., ride into ; fall 

tipon, attack. 
i.ivenio, -venire, -veni, -ventum, 

[in -\- venio], 4, a., come tipon, 
find, meet with ; discover ; ac- 

invicem or in vicem, adv., by 

turns, one after the other. 
invideo, -videre, -vidi, -visum, 

[in+ video], 2, n. and a., look 

askance at ; envy, be prejudiced 

invidia, -ae, [cf. invideo], f., 

etivy, jealousy ; ill "cvill, odium, 

invidiosus, -a, -um, [invidia], 

adj., ftdl of envy, invidious ; 

exciting envy, hateful., tmpop- 

inviqlatus, -a, -um, [in- -f- vio- 

latus], adj., unhtirt, uninjured, 

ijtviolate ; inviolable. 
invisus, -a, -um, [part. of in- 

video], adj., hated., detested, 

invito, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

invitc, ask ; feast, entertain ; 

allure, attract. 
invitus, -a, -um, adj., against the 

will., univilling, 
iocus, -i, m., pl. ioci or ioca, 

-orum, jest, joke. 
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, gen. ipsius, 

dem. pro., self ; himself herself 

itself; often best rendered freely, 

very,jiist, mere, in person. 
ira, -ae, f., anger, wrath ; pas- 


iracundia, -ae, [iracundus], f., 

proneness to anger, hasty temper ; 

anger, zvrath. 
iratus, -a, -um, [part. of irascor], 

a4j., angered^ ejiraged, violent; 

in anger. 
is, ea, id, gen. eius, dem. pro., 

//^, she, it; that, this, the, the one ; 

before ut, such. 
iste, ista, istud, gen. istius, dem. 

pro., that ofyours, that, this ; he, 

she, it ; such. 
ita, adv., in this mamier, so, thtis, 

as follows. 
italicus, -a, -um, adj., of Italy, 

Italian. As subst., Italici, 

-orum, m. pl., the Italians, as 

distinguished from the Roman 

itaque, [ita-f -que], conj., and 

so, therefore, accordingly. 
iter, itineris, [cf. eo], n., going; 

journey, march ; way, road. 
iterum, adv., again, a second 

luba, -ae, m., Juba, the name of 

a king of Numidia, who sided 

with Pompey and was defeated 

by Caesar. 
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iiissum, 

2, a., order, give orders, com- 

mand, decree, enact. 
iiicunde, comp. iucundius, sup. 

iiicundissime, agreeably, delight- 

iucundus, -a, -um, 2id]., pleasant, 

agreeable, delightful. 
liidaea, -ae, f., fudaea, a coun- 

try bordering the southeastern 

part of the Mediterranean Sea. 




ludaeus, -a, -um, a.d]., o/yudaea. 

As subst., ludaeus, -i, m., a Jeiu. 
iudex, -icis, [ius, cf. dico], m. 

and i.,jndge,jiiror. 
iudicium, -i, [iudex], n., trial, 

coxirt; judgment, decision. 
iudic6,-are,-avi,-atum, [iudex], 

1, a., exatnine judicially,judge ; 

iiigerum, -i, gen. pl. iiigerum, 

n., an acre, juger (about two- 

thirds of an English acre). 
iugulum, -i, (dim. of iugum), n., 

collar bone ; throat, neck. 
iugum, -i, n., yoke, collar ; sum- 

7?iit, range of mountains. 
lugurtha, -ae, m., Jugurtha, king 

of Numidia, who carried on war 

with the Romans between iii 

and 106 B.c. He was defeated 

by Marius. See p. 54. 
lugurthinus, -a, -um, adj., of 

Jugurtha, zvith Jugurtha, Ju- 

liilius, -a, name of a celebrated 

Roman gens. See Caesar. To 

this gens belonged lulia, -ae, f., 

Julia, daughter of Caesar, and 

wife of Pompey. 
iungo, iungere, iunxi, iiinctum, 

3, di.,join together, tmite. 
iiinior, -ius, comp.; see iuvenis. 
liinius, -a, name of a prominent 

Roman gens. See Briitus. 
luppiter, lovis, m., Jupiter, 

the highest of the gods. 
iiiro, -are, -avi, -atum, [ius], i, 

n. and a., swear, take oath ; 

swear to ; swear by, call to wit- 


ius, iiiris, n., that which is bind- 
ing, right, justice ; court ofjus- 
tice, place of trial ; abl. iure, 

iiisiiirandum, iiirisiiirandi, n., 

iiissus, -us, only abl. sing. in use, 
[iube5], m., order, command. 

iustitia, -ae, [cf. ius], i.,Justice, 

iuvenis, -is, comp. iiinior, adj., 
young., youthful. As subst., iu- 
venis, -is, m., young person, 
youth (between twenty and forty 
years). iiiniores, -um, m., pl., 
those eligible for military service, 
the members of each century 
who were under forty-six years 
of age. 

iuventiis, -iitis, [iuvenis], f., 
age of youth., youth ; by nie- 
tonymy, coll., young people, 

Kalendae, -arum, f., day of 

proclamation, Calends, first of 
the month. 

L., with proper names = Lucius, 

a Roman forename. 
labor, -oris, m., labor, toil, exer- 

tion ; hardship, distress. 
laboriose, comp. laboriosius, 

sup. labdriosissime, [laborio- 

sus], adv., laboriously . 
laboriosus, -a, -um, [labor], 

adj., fidl of labor, laborious ; 

toihoiiie ; incli)ied to labor. 




laboro, -are, -avi, -atum, [la- 

bor], I, n. and a., labor^ toil ; 

work otit, produce by toil ; suffer, 

be hard pressed. 
Lacedaemonius, -a, -um, adj., 

of Lacedaemon, the chief city 

of Laconia, in the southeastern 

part of the Peloponnesus, Lace- 

daemonian. As subst., Lace- 

daemonii, -orum, m., pl., the 

Lacedaemonians, inhabitants of 

lacero, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

tear to pieces, rend ; ruin. 
lacesso, -ere, -ivi, -itum, 3, a., 

excite, provoke, challenge ; urge, 

lacrima, -ae, f., tear. 
lacrimo, -are, -avi, -atum, [la- 

crima], i, n,, shed tears ; la- 

ment, bezuail. 
lacus, -us, lake, pond, pool. 
laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum, 3, 

a., htirt, wound; vex, iiisult, 

Laelius, -i, m., Laelius, gentile 

name of C. Laelius, a friend of 

Scipio Africanus the elder. 
laetitia, -ae, [laetus], i.,joy, ex- 

tdtation, rejoicing. 
laetus, -a, -um, adj., cheerful, 

joyful, glad. 
Laevinus, -i, m., Laevinus, fam- 

ily name of F. Valerius Laevt- 

nus. See p, 17. 
laevus, -a, -um, adj., left, on the 

left hand ; of ill omen, nnlucky ; 

awkward, foolish. As subst., 

laeva, -ae, f., (sc. manus), left 

hand, left arm. 

lambo, lambere, 

lick, lap. 

3. a. 

dep., n. and a,, lainent, xveep ; 

bewail, weep for. 
lamina, -ae, f,, thin slice ; plate., 

lana, -ae, f., wool ; working in 

wool, spinning. 
lancea, -ae, f., a light spear ; 

spear, lance. 
lapideus, -a, -um, [lapis], adj., 

of stone, stone. 
lapis, -idis, ni,, stone ; mile-stone. 
laqueus, -i, m., noose, snare, 

Larentia, -ae, f., see Acca, 
largitio, -onis, [largior], f., giv- 

ing freely., generosity, largess ; 

latebra, -ae, [lateo], f., usually 

pl, , hiding-place, retreat. 
lateo, -ere, -ui, — , 2, n., lie hid, 

be concealed ; escape notice. 
latericius, -a, -um, [later, 

brick^ adj,, made of bricks, 

Latinus, -a, -um, adj,, of Latium, 

Latiji. As subst., Latini, -orum, 

m., pl,, the Latins. 
latro, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n, 

and a., bark ; bark at. 
latro, -onis, m,, freebooter, high- 

wayman, robber, brigand. 
latus, -eris, n., side,fiank. 
laudandus, -a, -um, [part. of 

laudo], adj., praisetvorthy, com- 

laudo, -are, -avi, -atum, [laus], 

I, 0.., praise, extol. 




laurea, -ae, f., laurel-tree, bay ; 

laiirel croivii. 
laus, laudis, f., praise, glojy, re- 

laxitas, -atis, f., ividth, spacious- 

lectica, -ae, f., litter, sedan-chair ; 

see n. to p. 20, 1. 3. 
lectulus, -i, [dim. of lectus], m., 

sinall coHch, bed. 
lectus, -i, m., couch, bed. 
legatio, -onis, f., einbassy, lega- 

legatus, -1, m., ambassador, legate, 

eiivoy ; deputy, lieutenant. 
legio, -onis, [cf. lego], f., legion. 
legitimus, -a, -um, [lex], adj., 
Jixed by laiv, lazvful, legal ; just, 

lego, legere, legi, lectum, 3, a., 

bring together, gatlier, collect ; 

choose, appoint ; reviezu, read. 
lenis, -e, adj., sinooth, soft, gentle ; 

kind, favorable. 
lenitas, -atis, [lenis] , f., softness, 

gcntleness, mildness. 
leniter, [lenis], adv., softly, mildly, 

quietly, lightly. 
lenocinium, -i, n., allureinent, 

enticement., charm ; personal 

Lentulus, -i, m., Lentuhis, name 

of a distinguished family of the 

Cornehan gens; in this book, 

P. Cornelius Lenttilus Sura, a 

prominent member of the Cati- 

linarian conspiracy. 
lentus, -a, -um, [cf. lenis], adj., 

pliant,flexible, tough ; sloiv, slug- 

gish ; easy, calin. 

Lepidus, -i, m., Lepidus, family 

name of M. Aemilius Lepidus, 

a member, with Antony and Oc- 

tavianus, of the second trium- 

letalis, -e, [letum], adj., deadly, 

levis, -e, adj., light ; slight, trivial. 
leviter, [levis], adv., lightly, 

lex, legis, f., enactment, laxv, rule ; 

condition.1 stipulation. 
libens, -entis, [part. of libet], 

adj., willing, zvith good zvill, with 

pleasure, glad. 
libenter, [libens], adv., willingly, 

liber, -era, -erum, adj,, free, nn- 

restrained, unchecked ; generous. 
liber, -bri, m., book ; account-book. 
liberalis, -e, [liber], adj., befit- 

ting a freeman, dignified ; iib- 

eral, generous. 
liberalitas, -atis, [liberalis], f., 

nobility, kindness, courtesy ; gen- 

liberaliter, [liberalis], adv., 

nobly.1 kindly ; generously. 
libere, [liber], adv., freely ; 

openly, boldly. 
liberi, -orum or -um, [liber], m , 

\)\., free persons ; hence children 

ofafa m ily, ch ildren . 
libero, -are, -avi, -atum, [liber], 

I, a., set free, liberate, free ; ab- 

solve, acquit. 
libertas, -atis, [liber], f., free- 

doin, liberty ; freedom of speech. 
libertus, -i, [liber], m., freed- 




libido, -inis, [libet], i.^pleasure, 

delight ; zuanionness. 
libro, -are, -avi, -atum, [libra, 

balajice'], i, a., poise, balance ; 

hurl, dash, throzv. 
licentia, -ae, [licet], f., freedom, 

liberty, license. 
licet, licere, licuit and licitum 

est, 2, n., impers., it is lawftd, 

it is perniitted. 
lictor, -oris, m., lictor, official 

attendant upon a magistrate ; 

see n. to p. 8, line 6. 
ligneus, -a, -um, [lignum], adj., 

ofwood, zvooden. 
limen, -inis, n., cross-piece ; thresh- 

old, lintel, sill. 
lineamentum, -i, n., line ; feat- 

tire, lineament. 
lingua, -ae, f., tongue ; by me- 

tonymy, latiguage. 
liquefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum, 

[liqueo-1- facio], 3, a., jfiake 

liquid, melt ; enervate. 
Literninus, -a, -um, adj., at Li- 

ternum, a town on the coast of 

Campania, to which Scipio re- 

tired into voluntary exile. 
litigator, -oris, m., party to a 

lazvsuit, litigant. 
littera, -ae, f., letter of the al- 

phabet; writing, dociwient ; pl., 

letter, epistle ; literature. 
litteratus, -a, -um, [littera], 

adj., lettered, learned, educated. 
litus, -oris, n., sea-shore, beach, 

Livius, -i, m., Livius, gentile 

name of M. Livius Salinator, 

who defeated Hasdrubal at the 

Metaurus river in 207 B.c. See 

n. to p. 30, 1. 3. 
loco, -are, -avi, -atum, [locus], 

I, z.., place, put ; let, lease ; C07i- 

tract for, have done by contract. 
Locri, -orum, m., pl., Locri Epi- 

zephyrii, a Greek town in Brut- 

tium, in southwestern Italy. 
locuples, -etis, [locus, cf. pleo], 

adj., rich in lands ; opulent, 

locus, -i, m., pl. loci, -orum, m., 

single places ; loca, -orum, n., 

places connected, region, place, 

spot, locality, region; station, 

longe, comp. longius, sup. lon- 

gissime, [longus], adv., a long 

7vay off, at a distance ; greatly, 

longinquus, -a, -um, [longus], 

adj., far removed, remote, dis- 

loquor, loqui, lociitus sum, 3, 

dep., n. and a., speak, talk, say, 

lorica, -ae, [Idrum], f., leather 

cuirass, corselet, coat-ofmail ; 

lorum, -i, n., strip of leather, 

thong, strap ; pl., reins, bridle. 
Liicius, -i, abbreviated L., m., 

Lucius, a Roman forename. 
Lucretia, -ae, f., Lucretia, wife 

of Tarquinius Collatinus, and a 

type of the Roman matron of the 

olden time. See p. 14, 1. 2ofol. 
liictor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

n., tvrestle, struggle, strive, con- 





liictus, -us, [cf. lugeo], m., sor- 
row, mourning, gricf. 

LucuUua, -i, m., Lucitllus, family 
name of L. Licinius Lucullus., 
consul in B.C. 74. He distin- 
guished himself by his successes 
against Mithridates, but failed to 
bring the war to a successful 
termination, and was recalled. 
On his return he gave himself 
up to a Ufe of luxury. 

lucus, -1, m., sacred grove ; tvood, 

ludibrium, -i, [ludus], n., juock- 
ery, derision ; laughing-stock, 

ludicer, -cra, -crum, [ludus], 
adj., bclonging to play, in sport, 
sportive. res ludicra, the 

Itidus, -i, m., game, play ; public 
ga m e ; sport, jcst. 

lugeo, -ere, luxi, luctum, 2, n. 
and a., grieve, lament ; deplore. 

lugubris, -e, [cf. liigeo], adj., of 
mourning, mourning; doleful, 

liimen, -inis, n., light ; light of 
the eye, eye ; glory, ornament. 

liina, -ae, f., the moon. 

lupa, -ae, f., she-zvolf. 

Liisitanus, -a, -um, adj., of Lusi- 
tania, the modern Portugal, Lu- 
sitanian. As subst. , Liisitanus, 
-i, m., a Lusitaniatt, inhabitant 
of Lusitania. 

liistro, -are, -avi, -atum, [liis- 
trum], I, a., light up, illumi- 
nate ; review, inspect, survey, 
examine ; purify. 

liix, liicis, f., light, brightncss; 

liixus, -iis, m., excess., indulgence, 

luxury ; splendor. 


M.,with proper names = Marcus, 

a Roman forename. 
Macedo, -onis, m., a Macedo- 

Macedonia, -ae, f., Macedonia, 

a country north of Greece. 
machina, -ae, f., machine, engine 

ofzvar; contrivance, trick. 
macto, -are, -avi, -atum, [mac- 

tus], I, a., magnify, glorify ; 

offer sacrifce ; kill. 
mactus, -a, -um, adj., worshipped, 

honored. macte virtiite esto, 

be increased in your virtue ! 

good luck ! well done ! 
Maecenas, -atis, m., Maecenas, 

family name of C. Cilnius Mae- 

cends, an intimate friend and 

trusted counsellor of Augustus. 
maestus, -a, -um, adj., full of 

sadness, sad, gloomy, dejected. 
magis, [cf. magnus], sup. max- 

ime, adv., comp., more, in a 

higher degree, rather. 
magister, -tri, [cf. magnus], m., 

master, chief; teacher,guardian. 
magistratus, -iis, [magister] , 

m., office of master, civil office, 

magnificus, -a, -um, [magnus, 

cf. facio], 2.^]., great, noble, dis- 

tinguished ; splendid, magnifi- 





magnitudo, -inis, [magnus], f., 

greatjiess, size, bidk ; grcat num- 

magnus, -a, -um, comp. maior, 

sup. maximus, did]., great, large, 

spacious ; mighty, loud ; comp. 

and sup. elder, eldest. As subst., 

Magnus, -i, m., the Great, sur- 

name of Cn. Pottipeius Magnus. 
Maharbal, -alis, m., Maharbal, 

a Carthaginian, commander of 

cavalry under Hannibal. 
maiestas, -atis, [maior], f.,^^;vc7/- 

ness, dignity ; authority, sover- 

eign power. crimen maiesta- 

tis, charge of high-treason. 
maior, -ius, see magnus. 
male, [malus], comp. peius, sup. 

pessime, adv., badly, unckedly ; 

iniperfectly, barely, scarcely, ivith 

maledictum, -i, [maledico], n., 

fou/ saying, abusive zuord. 
malo, malle, malui, — , [magis 

-f volo], irr. , a., choose rather, 

malum, -i, [malus], n., evil, mis- 

chief cala/nity. 
malus, -a, -um, comp. peior, sup. 

pessimus, adj., bad, zvicked; tin- 

favorable, unforttinate. 
MamGrius, -i, m., Miimurius, a 

worker in iron, who made the sa- 

cred shields (^ancilia^ for NumaJ| 
mandatum, -i, [part. of mando] , 

n., charge, order, command. 
mando, -are, -avi, -atum, [manus 

+ do], I, a., put in the Jiand, 

hand over, deliver ; commit, con- 

sign ; order, cotnmand. 

mando, -ere, mandi, mansum, 3, 

a., chezv ; eat, devour. 
maneo, manere, mansi, mansum, 

2, n. and a., remain, tarry ; last, 

continue ; tvait for. 
manifestus, -a, -um, [manus], 

adj., palpable, clear, manifest, 

evident ; caught, cojivicted. 
manipulus, -i, [manus, pleo], 

m., handful., bundle of hay ; 

company, nianiple, one-third of 

a cohort, whose standard origi- 

nally bore a wisp of hay. 
Manius, -i, abbreviated M'., m., 

Manius, a Roman forename. 
mano, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n. 

and a., flotu, run, t7'ickle ; give 

mansuetudo, -inis, [mansuetus, 

tame^ f., tameness, mildness,gen- 

manubiae, -arum, [manus], f., 

pl., booty, prize-money. 
manumitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

[manus + mitto], 3, a., release, 

emancipate, setfree. 
manus, -iis, i.,hand ; work, skill ; 

force, strength ; band, troops. 
Marcus, -i, abbreviated M., m., 

Marcus, a Roman forename. 
Marcius, -a, name of a Roman 

gens. In this book are men- 

tioned : 

( 1 ) Ancus Marcius, fourth king 
of Rome. 

(2) C. Mdrcius Corioldnus. 
See p. 16. 

mare, maris, n., the sea. Mare 
Superum, the upper sea, the 




margarita, -ae, f., pearl. 
Marianus, -a, -um, adj., of Ma- 

)iiis, JMarian. 
maritus, -a, -um, adj., of mar- 

riage, nuptial. As subst., mari- 

tus, -i, m., married ??ian, hiis- 

Marius, -i, m., Marius, gentile 

name of C. Marius. See p. 


marmor, -oris, n., marble ; pl., 

varieties of marble. 
marmoreus, -a, -um, [marmor], 

adj., of marble, marble. 
Mars, Martis, m., Mars, the Ro- 

man god of war; by metonymy, 

war, battle. dubio Marte, in 

an indecisive contest. 
Martius, -a, -um, adj., of Mars, 

to Mars, martial ; of tJie 77ionth 

of March, of March. 
Masinissa, -ae, m., Alasinissa, 

a prince of Numidia, friend and 

ally of Scipio Africanus the 

Massiva, -ae, m., Massvva, a 

Numidian youth, nephew of 

mater, matris, f., ^nother, parent. 
maternus, -a, -um, [mater], 

adj., of a mother, maternal ; on 

the mother^s side. 
matrimonium, -i, [mater], n., 

wedlock, marriage, matrimony. jk 
matrona, -ae, [mater], f., a marWf 

ried "cvoman, wife, matron. 
Mauri, -orum, m,, pl, the Moors, 

inhabitants of Mauritania, in 

northwestern Africa, the mod- 

ern Morocco. 

maxime, [maximus], adv., in the 
highest dcgree, particularly ; es- 
pecially, exceedingly, very. 

maximus, -a, -um, adj., sup. of 
magnus. As subst., Maximus, 
-i, m., Maximus, surname of 
Q. Fabius MTiximus ; see p. 27. 

medicamentum, -i, [medic5], 
n., drug, medicine., potion ; ctire, 

medicus, -i, m., doctor,physician, 

meditor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

n. and a., reflect, consider, medi- 

tate ; plan, devise ; practise. 
medium, -i, [medius], n., mid- 

dle, centre, intervening space. 

in medium proferre, to produce, 

offer, bring out. 
medius, -a, -um, adj., in the tnid- 

dle, mid, middle ; moderate. 
melior, -ius, adj., comp. of bonus. 
Memmius, -i, m., Memmius, gen- 

tile name of C. Memmius Ge- 

mellus, an opponent of JuHus 

Caesar. He secured the con- 

sulship, however, by Caesar's 

aid, in 54 B.C. 
memorabilis, -e, [memor6],adj., 

worth telling, memorable ; re- 

memoria, -ae, [memor, mijidful'], 

f., memory, remembrance ; pe- 

riod of recollection. 
memoro, -are, -avi, -atum, [me- 

mor], I, a., bring to mind, tell, 

speak of say. 
mens, mentis, f , mind, intellect; 

feeling, judgment, intelligence ; 

purpose, intent, meaning ; plan. 




mensa, -ae, f. , table ; coiirse at 

mensis, -is, m., month. 
mentio, -onis, f., a calling to 

mind, mention. 
mereo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2, a., de- 

se7've, merit ; earn. 
mergo, -ere, -si, -sum, 3, a., dip, 

plunge in, swalloiv tip. 
merito, [meritum], ■&.(\v., justly. 
meritum, -i, [mereo], n., merit, 

service ; zvorth, valne. 
merx, mercis, f., goods, wares, 

Metellus, -i, m., Metellus, name 

of a distinguished family of the 

Caecilian gens. In this book 

are mentioned : 

(1) Q. Caecilius Metellus A^u- 
midicus, consul B.c. 109. He 
conducted the war against Ju- 
gurtha successfuUy, until he 
was superseded by Marius. 

(2) Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius, 
consul B.C. 80. He was a suc- 
cessful general under Suila, 
and also against Sertorius. 

metor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 
a., measure, measure off, mark 

Mettius, -i, ni., Mettius., forename 
of Mettitis Fufetius, leader of 
the Albans in the time of Tul- 
lus Hostilius. 

metus, -iis, m., fear, dread ; 

meus, -a, -um, [me], poss. pron., 
adj., of me, my, mine. As subst., 
mei, -orum, m., pL, my friends, 
my kindred, my soldiers. 

mico, -are, -ui, — , i, n., move 

quickly to and fro, (juiver ; flash, 

mi, voc. of meus. 
miles, -itis, m,, soldier; coll. by 

metonymy, soldiery, soldiers. 
Miletus, -i, f., Miletus, an lo- 

nian city on the western coast 

of Asia Minor, near Ephesus. 
miliens, [mille], num. adv., a 

thousand ti)iies. 
militaris, -e, [miles], adj., of a 

soidier, soldierly ; of war, mili- 

tary, warlike. 
militia, -ae, [miles], f., military 

service, zvarfare, ivar. Loc. mi- 

litiae, in the field, inwar ; often 

contrasted with domi, at home, 

in peace. 
milito, -are, -avi, -atum, [miles], 

I, a., be a soldier, perform mili- 

tary service, make zvar. 
miUe, indecl. in sing., pL, milia 

or millia, -ium, thousand. As 

subst., n., (sc. passuiim), mile. 
mimus, -i, m., comic actor, miinic ; 

minime, [minus], sup. of parum. 

adv., least of all, least, very little ; 

not at all, by no means. 
minister, -tra, -trum, adj., subor- 

dinate, ministering. As subst., 

minister, -tri, m., attendant, 

7vaiter, servant, helper, 
minitor, -ari, -atus sum, [freq. 

of minor], i, dep., a., threaten, 

minor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep.f 

n. and a., jut forth ; fhreatent 





Minucius, -i, m., Minucius, gen- 

tile name of J/. Minucius Rufus, 

master of horse under Q. Fa- 

hius Maximus. See p. 28, 1. 27 

Minturnae, -arum,' f., pl., Min- 

turyiae, a town in northwestern 

Campania, on the coast. 
minuo, -ere, -ui, -utum, [cf. 

minor], 3, a., Dtake small, di- 

minish, lessen ; zveaken. 
minus, adv,, comp. of parum, 

less, by no means. 
mirabilis, -e, [miror], adj., won- 

derful, extraordinary, amazing. 
miraculum, -i, [miror], n., mar- 

vellous thing, strange thing, mir- 

mirandus, -a, -um, [part. of mi- 

ror], adj., to be zvondered at., 

ivonderful, strange. 
mirificus, -a, -um, [mirus, cf. 

facio], adj., wonderful, mar- 

vellous, strange. 
miror, -ari, -atus sum, [mirus], 

I, dep., n. and a., zvonder, mar- 

vel ; wonder at ; admire, esteem. 
mirus, -a, -um, adj., wonderful, 

amazing, extraordinary. 
miser, -era, -erum, adj., xvretched, 

tinfortunate ; poor, worthlcss. 
misericors, -cordis, [misereo -f 

cor], adj., tender-hearted,pitiful, 

miseror, -ari, -atus sum, [miser], 

I, dep., n. and a., la^nent, de- 

plore, pity. 
missio, -onis, [mitto], f., send- 

ing ; release, liberation ; dis- 

charge from service, dismissal. 

Mithridates, -is, m., Mithridates, 

the name of several kings of 

Pontus; in this book refers to 

Mithridates VI. surnamed the 

Great. See note to p. 51, 1. 26. 
Mithridaticus, -a, -um, adj., of 

iMitliridates, zvith Mithridates, 

mitigo, -are, -avi, -atum, [mitis 

-f ago], I, a., soften, ripen ; 

make gentle, humanize ; soothe, 

assuage, mitigate. 
mitis, -e, adj., ?ni/d, mello-iv, ripe ; 

soft, gentle, kind. 
mitto, mittere, misi, missum, 3, 

a., send, dismiss ; hurl, throiv. 
Mitylenae, -arum, f., pl., Mity- 

lene, chief city of the island of 

Lesbos, in the northeastern part 

of the Aegean Sea. 
moderatio, -onis, [moderor], f., 

controlling, guidance ; jnodera- 

tion, selfcontrol. 
moderatus, -a, -um, comp. mo- 

deratior, sup. moderatissimus, 

[part. of moderor] , adj., zvithin 

bounds, moderate ; modest, re- 

modicus, -a, -um, [modus], adj., 

in proper mcasure, moderate, 

modest, temperate ; middling, 

mean, mediocre. 
modius, -i, [modus], m., corn- 

measure, peck, modius, contain- 

ing sixteen sextarfi, about two 

modo, [modus], adv., only, 

merely ; just nozv, but now. 

non modo . . . sed etiam, not 

only . . . but also. 




modus, -i, m., ?neasure, extent ; 

limit, end ; 'ivay, manner. 
moenia, -ium, n., pl., defensive 

walls, raniparts, city walls ; by 

metonymy, walled town. 
moles, -is, f., ?nass, huge bulk, 

weight ; ?nassive structure, da?n, 

??iole ; difficulty, labor. 
moleste, [molestus], adv., with 

trouble, zuith difficulty, with vex- 

ation. moleste ferre, to be vexed 

at, to be a?i?ioyed at. 
molestia, -ae, [molestus], f., 

trouble, u^ieasi^iess, an?ioya?ice. 
molestus, -a, -um, [moles], adj., 

troubleso?ne, irksonie, a?i?ioyi?ig, 

molior, -iri, -itus sum, [moles], 

4, dep., n. and a., niake a?i ex- 

ertion, struggle, toil ; build, co?i- 

struct ; M?idertake. 
mollis, -e, adj., yielding, plia?it, 

soft, te?ider ; effe??ii?iate, u?i- 

Molo, -5nis, m., Mold, surname of 

Apollmius Molo. See Apollo- 

momentum, -i, [moveo], n., 

?nove?ne?it, ?noti.o?i ; brief space 

of ti?ne, ?nonie?it ; cause, circuni- 

moneo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2, a., re- 

??ii?id, ad??io?iish ; advise, zvar?i, 

teach ; predict, foretell. 
monitus, -us, [moneo], m., re- 

??ii?idi??g, ad??io?iitio?t, cou?isel. 
mons, m5ntis, m., ?nou?itai?i. 
monstrum, -i, n., divi?ie o??ie?i, 

wo?ider,porte?tt ; ??io?ister ; hor- 

rible sight, ataful deed. 

mora, -ae, f., delay, procrastina- 

tio?i ; obstructio?i, cause ofdelay. 
morbus, -i, [morior], m., sick- 

?iess, disease, ill?iess. 
morior, mori and moriri, mor- 

tuus sum, fut. part. moriturus, 

[cf. mors], 3, dep., n., die. 
mors, mortis, f., death. 
morsus, -us, [niord.e5], m., biting, 

bite ; pai?i. 
mortalis, -is, [mors] , adj., ?nortal, 

hui?iai!. As subst., ??ia?i, ??iortal. 
mortuus, -a, -um, [part. of mo- 

rior], adj., dead. As subst., 

mortuus, -i, m., dead ??tan. 
mos, m5ris, m., habit, custo?n ; 

pL, co?iduct ; character. 
motus, -us, [cf. move5], m., ?nov- 

i?ig, ?notio?i ; gesture ; i??ipulse, 

passio?! ; agitatio??, tu??iult, coni- 

niotio?!, i?isurrectio?i. 
moveo, -ere, m5vi, m5tum, 2, 

a. and n., niove, stir, set i?i ??io- 

tion, reniove ; affect, stir. 
mox, adv., soon, presetitly; there- 

upon, next. 
mucro, -5nis, m., sha?'p poi?it, 

edge ; sword''^ poi?it, sword. 
muliebriter, [muliebris], adv., 

i?i the ??ian?ier of a wo??ian, like 

a wo?na?i ; effenii?tately. 
mulier, -ieris, i.,wo??ian,fe??iale; 

muliercula, -ae, [dim. ofmulier], 

f., little %vo?na?i ; yoiing wo??ia?i, 

multiplex, -icis, [multus, cf. 

plic5], adj., with ma?iy folds, 

nianifold, ??ia?iy ; ?na?iy ti??ies as 

great ; of ??ia?iy parts. 




multitudo, -inis, [multus], f., 

/(?;;;,v unuibcr, »inltitndc, throiig ; 

thc coniinon pcoplc. 
multo, [multus], adv., by viuch, 

ninch, a great dcal. 
multo, -are, -avi, -atum, [multa, 
jine\ I, a., pitnish, sentence to 

multum, [multus], 2.^\., greatly, 

multus, -a, -um, comp. pliis, sup. 

pliirimus, adj., nmch; pl., many, 

a great nionber of. As subst., 

multi, -orum, m., pl., many 

people ; multa, -orum, n., pl., 

many things, much. 
munditia, -ae, usually pl., f., 

clcanlincss, neatness ; elegance, 

munia, -orum, n., pl., dutics,func- 

tions ; ofiicial dutics. 
munio, ire, ivi, -itum, [moe- 

nia], 4, a., defend by a wall, 

protect ; of roads, make, build. 
miinitus, -a, -um, [part. of mii- 

nid], z.^]., fortified, protected, de- 

munus, -eris, n., service, ofiice., 

functioji, duty ; present, gift. 
muraena, -ae, f., muraena, a kind 

of sea-fish. 
miirus, -i, m., ivall, city wall ; 

Mutina, -ae, f., Mutina, an im- 

portant city in Cisalpine Gaul, 

the modern Modena, where An- 

tony was defeated by Octavianus 

in 43 B.C. 
Mutinensis, -e, adj., of Mutina, 

at Mutina. 

miito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of moveo], i, a., movc, remove ; 

changc, alter, exchange. 
mutuus, -a, -um, [miito], adj., 

borrowed, lent ; in return, mu- 



nam, conj., for ; bccause, inas- 

much as. 
namque, [nam-f -que], conj.,y^r, 

and in fact, inasmuch as. 
nanciscor, nancisci, nactus or 

nanctus sum, 3, dep., a., get^ 

obtain, rcceive ; meet zmth, 

narro, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

make kno7on, say, tell ; rccount, 

nascor, nasci, natus sum, 3, dep., 

n., be born, be produced ; arise, 

Nasica, -ae, m., Nasica, a sur- 

name common in the Scipio 

family. In this book refers to 

P. Cornelitis Sctpio Nasica Se- 

rapio, leader of the senate 

against Tiberius Gracchus. 
nasus, -i, m., nose ; sense ofsmell. 
natio, -onis, [cf. natus], f., birth; 

race, kind ; nation, people. 
natiira, -ae, [cf. nascor], f., birth ; 

nature, character ; personified, 

natus, -a, -um, [part. of nascor], 

adj., born, arisen. As subst., 

natus, -i, m., son. 
natus, -iis, only in abl. sing., m., 

birth, age. 




naufragium, -i, [navis, cf. 

frango], n., shipwreck ; ruin, 

navalis, -e, [navis], adj., (?/"5///)^^, 

nanticnl, iiaval. 
navicula, -ae, [dim. of navis], 

f., small vessel, boat, skiff. 
navigium, -i, [navis, cf. ago], 

n., vcssel, ship, bark, boat. 
navis, -is, f., ship. 
Navius, -i, m., Navius. See 

navo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., do 

zealoiisly, perfonn diligently. 
ne, adv. and conj. : 

(i) As adv., not. ne . . . qui- 
dem, not even. 

(2) As conj., that not, lest., for 
fear ihat. 
-ne, inter. adv., and conj., en- 

clitic : 

(i) As adv., untranslatable, ex- 
cept in the inflection of the 
voice, introducing direct ques- 

(2) As conj., whether, introduc- 
ing indirect questions. 
nebulo, -onis, xa., paltry fellow, 

nec or neque, [ne + -que], adv. 

and conj., and not, also not, nor, 

nor yet. nec . . . nec, neither 

. . . nor. 
necessarius, -a, -um, [necesse], 

adj., unavoidable, indispensable, 

necessary ; connected by natural 

ties, related. As subst., necessa- 

rius, -i, m., kinsnian, relation. 
necesse, adj., only in nom. and 

acc. sing. n., necessary. 

necessitas, -atis, [necesse], f., 

tmavoidableness, necessity ; fate, 

destiny ; connection, relaiion- 

neco, -are, -avi or necui, -atum, 

[cf. nex], I, a., kill, slay, put to 

death, destroy. 
nefarius, -a, -um, [nefas], adj , 

impious, abominable, nefarious. 
nefastus, -a, -um, [nefas], adj., 

contrary to religion, impious, 

wicked ; of days, unhallowed, 

unpropitious, on which public 

business imist not be done. 
neglegens, -entis, [part. of ne- 

glegoj, adj., heedless, negligent, 

neglego, -legere, -lexi, -lectum, 

[nec + lego], 3, a., disregard, 

negleci ; despise. 
nego, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n. and 

a., say no, say not ; deny, re- 

nemo, -inis, [ne -f- homo], pl. 

and gen. and abl. sing. not in 

use, being replaced by forms 

from niillus, m. and f., 710 man, 

no one, nobody. 
nemus, -oris, n., tract of wood- 

land, forest-pasture, grove. 
nepos, -potis, m., grandson, de- 

neptis, -is, [cf. nepos], i.,grand- 

da ughter. 
nequeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, — , [ne + 

queo], irr., n., not be able, be 

jinable, cannot. 
nescio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, — , [ne + 

scio], 4, a., not know, be igno- 





neuter, -tra, -trum, gen. neu- 

trius, [ne + uter], adj., neither 

ihe onc nor the other, neither. 
nex, necis, f., death, niurder, 

niger, -gra, -grum, adj., black, 

dark, dnsky ; glooniy, ill- 

nihil or nil, [ne + hilum, trifle\ 

indecl., n., nothing ; acc. often 

with adverbial force, not at all, 

hy no nieans. 
nihilum, -i, [ne + hilum], n., 

nothing ; abl., nihil5, not at all, 

by no means. 
nihildum, [nihil + dum], indecl., 

n., nothing as yet. 
NIlus, -i, m., the Nile. 
nimirum, [ni + mirum], adv., 

unthout doubt, surely, tridy. 
nimius, -a, -um, [nimis], adj., 

beyond vieasure, excessive, too 

nisi, [ne + si], conj., if not, un- 

less, except. 
nitens, -entis, [part. of nite5], 

adj., shining, brilliani; illusiri- 

ous, conspicuous. 
niteo, -ere, -ui, — , 2, n., shine, 

glitter; flourish, look beauiiful. 
no, nare, navi, — , i, n., swini, 

nobilis, -e, [cf. n5sc5], adj., 7uell- 

known,famous; high-born, noble. 
nobilitas, -atis, [n5bilis], f., ce- 

lebrity, fame, renown ; high 

birth, nobility ; the nobility, ar- 

nobilito, -are, -avi, -atum, [n5- 

bilis], I, a., make known, rcn- 

der famous, dignify ; render 

noceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2, n., do 

harni, injure, Jiurt, har/n. 
noctu, [old abl. of noctus =: nox], 

adv., by night, at night. 
noctua, -ae, [nox], f., nighi-owl, 


nocturnus, -a, -um, [nox], adj., 

of night, by night, noclurnal. 
Nola, -ae, f., Nola, a town in the 

central part of Canipania, twenty- 

one miles froni Capua; it played 

a prominent part in the second 

Punic and Social Wars. 
n616,n511e,n51ui, — , [ne+vol5], 

irr., n., tvish . . . not, not wisk, 

be unwilling. 
n6men, n5minis, [cf. n5sc5], n., 

means of knowing, name. 
n6min6, -are, -avi, -atum, [n5- 

men], i, a., call by name, desig- 

nate, call, name. 
n6n, adv., not, not at all. 
n6naginta, num. adj., indecl., 

n6ndum, [n5n + dum] , adv., not 

n6nnullus, -a, -um, [n5n + nul- 

lus], adj., some, several. As 

subst., n5nniilli, -5rum, m., pl., 

some people, several. 
n6nnumquam, [n5n + num- 

quam], adv., sometimes, occa- 

n6sc6, n5scere, n5vi, n5tum, 3, 

inch., a., get knozvledge of come 

to knozv ; in tenses from the 

perf. stem, have learned, hence 

knozv, u)idersiand. 




nota, -ae, [cf. nosco], f, means 

of recogiiition, luark ; hrand. 
1:6 ius, -a, -um, [part. of nosco], 

ad). , known, fainiliar. 
novacula, -ae, [novo, renovate'], 

f., sharp knife, razor. 
novem, num. adj., indecl., nine. 
novus, -a, -um, adj., new, yonng; 

fresh, recent ; selfmade. 
nox, noctis, f., night. 
nubes, -is, f., cloud ; dense mass. 
nubo, nubere, nupsi, niiptum, 

3, a., veil oneself be married ; 

marry, tued. 
niidus, -a, -um, adj., unclothed, 

nude, stripped ; mere, pure, sole. 
nuUus, -a, -um, gen. niillius, [ne 

-f iillus], adj., not any, none, no. 

As subst., niillus, -ius, m., no 

one, nobody. 
num, inter. adv., usually introduc- 

ing a question expecting a nega- 

tive answer, then, now ; . . . not 

so . . . is it? in ind. questions, 

whether, if 
Numa, -ae, f., Ntwia, a Sabine 

name, forename of N^uma Pom- 

pilius, tiie second king of Rome. 

See p. 5. 
numen, -inis, [nuo], n., nod, com- 

ma7id ; divinity, divine poiver. 
numero, -are, -avi, -atum, [nu- 

merus], i, a., count, number, 

reckon ; count out, pay dozun. 
numerus, -i, m., nu^nber, qtian- 

tity ; position, rank. 
Numida, -ae, m., a N^umidian. 
Numidia, -ae, f., N^umidia, a 

country in northern Africa ; mod- 

ern Algeria. 

Numidicus, -a, -um, adj., of Nu- 

midia, N^nmidian. 
Numitor, -oris, m., N^umitor, a 

king of Alba Longa, who was 

driven out by his younger brother 

Amulius, but restored by Rom- 

ulus and Remus. 
nummus, -i, m., piece of money, 

coin ; the Roman unit of coin- 

age, sestertius, sesterce ; see ses- 

numquam, [ne -f umquam], adv., 

at no time, never. 
nunc, [num-|--ce], adv., ttow, at 

present ; now at last. 
nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, [niin- 

tius], I, a., announce, declare, 

niintius, -a, -um, adj., that an- 

nounces., making kno%vn, in- 

forming. As subst., niintius, 

-i, m., messenger. 
niiper, [cf. novus], adv., newly, 

lately, recently. 
nurus, -iis, f., daughter-in-law ; 

young woman, ma?'ried woman. 
nusquam, [ne + usquam], adv., 

7io7vhere, iji 710 place ; i7i 7ioth- 

i7zg ; for 710 piirpose. 
niito, -are, -avi, -atum., [freq. of 

nu5], I, n., 710 d ; zvaver, doubt, 

niitrix, -icis, [niitrio], f., zvet- 

7iurse, 7iurse. 


O, interj., .^ oh ! 
ob, prep. with acc. only, towards, to; 
011 accoimt of for, by reason of. 




obeo, -ire, ivi, -itum, [ob + eo], 

irr., n. and a.,^o to meet; engage 

in ; perform, discharge ; fall, 

obicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 

[ob + iaci5], 3, a., throw before, 

throw, cast ; put in the hands 

of; set against, oppose ; objcct, 

taimt, upbraid tvith. 
oblino, -linere, -levi, -litum, 

[ob -f lind, sinca?-'], 3, a., daub, 

sniear., defile. 
oblitus, see oblino. 
oblltus, -a, -um, [part. of obli- 

viscor], did]., forgelful, xinniind- 

oblivio, -onis, [cf. obliviscor], 

{., forgctfulness, oblivion. 
obliviscor, -i, oblitus sum, 3, 

dep., n. and a., forget, be for- 

getful ; disrcgard. 
obnoxius, -a, -um, [ob -f nox- 

iusj, adj., liable, addicted,guilty ; 

exposed ; submissrve, obedient. 
oboedio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [ob + 

audid], 4, a., give ear, listen ; 

obey, be subject. 
obruo, -ruere, -rui, -rutum, [ob 

-f ruo], 3, a., overwhelm, hide, 

bury ; overcome, overpower. 
obsequor, -sequi, -seciitus sum, 

[ob -f sequor], 3, dep., a., com- 

ply, yield ; gratify, submit to. 
obses, -idis, [ob, cf. sedeo], 

m. and f., hostage ; security, 

obsideo, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum, 

[ob -f sedeo], 2, n. and a., sit, 

stay ; besiege, blockade, roider 


obsidio, -onis, [obsideo], f., 

siege, blockade. 
obsisto, -sistere, -stiti, -stitum, 

[ob + sist5], 3, n., take one^s 

place before, stand in the way ; 

resist, "vithstand, oppose. 
obstrepo, -ere, -ui, — , [ob + 

strepo], 3, a., ?nake noise 

against, roar at, clamor at ; 

obstupefacio, -ere, obstupefeci, 

obstupefactum, [ob + stupe- 

faci5], pass. obstupefi5, -fieri, 

-factus sum, 3, a., astonish^ 

amaze, stupcfy. 
obtempero, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[ob + temper5], i, n., comply, 

conform, subuiit, obey. 
obtingo, -tingere, -tigi, — , [ob 

+ tang5], 3, \\.,fall to the lot of 

befall, occur. 
obtrectator, -5ris, [obtrect5], 

m., detractor, traducer, dispar- 

obtrunco, -are, — , -atum, [ob 

+ trunc5], i, a., ctd doivn.^ cut 

to pieces ; kill, slay. 
obvenio, -venire, -veni, -ventum, 

[ob + veni5] , 4, a., come up to, 

go to meet ; fall out, happen, fall 

to the lot of 
obviam, [ob + viam], adv., in 

the way, tozvard, against. ob- 

viam venire, to come to meet. 

obviam fieri, to meet. 
obvius, -a, -um, [ob + via], adj., 

in the way, so as to meet; 

against, to meet, tneeting. ob- 

viura fieri, to meet. obvium 

esse, to be in the way, to rneet. 




obvolvo, -ere, -volvi, -volutum, 
[ob 4- volv5], 3, a., wrap 
aroiind, envelop, cover over. 

occasio, -onis, [cf. occido], f., 
opportnnity,jit iime, occasion. 

occido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum, 
[ob -f caedo], 3, a., strike 
down., kill, slay. 

occido, -cidere, -cidi, -casum, 
[ob -f cado], 3, u., fall doiun, 
fall ; perish. 

occumbo, -ere, occubui, occubi- 
tum, [ob + cumbo], 3, n., fall 
in death, die. 

occupo, -are, -avi, -atum, [ob 
+ capid], I, a., take into pos- 
session, seize, occupy ; fall upon, 

occurro, -ere, -curri, -cursum, 
[ob + currd], 3, n., run up, 
run to vieet ; resist^ oppose. 

Octavianus, -i, m., Octdvianus, 
Octavian, C. Octdvius, \vho,a.{tev 
his adoption by Julius Caesar, 
was called C. ImHus Caesar Oc- 
tdvidnus, in accordance with the 
Roman usage. The title Augus- 
tus was added in 27 B.C. See 
p. 84. 

Octavius, -a, the name of a Ro- 
man plebeian gens, made patri- 
cian by Julius Caesar. In this 
book are mentioned : 
(i) C. Octdvius, see Octdvidmis 

(2) Octdvia, sister of Octavianus 
and wife of Mark Antony. 

octoginta, num. adj., indecl., 

ooulus, -i, m., eye. 

odium, -i, n., hatred,grudge, aver- 

odor, -5ris, m., smell, scent, odor ; 

perfume ; disagreeable odor. 
offensus, -a, -um, [part. of of- 

fend5], adj., offended, displeased, 

offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum, 

[ob + fer5], irr,, a., brijig be- 

fore, present, offer ; cause, in- 
flict ; bestoiv. 
officiosus, -a, -um, [officium], 

adj., courteous, obliging ; obedi- 

ent, well-trained. 
officium, -i, [opus, cf. faci5], n., 

service, kindncss, favor ; duty ; 

employment^ office. 
olim, [cf. ollus, old form of ille], 

adv., at that time, formerly, long 

since ; nowandthen; sometime, 

omitto, -ere, omisi, omissum, [ob 

-f mitt5], 3, z.., let go, let loose ; 

lay aside ; pass over., say nothing 

of; lose sight of. 
omnis, -e, adj., all, the whole, 

every. As subst., omnes, -ium, 

m., pl., all men ; omnia, -ium, 

n., pl., all things, everything. 
opera, -ae, [opus], f., service, 

luork, labor ; aid, attention. 

operam navare, to act vigor- 

opifex, -ficis, [opus, cf. faci5], 

m. and f., luorkman, artisan. 
Opimius, -i, m., Opl/nius, gentile 

name of Z. Opwiius, consul 121 

B.c. He was the leader of the 

aristocratic f^ction against C 





opinio, -onis, [opinor], f., opin- 

ion, conjectiire, fancy, bclief ; 

estcem, repiitatioii. 
oppiflum, -i, n., to7vn, city. 
oppleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, [ob + 

pleo], 2, z.., fill conipletely,fill ; 

oppono, -ere, opposui, opposi- 

tum, [ob + pono], 3, a., set 

against, place opposite, oppose ; 

hring forxvard, adduce. 
opportunus, -a, -um, adj., fit, 

adaptcd ; corivenient, season- 

opprimo, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, 

[ob -f premo], 3, a., press 

agaijist, press down ; overthrozu, 

overwhelm, defeat utterly ; fall 

Hpon, siirprise. 
oppugnatio, -onis, [oppiigno], 

f., storming, hcsieging, attack. 
oppiigno, -are, -avi, -atum, [ob 

-|- piigno], I, a., fight against, 

attack, bcsiege. 
ops, opis, nom. and dat. sing. not 

in use, f., aid, help ; power, in- 

fiuence ; means, riches, wealth. 
optimas, -atis, [optimus], adj., 

of the hest, aristocratic. As 

subst., m., aji adherent of the 

nohi/ity., aristocrat. 
optio, -onis, f., choice, free choice; 

privilege, option. 
opulentus, -a, -um, [opes], adj., 

rich, wealthy, opulent ; pros- 

opus, -eris, n., work, lahor, toil ; 

need, want, necessity. 
oratio, -5nis, [oro], f., speaking, 

speech ; discourse, oration. 

orator, -5ris, [5r5], m., speaker, 

orator, ambassador. 
orbis, -is, m., ring., circle, orhit. 

orbis terrae or terrarum, the 

zuhole earth. 
orbo, -are, -avi, -atum, [orbus], 

I, a., deprive, spoil, roh ; make 

destitute, bereave. 
orbus, -a, -um, adj., deprived, be- 

reft, destitute ; parentless, child- 

less. As subst., orbus, -i, m. , 

ordino, -are, -avi, -atum, [5rd5], 

I , a., set in order, arrange, ad- 

just ; narrate, record. 
ordior, -iri, 5rsus sum, 4, dep,, 

a., hegin, commence, undcrtake ; 

descrihe, tell in detail. 
ordo, -inis, m., row, series., order ; 

couipany, class, rank. 
oriens, -entis, [part. of orior], 

m., rising sun ; East, Orient. 
origo, -inis, [orior], f., begin- 

nifig, commencement, origin ; 

race, family, stock. 
orior, -iri, ortus sum, fut. part. 

oritiirus, 4, dep., n., arise, rise, 

get up ; be descended, originate, 

ornamentum, -i, [5rn5], n., ap- 

paratus, equipment ; decoration, 

ornatus, -a, -um, comp. 5rna- 

tior, sup. 5rnatissimus, [part. 

oiorr\.b'],z.d].,fittedout, equipped; 

adorned, emhellished ; distin- 

guished, ilhistrious. 
ornatus, -iis, [5rn5], m., splendid 

dress, fine attire ; decoj-ation, 





orno, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 2.., fit 

out, furnish, provide, equip ; 

adorn, decorate. 
6r6, -are, -avi, -atum, [6s], i, a., 

speak ; treat, argiie, plead ; en- 

treat, beseech. 
6s, oris, n., moiith, face, features ; 

niouth of a river. 
ostendo, -ere, -di, -tum, [obs, 

old form of ob + tendo], 3, a., 

stretch out, show ; produce, fur- ' 

nish ; disclose, manifest, make 

ostento, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of ostendo], i, a., present to 

vieiv, shoii), exhibit. 
Ostia, -ae, f., Ostia, the seaport 

of Rome at the mouth of the 

Tiber; according to the tradition 

it was founded by Ancus Mar- 

6ti6sus, -a, -um, [otium], adj., at 

leisure, unoccupied, idle ; quiet, 

peaceful, in retirement. 
6ti6se, [otiosus], adv., leisurely, 

calmly, idly. 
6tium, -i, n., leisure, vacant time ; 

idleness ; peace, quiet. 
ov6, -are, — , — , i, n., exult, 

rejoice ; receive ovation, tri- 


P., with proper names = Piiblius, 

a Roman forename. 
pacatus, -a, -um, [part. of paco], 

z.d]., pacified ; gentle, peaceful. 
paciscor, -i, pactus sum, 3, dep., 

n. and a., agree together, bar- 

gain, stipulate ; barter^ stake. 

paene, adv., almost, nearly. 

paenite6, -ere, -ui, — , 2, a. and 
n., 7nake sorry, cause to repent. 
Impers. paenitet, -ere, -uit, it 
repents, makes sorry, it grieves. 

palam, adv., openly, publicly. 

Palatium, -i, [Pales, an ancient 
divinity of shepherds], n., the 
Palatine hill, on which was the 
residence of Augustus; hence 
pl., palatia, -oxwxa., palace. 

palpebrae, -arum, f., pl., eyelids. 

paliidamentum, -i, n., military 
cloak, cloak. 

palus, -i, m., stake, prop, wooden 

palus, -iidis, f., sivamp, marsh, 

pand6, -ere, -di, passum, 3, a., 
sprcad out, unfold, extend. 

papaver, -eris, n., poppy. 

par, paris, adj., equal, like, simi- 
lar ; tvell-matched. As subst., 
par, paris, m. and f., mate, com- 

parabilis, -e, [paro], adj., easily 
procured, accessible., at hafid. 

parc6, parcere, peperci and 
parsi, parsum, 3, n., act spar- 
ingly, be sparing ; treat with 
forbearance ; refrain from, 

parcus, -a, -um, comp. parcior, 
sup. parcissimus, [cf. parco], 
adj., sparing, frugal, temperate. 

parens, -entis, [part. of pari5], m. 
and {., parent ; father, mother. 

pare6, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2, n., 
appear, be visible ; be obedient, 




pario, -ere, peperi, partum, fut. 

part. pariturus, 3, a., bring 

forth, prodiice, give birth to ; 

effect, accomplish ; acquire, ob- 

pariter, [par] , adv., equally, alike ; 

as well^ together. 
par5, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

make ready, prepare, furnish ; 

intend, resolve. 
parricidium, -i, [pater, caedo], 

n., murder of a father, parri- 

cide ; ireason. 
pars, partis, f., part., portion, 

share, division ; party, faction ; 

character, role ; pl., Q.oVi..,pariy. 
parsimonia, -ae, [parcd], {.,fru- 

gality, parsimony. 
Parthi, -orum, m., pl., Parthi- 

ans, a Scythian people dvvelling 

southeast of the Caspian Sea, 

famous as brave warriors and 

skilful archers. 
partior, -iri, -itus sum, [pars], 

4, dep.^ a., share, distribute, 

partus, -iis, [pario], m., bearing, 

bringing forth, birth ; young, 

panim, comp. minus, sup. mi- 

nime, [cf. parvus], adv., but 

little, too iittle ; not enough. As 

subst., too little, Jtot enough. 
parvulus, -a, -um, [dim. of par- 

-vus], adj., very small, little, 

petty. As subst., parvulus, -i, 

m., small child, infa^it. 
parvus, -a, -um, comp. minor, 

sup. minimus, adj., little, small, 

inconsiderable ; short, brief. 

pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum, 

3, a. and n., cause to eat, feed ; 

in pass. reflexive with dep. force, 

graze, brozvse. 
passim, [passus], adv., spread, 

scattered; in every directioji, far 

and wide. 
passus, -a, -um, [part. of pand5] , 

adj., outspread, extended. passis 

crinibus, zvith dishevelled hair. 
passus, -us, step, pace. mille 

passuum, thousand paces, mile. 
pastor, -oris, [pasco] , m., herds- 

man, shepherd. 
patef acio, -facere, -feci, -factum, 

[pateo -|- facio], 3, a., lay open, 

open, disclose, bring to light. 
patella, -ae, [dim. of patina, 

pan']., f., sjnall pan, little dish ; 

pater, -tris, m., father, sire ; 

often in pl., patres, senators. 
paternus, -a, -um, [pater], adj., 

of a father, father''^, paternal. 
patiens, -entis, [part. of patior], 

adj., bearing, sufferijig, endur- 

ing, patient. 
patior, pati, passus sum, 3, dep., 

a., suffer, bear, support, endure ; 

allow, permit. 
patria, -ae, [cf. pater], i.,father- 

land, native land. 
patricius, -a, -um, [pater], adj., 

of fatherly dignity, patrician, 

noble. As subst., patricii, 

-5rum, m., pl., patricians, no- 

patrimonium, i, [pater], n., 

inheritance from a father, in- 

heritance, patrijnony. 




patro, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

bring to pass, execitte, perform, 

patronus, -i, [pater], m., pro- 

tector, defender, patron, advo- 

paucus, -a, -um, adj., feiv, little. 

As subst., m., pl., a few,feiv. 
paulatim, [paulus], adv., iittle 

by little, by degrees, gradnally. 
paulo, [paulum], adv., by a little, 

a little, sotnewhat. 
paulum, [paulus], adv., a little, 

Paulus, -i, m., Paulus, family 

name of L. Aemilizis Paiilus ; 

see p. 13. 
pauper, -eris, adj., poor, not 

wealthy ; scanty, sniall. As 

subst,, m., a poor man. 
pauperculus, -a, -um, [dim. of 

pauper], z.d^]., poor, poor little. 
paupertas, -atis, [pauper], f., 

poverty, S7nall means, moderate 

pavidus, -a, -um, [paveo], adj., 

trembling, fearfil, timid. 
pavor, -oris, [paveo], m., trem- 

bling, quaking, terror, fear, 

pax, pacis, f., peace, treaty, agree- 

ment ; harmony, quiet. 
peccatum, -i, [pecco], n., fault, 

error, sin. 
pecco, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n., 

miss, err ; cotnmit a sin, sin. 
pecunia, -ae, [cf. pecus], f., 

property, wealth, money. 
pecus, -oris, n., cattle of all kinds ; 

Jlock, herd. 

pedes, itis, [pes], m., foot-trav- 
eller ; foot-soldier ; sing. coll. , 
foot-soldiers, infantry. 

pediculus, -i, [dim. of pes], m., 
a little foot ; foot ofa vase. 

pellicio, -licere, -lexi, -lectum, 
3, a., allure, entice, decoy, coax. 

pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsum, 
3, a., beat, strike ; drive out, 
drive away ; defeat,rout. 

pendeo, -ere, pependi, — , 2, n,, 
hang, be suspended ; hang one- 
self; be uncertaiti, hesitate. 

penitus, adv., inwardly, deeply., 
far within ; ntterly, completely. 

per, prep. with acc. only, of space, 
through, across, throughotit ; of 
time, through, during ; of agency, 
means, and manner, through, by 
the agency of; in composition, 
through, thoroughly, very. 

perago, -agere, -egi, -actum, [per 
-f ago], 3, a., thrust through ; 
agitate ; go through with,fijtish ; 
set forth, relate, describe, detail. 

peragro, -are, -avi, -atum, [per 
+ ager], i, a., wander through, 
traverse ; search, penetrate, 

percello, -cellere, -culi, -culsum, 
[per -f cell5], 3, a., beat dozvn, 
overturn, upset, smite, strike ; 
discourage, dishearten. 

percontor or percunctor, -ari, 
-atus sum, [per-1- contus,/^?/^], 
i, dep., a., lit. search zvith a 
pole; asky inquire, question, in- 

percussor, -oris, [percutio], m., 
striker, murderer, assassin. 




percutio, -cutere, percussi, per- 

cussuiii, [per -f quatio], 3, a., 

strike iJu-ough, pierce ; siri/ce, 

knock at ; kill, slay ; ruin. 
perdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [per 

+ do], 3, a., niake tvay loitli, 

deslroy, ruin, losc. 
perduco, -ducere, perduxi, per- 

ductura, [per -f duco], 3, a., 

lead through, lead, conduct ; pro- 

/ong; pursue. 
peregrinus, -a, -um, [per + 

ager], adj., from foreign parts, 

foreign. As subst., peregrinus, 

-i, m., stranger, foreigner. 
perendie, adv., on the day after 

perennis, -e, [per + annus], adj., 

lasting through the year ; pcr- 

ennial ; continual, perpetual. 
pereo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 

[per + e5], irr., x\., pass aivay ; 

perish, disappear ; be lost. 
perfero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, [per 

+ fero], irr., a., bear through ; 

bring, carry ; announce, report ; 

bear, suffer ; retain to the end. 
perficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 

[per + facio], 3, a., carry out, 

execute, accojnplish., pe^form ; 

cause, effect. 
perfidia, -ae, [perfidus], {.,faith- 

lessness, treachery. 
perfidus, -a, -um, adj., promise- 

breaking, faithless, dishonest. 
perforo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

break through, pierce, perfo- 

perfruor, -frui, friictus sura, 3, 

dep., n., enjoy fully, be delighted. 

perfuga, -ae, [per + fuga], f., 

fugitive, deserter. 
perfugio, -fugere, -fiigi, — , 3, 

n., flee for rcfuge, go over, de- 

pergo, -ere, perrexi, perrectum, 

[per + rego], 3, a. and n., go 

on, proceed, hasten, continue, 

periclitor, -ari, -atus sum, [pe- 

riculum], i, dep., a. and n., 

tfy, prove, test ; be iti danger, 

incur danger. 
periculosus, -a, -um, comp. pe- 

riculosior, sup. periculosissi- 

mus, [periculum], adj., dan- 

gerous, perilous. 
perlculum, -i, n., trial ; danger., 

peritus, -a, -um, adj., experiencedy 

practised, skilled, expert. 
permitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

[per + mitto], 3, a., let pass ; 

cast, hurl ; hand over, intrust, 

surrejider ; pei'mit, allow. 
permoveo, -movere, permovi, 

permotum, [per + raoveo], 2, 

a., move deeply, rouse, excite, 

permultus, -a, -um, [per + mul- 

tus], adj., very much, very 

many. As subst., permultum, 

-i, n., a great deal ; permulti, 

-orum, m., pl., very many. 
permiito, -are, -avi, -atura, [per 

+ raiito], I, a., change through- 

out ; interchange, exchange. 
pernicies, -ei, f., destruction, 

dcath, ruin, overthrow ; pest, 





permciosus, -a, -um, comp. 
perniciosior, sup. pernicio- 
sissimus, [pernicies], a.d]., c/e- 
structive, ruinoiis, pernicious, 

peroro, -are, -avi, -atum, [per 
-f oro], I, a., speak from the he- 
ginning, plead; end, close,Jinish. 

perpello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum, 
[per-f pello], 3, a. , drive, urge, 
force, cofnpel. 

perpetuo, [perpetuus], adv., 
contimtally, 7uiinterruptedly, 

perpetuus, -a, -um, adj., contin- 
tiotis, uninterrupted, perpetual. 
in perpetuum, forever. 

perrumpo, -ere, -riipi, -ruptum, 
[per -H rumpo], 3, a., break 
through, force a way through., 
get across ; overcome. 

persaepe, [per -f saepe], adv., 
very often. 

persequor, -sequi, -seciitus sum, 
[per -f- sequor], 3, dep., z..,fol- 
low perseveriiigly, follow up, 
ptirsue ; overtake ; execute, ac- 

perspicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 
[per -f specio], 3, a., look 
through, look into, see through ; 
discern, note, contemplate. 

perstring6,-ere, perstrinxi, per- 
strictum, [per -f stringo], 3, 
a., bind closely, totuh closely, 
graze ; affect deeply, thrill, 
move, 7vound. 

persuadeo, -ere, persuasi, per- 
suasum, [per-1- suadeo], 2, a., 
convince, persuade,prevail on. 

pertaedet, -ere, -taesum est, 

[per -f taedet], 2, a., impers., it 

wearies., it dis^usts. 
perterrefacio, -ere, perterrefeci, 

perterrefactum, [per -f- terre- 

facio], 3, 2i., frightcn thoroughly. 
pertinaciter, [pertinax], adv., 

persistently, ohstinately, stub- 

pertinax, -acis, [per 4- tenax], 

adj., persevering, obstinate, per- 

pertineo, -ere, -ui, — , [per -1- 

teneo], 2, n., stretch out, ex- 

tend ; reach ; belong, pertain ; 

(ipply, suit. 
pertraho, -ere, -traxi, -tractum, 

[per -1- traho], 3, a., dratv 

along, drag ; lead. 
perturbo, -are, -avi, -atum, [per 

-|- turbo], I, a., confuse, disturb, 

confound ; emharrass. 
pervenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 

[per -|- venio], 4, n., reach, cojue 

to ; penetrate, attain. 
pes, pedis, m., foot. pedem re- 

ferre, to retreat. 
pessimus, -a, -um, adj., sup. of 

pestiferus, -era, -erum, [pestis, 

cf. fer5], adj., destructive,bane- 

ful, pernicious. 
pestilens, -entis, [pestis], adj., 

pestilential, infected, umvhole- 

some., dcstructive. 
pestilentia, -ae, [pestilens], f., 

infectious diseasc, plague, pesti- 

lence ; corruption. 
pestis, -is, f., infectious disease, 

plague, pest ; curse, bane. 




petitio, -onis, [peto], f., thrust, 
attack ; application, candidacy ; 

peto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 3, 
a., strive for, seek ; go to ; at- 
tack ; demand, beg, ask, request. 

phalerae, -arum, f., pl., metal 
plate for thc brcast ; for horses, 
Dictal dccoration for the breast. 

Pharnaces, -is, m., Phamaces, 
son of Mithridates the Great, 
king of Pontus. 

Pharsalicus, -a, -um, adj., of 
rJiarsalus, at Pharsahis. 

Pharsalus, -i, f., Pharsalus (Phar- 
salia), a town in Thessaly, noted 
for the defeat of Pompey by Ju- 
lius Caesar in 48 B.c. 

philosophia, -ae, f., philosophy. 

philosophus, -a, -um, adj. ,///?/<?- 
sophical. As subst., philoso- 
phus, -i, m., philosopher. 

Philus, -i, m., Philus, family name 
of P. Furius Philus, who dis- 
closed the plot of the young 
nobles to Scipio; see p. 34. 

pietas, -atis, [pius], f., dutiful 
conduct, devotion, piety ; affcc- 
tion, love, loyalty. 

piget, -ere, piguit and pigitum 
est, 2, impers., a., it irks, pains, 
grieves, disgusts. me piget ali- 
ciiius, lam ashamed ofanything. 

pignus, -oris and -eris, n., pledge, 
pa7vn, security ; hostage, ivager, 
sfakc ; assurance, proof 

pilleus, -i, m., and pilleum, -i, 
n., close fitting cap ; skull-cap. 

pirata, -ae, f., sea-robber, corsair, 

piraticus, -a, -um, [pirata], adj., 

of tJic piratcs, ivitJi the pirates. 
piscina, -ae, [piscis], f., fish- 

piscis, -is, m.,fish. 
Piso, -onis, m., Plso, family name 

of Z. Ca/purnius Piso Frug~i, an 

opponent of C. Gracchus. 
placabilis, -e, [placo], adj., to 

be conciliated, placable ; pacify- 

ing., acceptable. 
Placentia, -ae, f., Placentia, a 

city in Cisalpine Gaul on the 

Po, the modern Piacenza. 
placeo, -ere, -ui, or placitus 

sum, 2, n. , please, give pleasure ; 

be pleasing, suit, satisfy. Im- 

pers. placet, it is agreed, is set- 

tled, is resolved. 
placo, -are, -avi, -atum, [cf. 

placeo], I, a., quiet, sootJie, allay, 

appease ; reconcile, conciliate. 
plaga, -ae, f., stroke, blow,tJirust ; 

calajnity, disaster. 
Plancus, -i, m., PJancus, family 

name of L. Plautius PJancus, 

proscribed and killed by the sec- 

ond Triumvirate in 43 B.c. 
plaustrum, -i, n., zvagon, cart. 
plausus, -iis, [plaudo], m., clap- 

ping ; appJause, accJamation. 
plebs, plebis, and plebes, -ei or 

-i, f., common pcopJc, commons, 

pJebeians, popuJace. 
plenus, -a, -um, [cf. pleo], adj., 

fuJJ,fiJJed ; pJcntifuJ. 
plerusque, -aque, -umque, adj., 

vcj-y great part, 77iajority. As 

subst., plerique, -orumque, m., 

pl., /iiost peopJc. 




Plinius, -i, m., Plinins, Pliiiy, 
gentile name of C. Plinius Se- 
cundtts, born 23 A.D., author of 
the famous Historia Naturalis. 
He lost his life in the eruption 
of Vesuvius, in 79 A.D.,by which 
Pompeii was destroyed. 

Plotius, -i, m., Plotius, gentile 
name of M. Plotius, who took 
part in the civil war between 
Caesar and Pompey. 

plumbeus, -a, -um, [plumbum], 
adj., of lead, leaden ; stupid, 

plumbum, -i, n., lead. 

plus, pliiris, adj., comp. of mul- 
tus. As subst., pliis, pliiris, 
n., more ; plures, -ium, m., pl., 
moKe, the majority. 

plurimus, -a, -um, adj., sup. of 

poena, -ae, f., indemnification, 
recompense ; punishment, pen- 
alty, price. 

Poeni, -orum, m., pl., the Car- 
thaginians, so named from their 
Phoenician origin. 

poeta, -ae, m.., poet. 

polliceor,-eri,-itus sum, 2,dep.,a. 
and n.,hold forth, offer, promise. 

PoUio, -onis, m., Pollio, surname 
of Vedius Pollid, a friend of 
Augustus, punished by Augustus 
for his inhumanity to a slave. 

Pompeianus, -a, -um, adj., of 
Pompey, Pompeia?i. 

Pompeius, -i, m., Pompl'ius, Pom- 
pey, a Roman gentile name. In 
this book refers to Cn, Pompeius 
Mdgnus ; see p. 60. 

Pompilius, -i, m., Pompilius, 

gentile name of Numa Pom- 

piUus. See Numa. 
Pomptinus, -a, -um, adj., Pojnp- 

tine, Pomptinae paliides, the 

Pomptine Marshes, a marshy 

tract of country on the coast of 

Latium, about fifty miles south- 

east of Rome. 
pondo, [cf. pondus], old abl. 

case, adv., by weight, weighing a 

pound ; with numerals, [sc. li- 

pondus, -eris, [cf. pendo], n., 

a weight, burden ; importance, 
pono, -ere, posui, positum, 3, a., 

put do7vn, place, fix, deposit ; 

spend, eniploy ; set up, build. 

castra p5nere, to pitch camp. 

rudimentum ponere, to learn, 

to take first steps in. 
pons, pontis, m., bridge. 
ponticulus, -i, [dim. of pons], 

m., little bridge. 
Ponticus, -a, -um, of Pontus, to 

Ponttcs, Pontic. 
Pontus, -i, m., Pontus, a country in 

northeastern Asia Minor, south 

of the Euxine Sea. 
popularis, -e, [populus], adj., 

of the people, popular ; accepta- 

ble lo the multitude. As subst., 

popularis, -is, m., felloiv-coun- 

populor, -ari, atus sum, i, dep., 

a., lay waste, ravage, spoil, de- 

stroy, ruin. 
populus, -i, m., people, nation ; 

sing. colL, the people, the citi- 





porrigS, -rigere, -rexi, -rectum, 
[por = pro + regoj, 3, a., spread 
out, stretch out, extend ; offer, 
present ; prolong, extend. 

Porsena, -ae, m., Porsetta or Por- 
soina, king of Clusium, ancl 
head of the Etruscan league in 
the time of Tarquin the Proud. 

porta, -ae, f., city gaie, gaie, en- 
irance, passage. 

portendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentum, 
[por = pro -f tendo], 3, 2L.,point 
out, indicate ; prcdict, presage, 

porticus, -iis, [porta], f., covered 
walk between columns, colonnade, 

porto, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 
bear, carry, convey, bring. 

portorium, -i, [cf. porta], n., 
iax, toll, diity, tariff. 

portus, -iis, [cf. porta], m., har- 
bor, haven, port. 

posco, -ere, poposci, — , 3, inch., 
a., ask zirgently, demand, beg; 
reqiiire, need. 

Posidonius, -i, m., Posidonins, a 
distinguished Stoic philosopher 
of Apameia in Syria, a contem- 
porary of Cicero and Pompey. 

possum, posse, potui, [potis, 
able, -f- sum], irr., n., be able, 
have pozver, can ; be strong, have 

post, adv. and prep. : 

(i) A^didv.jafier, behiiid; after- 

(2) As prep., with acc. only, 
after., behind ; since ; beneath, 
next to. 

postea, [post -f ea], adv., afier- 

7oards, later., ihen. 
posterus, -a, -um, comp. poste- 

rior, sup. postremus or postu- 

mus, [post], adj., coming after, 

subscqnent ; 7iext, follojving. As 

subst., posteri, -orum, m., pL, 

descendanis, postcriiy. Comp. 

posterior, -ius, laier, inferior. 

Sup. postremus, -a, -um, last ; 

lotvest. ad postremum,y?;m//j', 

at last. 
posthac, [post -f- hac], adv., after 

this, hereafter, in fuiure. 
posticus, -a, -um, [post], adj., 

iji the rear., behind, posierior. 

As subst., posticum, -i, n., back 

postis, -is, m., posi, door-post ; 

pl., door. 
postquam, [post -f quam], conj., 

after thai, afier, as soon as ; 

zvhen ; since, inasmuch as. 
postremo, [abl. of postremus], 

adv., at last, finally, last of 

postremus, see posterus. 
postridie, [posteri die], adv., on 

the day afier, next day. 
postulatum, -i, [postulo], n., 

demand, request, claim. 
postulo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

ask, demand, claim ; request. 
Postumus, -i, m., Postuvius, an 

early Roman forename, used 

also as a surname; see Posizi- 

mus Cominius, p. 16. 
potens, -entis, [part. of possum], 

adj., able, mighty, strong ; poient, 




potentatus, -us, [potens], m., 

inight, power ; riile^ dominion. 
potentia, -ae, [potens],f., w/?;^///, 

force, poiver ; rule, szvay, emi- 

potestas, -atis, [potis], f,, abil- 

ity, pozver., capacity ; self-con- 

trol; sway, dominion,rtile ; op- 

potior, -iri, -itus sum, [potis], 

4, dep., n., become master of get 

possession of obtain., acquire ; 

hold, possess, occupy. 
prae, prep. with abl. , before, in 

front of: in comparison with. 
praeacutus, -a, -um, [prae -f 

acutus], adj., sharp in front, 

sharpened, pointed. 
praebeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, [prae 

-f habeo], 2, a., hold out, prof 

fer, offer, grant, supply ; yield, 

surrender ; show, exhibit, repre- 

praecedo, -ere, -eessi, -cessum, 

[prae + cedo], 3, n. and 2.., go 

before, lead ; outstrip, surpass, 
praeceptor, -oris, [praecipio], 

m., teacher, instructor, praecep- 

praeceptum, i, [praecipi5], n., 
maxim, rule, order, direction, 

praecido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum, 
[prae -}- caedo], 3, a., ctd off 
in front ; cut off, cut short ; 

fijiish, end, destroy. 
praecipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 
[prae -f capio], 3, a., take be- 

forehand, anticipate ; give rules, 
admonish, direct ; bid, order. 

praecipue, [praecipuus], adv., 

chiefiy, principally, ejuinently. 
praeclare, [praeclarus], adv., 

gloriously, excellently. 
praeclarus, -a, -um, [prae -f 

clarus], adj., very bright, very 

brillia nt ; excellent, fine. 
praeco, -onis, [prae -f voco], 

m., crier, herald. 
praeda, -ae, f., property taken in 

war ; booty, spoil, plunder,prey. 
praedicatio, -onis, [praedico], 

f . , / id)lic proclamation, pra ising, 

praedico, -are, -avi,-atum, [prae 

+ dic5], I, a., make known by 

proclamation., announce, pro- 

claim, declare ; praise, co?nmend. 
praedico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum, 

[prae + dic5], 3, a., say before- 

hand, warn, admonish. 
praedo, -onis, [praeda], m., one 

that makes booty, phmderer, rob- 

praefectus, -i, [praefici5], m., 

overseer, commander. 
praefero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, 

irr., a., bear before ; offer, pre- 

sent ; prefer, rate higher ; dis- 

play, reveal. 
praeferox, -5cis, [prae+ fer5x], 

adj., very violent, impetuous, in- 

solent, full of confidence. 
praefor, -fari, -fatus sum, [prae 

+ for], I, dep., a., say before, 

premise, preface ; utter a pre- 

liminary prayer. 
praemium, -i, [prae + em5] , n., 

advantage, favor, reward, re- 

compense ; prize, plmtder, booty. 



praeripio, -ere, -ripui, -reptum, 

3, a., snatch away, carry off; 

seize prematurely, anticipate. 
praesens, -entis, [part. of prae- 

sum], adj., at hand, present, in 

person; ininiediate, instajit; fa- 

voring.^ propitioiis. 
praesidium, -i, [praeses], n,, 

defence, protection, help ; garri- 

son, post, station. 
praesto, -stare, -stiti, -stitum, 

I, n. and a., stand out, stand 

before, be superior, excel ; show, 

exhibit. Impers. praestat, it is 

praesum, -esse, -fui, — , irr., n., 

be before ; rule, have charge of 

praeter [prae], adv. and prep. 

with acc. only, pasf, by, beyond ; 

against, contrary to ; except, be- 

sides. In composition, past, be- 

praeterea, [praeter + ea], adv., 

in addition, further, besides, 

praetereo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 

[praeter -f eo], irr., n. and 2i.,go 

by, pass by ; ojfiit., disregard ; 

praeteritus, -a, -um, [part. of 

praetered], adj., gone by,past, 

praetervehor, -vehi, -vectus 

sum, [praeter + vehor], 3, 

dep., n. and a., be borne past, 

drive past ; pass by. 
praetextus, -a, -um, [part. of 

praetexo], adj., bordered, edged. 

As subst., praetexta, -ae, f., [sc. 

toga], the toga praetexta ; see 

note to p. II, 1. 16. 
praetor, -oris, [for praeitor, 

prae, cf. eo], m., leader, chief 

practor, a magistrate at Rome 

charged with the administration 

of justice. At first there was 

but one praetor, but at an early 

period two were chosen, then 

six. Under Sulla there were 

eight, and the number finally 

reached sixteen. 
praetorius, -a, -um, [praetor], 

adj., of a praetor, practorian. 

As subst., praetorius, -i, m., 

one tvho has been praetor, ex- 

praevenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 

[prae -1- venio], 4, n. and a., 

come before,get start of outstrip, 

prandium, -i, n., late breakfast, 

luncheon, taken by the Romans 

at about noon. 
pravus, -a, -um, adj., crooked; 

perverse, irregular, itnproper, 

precor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

a., ask, beg, sttpplicate, beseech ; 

call tipon, invoke. 
prehendo, and prendo, -ere, -di, 

-sum, 3, a., lay hold of grasp, 

seize ; check, arrest ; compre- 

pretiosus, -a, -um, [pretium], 

adj., of great value, costly^ pre- 

cious ; dear, expensive. 
pretium, -i, n., price, money 

value ; esteem ; recompense, re- 





prex, precis, nom. and gen. sing. 

not in use, [precor], i.,prayer, 

request, entreaty. 
pridie, adv,, on the day before, the 

previotis day. 
primo, [primus], adv., at Jirst, 

at the beginning,first. 
primores, -um, [primus], m., 

pl., chiefs, nobles,firstmen. 
primum, [primus], adv., at first. 
primus, see prior. 
princeps, -ipis, [primus, cf. ca- 

pio], adj., first in order, fore- 

most. As subst., m., the first 

man, leader, chief; emperor. 
principium, -i, [princeps], n., be- 

ginning, commencement, origin. 
prior, -ius, gen. -oris, adj., comp., 

former, first. Sup. primus, -a, 

-Vim, first, foremost ; chief noble. 
priscus, -a, -um, [for prius-cus], 

adj., of old, ancient, antiqiie. 
Priscus, -i, m., Priscus, surname 

of Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth 

king of Rome. 
pristinus, -a, -um, [for prius- 

tinus], z.i^]., fortner, original. 
prius, adv., comp., before, sooner, 

previously ; rather. 
priusquam, [prius -f quam], 

conj., earlier than, sooner than, 

privatim, [privatus], adv., as an 

individtial, privately, in a pri- 

vate capacity. 
privatus, -a, -um, [part. of privo], 

adj., apart, peculiar, personal, 

private. As subst., privatus, -i, 

m., man in private life, private 


privo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

bereave, deprive, rob. 
pro, prep. with abl. only, /^r/ in- 

stead of; as ; in behalf of 
pro, interj., O ! ah ! alas ! 
proavus, -i, [pr5 -1- avus], m., 

grea t-gra n dfa ther. 
probo, -are, -avi, -atum, [pro- 

bus], I, a., make good, approve, 

commend ; shoiv, prove. 
proboscis, -idis, f., proboscis. 
Proca, -ae, m., Proca, name of 

one of the fabulous kings of 

Alba, the father of Numitor 

and AmuHus. 
procedo, -cedere, -cessi, — , 

[prd-f cedo], 3, n., go before, 

go forward,7?iarch on ; advance, 

make progress. 
procella, -ae, f., violent wind, 

storm, hurricane; sudden attack. 
proceritas, -atis, [procerus], f., 

height, tallness. 
proclamo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[pro + clam5] , i , n., call, cjy out. 
proconsul, -ulis, m., governor of 

a province, proconsul. 
procul, adv., in the distance, far, 

afar off; of time, long before. 
Proculus, -i, m., Proculus, sur- 

name of lulius Proculus. See 

p. 4, 1. 20. 
procumbo, -cumbere, pr5cubui, 

procubitum, [pr5 -f cumb^], 3, 

j\., fall fortvards, sink down,fall 

procuro, -are, -avi, -atum, [pro 

-f cur5], I, a., take care of at- 

tend to, look after ; avert, expi' 

ate by sacrifice. 




prodeo, -ire, -ii, -itum, [prod, 

old form of pro, -f e5], irr., n., 
^o forth^ come fovTvard, stand 

out ; go forward^ proceed. 
prodigium, -i, n., prophetic sign, 

o/nen , portent ; monster, prodigy. 
proditio, -5nis, [cf. pr5d5J, f., 

betrayal, treason, treachery. 
proditor, -5ris, [cf. pr5d5], m., 

betrayer, traitor. 
prodo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [pr5 

-f d5], 3. a., put forth, exhibit ; 

reveal., disclose ; siirrender. 
proelior, -ari, -atus sum, [proe- 

lium], I, dep., n., join battle, 
proelium, -i, n., battle, combat. 
profecto, [pr5 -f fact5], adv., 

actually, indeed, really, cer- 

profero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, 

[pr5 -f fer5], irr., a., carry out, 

produce, putforth, put off; make 

knoiun, viention ; present. 
proficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum, 

[pr5 -F faci5], 3, a. and n., 

make headzvay, make progress, 

succeed, accomplish ; do good, 

proficiscor, -ficisci, -fectus sum, 

3, dep., n., set out, depart, 

profiteor, -eri, -fessus sum, [pr5 

-j- fateor], 2, dep., a. and n., 

decla re p iiblicly, profess. n5men 

profiteri, to avow oneself a can- 

profligo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

strike to the ground, overthrozv, 

overconie ; ruin, destroy. 

profugio, -fugere, -fugi, — , 3, 

Xi., flee, run axvay, escape ; take 

profugus, -a, -um, [cf. profugi5], 

adj., fugitive, in fiight. As 

subst., profugus, -i, m.., ftgitive, 

profundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, 

[pr5 -f fund5], 3, z.., pour out ; 

squander, shed ; bring forth, 

utter. se profundere, to rush 
forth, rusJi out. 
profiisus, -a, -um, [part. of pro- 

fund5], adj., lavish, extrava- 

gant, profuse. 
progredior, -gredi, -gressus 

sum, [pr5 -f gradior], 3, dep., 

n., go forth, go on ; advance, 

make progress. 
prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, [pr5 

-f habe5], 2, a., hold back, 

check ; hinder, prevent ; forbid, 

proicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 

[pr5 -H iaci5], 3, a., throzv forth, 

throw out, throw ; expel, banish. 
proinde, [pr5 -f inde], adv., hence, 

therefore, accordingly ; in like 

manner, equally. 
prolabor, -labi, -lapsus sum, 

[pr5 -I- labor], 3, dep., n.,glide 

forzvard,glide along ; fall dozvn, 

fall in ruins ; escape ; fail, err ; 

go to rtiin. 
promineo, -ere, -ui, — , 2, n., 

stand out, project, extend ; lean 

promlssus, -a, -um, [part. of 

pr5mitt5], adj., hanging down, 





promitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

[pro + mitt5], 3, a., let go, pnt 

forth ; foretell, promise. 
prompte, [promptus], adv., 

readily, qnickly. 
promptus, -a, -um, [part. of 

promo], adj., setforth, manifest ; 

at hand, ready, quick, prompt. 
pronepos, -otis, [pro + nepos], 

m. , great-grandson. 
pronuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 

a. and n., announce, declare. 
prope, adv., and prep. with acc, 

propello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum, 

[pro -f pello], 3, a., drive for- 

7vard, drive away ; impel. 
propensus, -a, -um, [part. of pro- 

pendeo], adj., hanging doiun ; 

inclined, disposed, ready ; kindly- 

propero, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n., 

make haste. 
propinquus, -a, -um, [prope], 

adj., 7icar, neighboring. As 

subst., m. and f., relation, rela- 

propono, -ere, -posui, -positum, 

[pro -r p5no], 3, a., put forth, 

set forth ; propose, offer ; declare, 

relate ; resolve, determine. 
propositum, -i, [prop5n5], n., 

plan, design ; subject, thei7ie. 
proprie, [proprius], Sidv.^person- 

ally, in person ; pectiliarly, es- 

propter, prep. with acc. only, 

near, next to ; on account of 
proripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum, 

[pr5 4- rapi5], 3, a., drag forth ; 

drive out ; impel. se pr5ripere, 

to rush out. 
prorogo, -are, -avi, -atum, [pr5 

-l-rog5], I, a., prolong, extend, 

put off. 
proscribo, -scribere, pr5scripsi, 

proscriptum, [pr5 -1- scrib5], 

3, a., make public ; publish, an- 

nounce ; offer for sale ; outlaw, 

proscriptio, -5nis, [pr5scrib5], 

f., notice of sale ; proscription^ 

proscriptus, -i, [pr5scrib5], m., 

outlaw, proscribed person. 
prosequor, -sequi, -secutus sum, 

[pr5 -f sequor], 3, dep., a., 

follow, accompany, attend; chase, 

Proserpina, -ae, f., Proserpina., 

the Latin form of Persephone, 

wife of Pluto and queen of the 

lower world. 
prosilio, -ire, -ui, — , 4, n., leap 

forward, spring forth ; rush, 

make haste. 
pr6sperus,-a, -um, [pr5 -H spes], 

adj., according to hope ; favor- 

able, forttmate, propitious ; of 

good omen. 
prospere, [pr5sperus], adv., ac- 

cording to hope, favorably, pro- 

prosterno, -sternere, prostravi, 

pr5stratum, [pr5 4- stern5], 3, 

z..,strew before ; castdoivn, over- 

throzv ; ruin, destroy. 
prosum, pr5desse, pr5fui, [pr5 

-f sum], irr., n., be useful, do 
; benefit, profit. 




protendo, -ere, — , -tum, [pro + 

tendo], 3, z.,strelch oui, cxtend. 
protinus, adv., right on, onward ; 

coiitiniiously ; immediately, at 

provincia, -ae, f., office, charge, 

province, government of a terri- 

tory outside of Italy by a magis- 

trate of Rome. 
provoco, -are, -avi, -atum, [pro 

+ voco], I, a. and n., call forth, 

call out, summon ; make an ap- 

peal, appeal; stiinulate, stir up ; 

proxime, [proximus], ?^(\N.,near- 

esf, next. 
proximus, -a, -um, [prope], adj., 

nearest, next ; of time, latest, 

last ; next,following. in prox- 

imo, near by, close at hand. As 

subst., proximi, -orum, m., pl., 

the bystanders. 
prudens, -entis, [for providens, 

part. of provided], adj., fore- 

seeing, knozving; skilful., expe- 

rienced, priident, clever, intelli- 

priidentia, -ae, [priidens], f., 

foresight ; acqiiaintance, knotvl- 

edge, skill ; good sense. 
psittacus, -i, m., parrot. 
Ptolemaeus, -i, Ptolemaeus, Ptol- 

emy, the name of several kings 

piiblice, [publicus], adv., on ac- 

count of the people, publicly, by 

order of the state. 
publico, -are, -avi, -atum, [pii- 

blicus], I, a., open to the public, 

make pubtic, confiscate ; publish. 

piiblicus, -a, -um, [populus], 

adj., of the people, of the state, 

public, common. As subst., pub- 

licum, -i, \\.,public place ; pos- 

sessions of the state, public treas- 

Piiblius, -i, m., Publius, a Roman 

puella, -ae, [dim. of puer], i., fe- 

male child, girl, maiden ; young 

puer, pueri, m., male child, boy, 

young man, usually until seven- 

teen; slave. 
puerilis, -e, [puer], adj., boy- 

ish, youthful ; childish, trivial., 

pueritia, -ae, [puer], f., boyhood, 

childhood, youth. See puer. 
piigio, -5nis, m., short dagger, 

piigna, -ae, f., hand to handfight, 

battle ; dispute, quarrel. 
pugnax, -acis, [pugnd], adj., 

fond of fighting, combative, war- 

like ; quarrelsome. 
piigno, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[piigna], i, n. and a., fight, 

contend ; oppose, resist, strug- 

gle zvith. 
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj., 

beautiful, fair, handsome ; ex- 

cellent, noble, illustrious. 
pulchritiido, -inis, [pulcher], 

f., beauty ; cxcellence. 
pulvis, -eris, m., rarely f., dust, 

pozvdcr ; toil. 
pungo, -ere, pupugi, piinctum, 

3, a., prick, puncture ; sting ; 

grieve, torment, afflict. 




Punicus, -a, -um, adj., Ptmic, 

Ca rthagin ia n . 
punio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [poena], 

4, a.., punis/i, correct, chastise. 
piirgo, -are, -avi, -atum, [purus 

+ ago], I, a., make clear, 

purify, cleanse ; exctise, justify, 

puto, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

cleanse; reckon, value ; con- 

sider, judge, think, siippose. 
Pyrenaeus, -a, -um, adj., Pyre- 

naean. As subst., Pyrenaei, 

-orum, [sc. m5ntes], m., pl,, 

the Pyrenees. 
Pyrrhus, -i, m., Pyrrhus, king of 

Epirus; see p. 17, 1. 12. 

Q., with proper names =: Quintus, 

a Roman forename. 
quadragesimus, -a, -um, [quad- 

raginta], di6]., fortieth. 

quadraginta, num. adj., indecl., 

quadrlgae, -arum, [for quad- 
riiugae], f., pl., tea?n of four, 
four-horse team. 

quaero, -ere, quaesivi, quaesi- 
tum, 3, a,, seek, look for ; desire, 
require ; inquire, ask. 

quaestor, -oris, [= quaesitor, 
from quaero], m., quaestor, a 
Roman magistrate whose duties 
varied at different periods. At 
first there were but two quaes- 
tors, but the number was in- 
creased until it reached forty 
under Caesar's administration. 

At that time the quaestors were 
engaged in the care of public 
moneys and of military stores, 
partly at Rome and partly in the 
provinces. They were chosen in 
the Comitia Tributa, and were 
assigned their provinces by lot. 

quaestura, -ae, [quaestor], f., 
office of quaestor, quaestorship. 

qualis, -e, adj., inter., of what 
kind? rel., ofsuch a kind, such as. 

qualiscumque, -ecumque, adj,, 
ofwhatci>er kind ; of any kind. 

quam, [cf. qui], adv., z";z what 
manner, ho7v, ho7v much ; after 
comparatives, than, rather than. 
tam , . . quam, so . . . as. quam 
diu, as long as. 

quamquam, [quam -f quam], 
conj., though, although ; and 
yet, however. 

quantum, [quantus], adv., rel., so 
much as, to as great an extent; 
inter., how much? hoiv far ? 

quantus, -a, -um, adj., rel., as 
great as, as ; inter., hoxu great? 
hoiv much ? quantus . . . tantus, 
as JTiuch . . . as, as great . . . as. 

quapropter, [qua -f propter], 
adv,, inter., for what? why ? 
wherefore ? rel., wherefore. 

quare, [qua -f re], adv., inter., 
by what means ? whereby ? hoiv ? 
rel., by reascn of which, so that ; 
ivherefore, therefore. 

quartanus, -a,' -um, [quartus], 
adj., of the fourth, occurring on 
thefotirth day. As subst., quar- 
tana, -ae, f., [sc. febris], quar- 
tan ague. 




quartus, -a, -um, [quattuor], 

nuui. -^iX]., foiirth. 
quasi, [qua + si], adv. ancl conj., 

as if,Jtist as if as tJiough ; ahout, 

nearly, as it were. 
quater, [cf. quattuor], num. adv,, 

four tivies. 
quattuor, num. adj., indecl.,/(;«r. 
-que, conj., enclitic, and, but. 
queror, -i, questus sum, 3, dep., 

n., express grief lainent, bezvail, 

qul, quae, quod, gen. cuius, inter. 

adj. pron., which ? ivhat ? zvhat 

kind of a ? 
qui, quae, quod, gen. ciiius, rel. 

pron., who, which, what, that ; 

at the beginning of a clause 

often best rendered by a per- 

sonal or demonstrative pronoun 

with or without and or biit. 
qui, quae, quod, indef. adj. pron., 

used after si, nisi, ne, and num, 

quia, conj., because, since. 
quicumque, quaecumque, quod- 

cumque, [qui + cumque], rel. 

pron., zvhoever, zvhatever., every 

one who.1 everything that. 
quidam, quaedam, quiddam, 

and as adj., quoddam, indef. 

pron., a certain, somebody, some- 

thing, a certain man ; pl., some, 

certain ones. 
quidem, [qui], adv., indeed, in 

fact ; at least. ne . . . quidem, 

not even. 
quidni, adv., why not? 
quies, -etis, f., rest, repose, sleep ; 

peace, respite. 

quietus, -a, -um, [part. of qui- 

escoj, adj., at rest, inactive ; 

qniet, peaceful. 
quin, [qui + -ne], conj., ^vhy not ? 

biit, but that, that. quin etiam, 

nay.^ even, moreover. 
Quinctilius, -i, m., Quinctilius, 

gentile name of P. Quinctilius 

Varus, a general of Augustus 

who suffered a disastrous defeat 

at the hands of the Germans, 

B.c. 9. 
Quinctilis, -e, [quintus], adj., 

of the fifth month, counting from 

March. The month was after- 

ward called lulius (July), in 

honor of Julius Caesar. 
quingentl, -ae, -a, num. z.X].,five 

qulnquaginta, num. adj., indecL, 

qulnquennium, -i, [quinque -f 

annus], n., a period of five 

quinquiens, [quinque], z.(\\.,five 

qulntus, -a, -um, [quinque], 

num. 2,X].^fifth. 
quippe, [qui -f -pe], adv., of 

course, as you see, naturally, by 

all vieans ; since,for. 
Quirlnalis, -e, [Quirinus], adj., 

of Quirtnus, Quirinal. As 

subst., [sc. collis], the Quiri- 

nal hill, one of the seven hills 

of Rome. 
Quirlnus, -i, m., of Cures, of the 

Quirites, hence, Quirinus, a 

name applied to Romulus after 

his deification. 




Quirites, -ium, m., pl., inhabi- 

tants of Ctires, Qiiirifes ; the 

Roman citizens. 
quis, quid, inter. pron., zvho? 

which one ? what ? 
quis, qua, quid, indef. pron., any 

one, any, anything. 
quisnam, quaenam, quidnam, 

[quis + nam], indef. pron., tvho 

then ? zvho in the world? what 

in the world? 
quisquam, quaequam, quic- 

quam, [quis + quam], indef. 

pron., any one, anybody, any- 

thing ; sonie one, soviething. 
quisque, quaeque, quidque, and 

as adj., quodque, [quis + 

-que], indef. pron., each one, 

every, everybody, everything. 
quisquis, — , quicquid, and as 

adj., quodquod, indef. pron., 

whoever, tvhatever, every one 

who, everything which. 
qu6, [qui], adv. and conj. : 

(i) As adv., inter., zvhither ? 
to zvhat place ? xe\., whither, 
where, when ; by what, by as 
much as ; wherefore. 

(2) As conj., that, in order 
quocumque, [quo + cumque], 

adv., to ivhatever place, whither- 

quod, adv. and conj. : 

(i) As adv., with respect to 
ivhich, in what, as to what. 
quod si, but if, and yet if 

(2) As conj., that, in that ; be- 
cause, since, for ; as to the 
fact that, whereas. 

quominus, [quo, minus], conj., 

that not, to prevent, lest ; often 

best renderedy^^cw. 
quomodo, [qu5, modo], adv., 

inter., in ivhat nia?tner ? i7i 

what way? hozv ? rel., in the 

nianner that, as. 
quondam, adv., at some time, at 

one time ; once, formerly ; of 

the future, some day, hereafter. 
quoniam, [quom, old form of 

cum, + iam], conj., since, as, 

because, whereas. 
quoque, conj., placed after the 

emphatic word, also, too. 
quorsum and quorsus, [quo, 

versus], adv., to zvhat place? 

whither ? for what purpose ? 

for zvhat ? 
quot, adj., pl., indecl., inter., how 

jnany ? rel., as many as. 
quotannls, [quot, annis], adv., 

every year, annHaliy, yearly. 
quotienscumque, [quot], adv., 

inter., how often ? how many 

times ? rel., as often as. 
quousque, [quo + usque], adv., 

until tvhat time ? till zvhen ? 

hozv long? 


radius, -i, m., staff, rod ; beam, 

radix, -icis, f., root ; lower part, 

foot, base ; origin. 
rapidus, -a, -um, comp. rapidior, 

sup. rapidissimus, [rapio],adj., 

tearing azvay ; fierce ; itnpetu- 

ous, rapid, swift. 




rapina, -ae, [rapio], f., robbery, 

pluudering ; pillage, rapine. 
rapio, rapere, rapui, raptum, 3, 

a., seize and carry off; snatch, 

drag ; haslen, hurry ; destroy, 

raro, [rarus], adv., seldoni, 

rarely, now and then. 
rarus, -a, -um, adj., thin, rare ; 

scanty, scattered. 
ratio, -onis, [reor], f., reckoning, 

numbering^ account, calcula- 

tion; business ; method, plan ; 

re- or red-, inseparable particle, 

again, back, anezu. 
rebello, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- 

-f bello], I, n., wage zvar again ; 

revoit, rebel, renew the combat. 
recedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[re- + ced5], 3, n., go back, re- 

tire, withdraw ; desist. 
receptus, -us, [cf. recipio], m., 

taking back ; falling back, re- 

recessus, -iis, [cf. recedo], m., 

going back ; retreat, departure ; 

nook, corner. 
recido or reccido, -ere, rec- 

cidi or recidi, recasum, [re- 

4- eado], 3, n., fall back, re- 

turn ; sink, be reduced ; result, 

cojne out. 
recipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

[re- -f capio], 3, a., take back, 

recover ; receive. se recipere, 

to dratv back, retreat. 
reconcilio, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[re- -f concilio] , i, a., regain; 

reunite, reconcile ; conciliate. 

recreo, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- + 

creo], I, a., make aneiv, re- 

new ; revive, invigorate ; en- 

recte, [rectus], adv., in a straight 

line ; properly, rightly, duly. 
recubo, -are, — , — , [re- -f- cubo], 

I, n., lie on one^s back, lie, re- 

recuso, -are, -avi, -atum, [re-, 

causa], I, a., viake objection to ; 

decline, refuse. 
reddo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [red- 

-f- do], 3, a., give back, restore ; 

represent, imitate ; pay back ; 

make to be, render ; surrender ; 

give up. 
redeo, -ire, -ivi, -itum, [red- -f 

eo], irr., n., go back, return. 
redigo, -igere, -egi, -actum, 

[red- -fagd], 3, a., drive back, 

force back, reduce. 
redimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum, 

[red- -f emd], 3, a., btiy back, 

redeem ; ransom ; buy, pur~ 

chase, procure. 
redintegro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[red- -f integrd], i, a., make 

whole again, begin again ; re- 

store, renexv. 
reditus, -us, [cf. redeo],m.,^om^ 

back, return ; income, revemie. 
reduco, -dricere, -duxi, -ductum, 

[re- -f diico], 3, a. , lead back, 

escort back, acco?npany ; bring 

off ; bring back, restore ; re- 

refello, -ere, refelli, — , [re--f 

fallo], 3, a., show to be false, 

refute, disprove. 




refero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, [re- -f 

fero], irr., a., bear back, bring ; 

raise, bear off, recover ; retnrn, 

pay back, reqidte ; ascribe. pe- 

dem referre, to retreat, with- 

refoveo, -fovere, -fovi, -fotum, 

[re- + foveo], 2, a., zmrjti 

ai^aijt ; refresh, restore, revive. 
reffingo, -ere, refregi, refrac- 

tum, [re- + frango], 3, a., 

break up, break open ; de- 

refugio, -fugere, -fugi, — , [re- 

-f fugio], 3, n, and z.., flee back, 

flee for refuge ; avoid, shun. 
regalis, -e, [rex], adj., of a king, 

royal ; regal, splendid. 
regia, -ae, [regiusj, f,, royal pal- 

ace, castle. 
regius, -a, -um, [rex], adj., of a 

king, king^s, kingly., royal ; 

regno, -are, -avi, -atum, [reg- 

num], I, n., have royal power, 

rule, be king ; be lord, be su- 

regnum, -i, [cf, rex], n., kingly 

goverji?nent, royalty ; dojjiinion, 

sovereigjity, sivay ; kingdojjt, 

rego, -ere, rexi, rectum, 3, a., 

keep straight, guide, direct, coji- 

trol ; szvay, rtde. 
regredior, -gredi, -gressus sum, 

[re- + gradior], 3, dep., n., go 

back, returji ; retreat. 
Regulus, -i, m., Regtdus, family 

name of M. Atilius Regidus ; 

see p, 24, 

reicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, [re- 

+ iacio], 3, a., throw back, hurl 

back ; repel ; refuse,reject scorjt- 

relabor, -labi, -lapsus sum, [re- 

+ labor], 3, dep., n., slide back, 

sijik back ; flow back, return. 
religio, -onis, [re-, cf. Ieg5], f., 

sejise of right, duty ; religion, 

scruple ; fear of the gods ; relig- 

ioji, worship. 
religiosus, -a, -um, [religio], 

adj., scruptdous ; holy, sacred. 
religo, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- + 

ligo], I, a., bijid, bijid fast ; 

relinquo, -ere, -liqui, -lictum, 

[re- + linquo], 3, a., leave be- 

hijid ; leave ; bequeath. 
reliquiae, -arum, [cf. relinquo], 

f,, pl., what is left, rejjinant, 

reliquus, -a, -um, [cf. relinquo], 

adj., re/Jiaijiijig.1 rest. As subst., 

reliquum, -i, n., rejjiaijtder, rest. 
remaneo, -ere, remansi, — , [re- 

+ maneo], 2, n., stay behijid, 

reJJiaiji ; ejidure, last ; cojitijiue 

to be. 
remedium, -i, n., that which re- 

stores health, cure, rejjiedy, tnedi- 

cijie ; help, assistance. 
remigro, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- 

+ migro], I, n., jourjiey back, 

go back, returji. 
remitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

[re- + mitto], 3, a., let go back, 

sejid back, cause to returji ; yield, 

give up ; rejnit,grajit exejjiption 




removeo, -ere, -movi, -motum, 

[re- -f moveo], 2, a., viove back, 

ivithdrazv, retnove. 
Remus, -i, m., Remus, twin 

brother of Romulus. 
renascor, -nasci, -natus sum, 

[re- -I- nascor], 3, dep., n., be 

born again,groza again ; revive, 

renovo, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- -1- 

novo], I, a., renexv, restore, re- 

peat ; revive. 
renuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- 

+ nuntio], i, a., bring back 

word, announce, report. 
renuo, -nuere, -nui, — , [re- -f 

nuo], 3, n., nod backzvard, refuse 

by a motion of the head; deny, 

reor, reri, ratus sum, 2, dep., a., 

reckon, believe, think, suppose. 
repello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum, 

[re- -f pello], 3, a., drive back, 

reject, repulse. 
rependo, -ere, -pendi, -pensum, 

[re- -f pendo], 3, a., zveigh back, 

return by weight ; repay, re- 

quite, rezvard. 
repente, [repens], adv., sud- 

denly, unexpectedly. 
repentinus, -a, -um, [repens], 

adj., sudden, hasty, unexpected. 
reperio, reperire, repperi or re- 

peri, repertum, 4, a., find 

again-, vieet with ; discover ; 

repeto, -ere, -ivi, -itum, [re- -1- 

pet5], 3, 2i., fall back on, attack 

anew ; demand back. res re- 

petere, to demand restitution. 

repleo, -plere, -plevi, -pletum, 

[re--f pleo], 2, o.., fill again, 

refill,fill up ; complete. 
repletus, -a, -um, [part. of re- 

pleo] , adj ., filled, full. 
repono, -ere, -posui, -positum, 

[re- -}- pono] , 3, a., put back, re- 

place, restore ; renetv ; lay up, 

reckon; class. 
reporto, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- 

-f porto], i,a., carry back ; get, 

reposco, -ere, — , — , [re- -f 

posco], 3, a., demand back, ask 

again ; demand, claim. 
reprehendo, -ere, -di, -sum, [re- 

H- prehendo], 3, a., hold fast, 

seize, catch ; blame, reprove ; 

prosecute, condemn. 
reprimo, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, 

[re- -|- premo], 2^,2^., press back, 

keep back ; check, limit, confine, 

repudio, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

cast off, reject, scorn., repudiate. 
reptigno, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- 

-f pugno], I, n., fight back, op- 

pose, resist, defetid oneselfagainst. 
repulsa, -ae, [repello], f., rejec- 

tion, reftisal, repulse ; defeat at 

the polls. 
reputo, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- -f 

puto], I, a., count over, reckon, 

calcidate ; meditate, reflect on. 
res, rei, f., thing, object, matter ; 

affair, event ; circumstance, con- 

dition, property, possessions ; 

state, commonwealth. res pub- 

lica, the commomvealth, repub- 

lic. re vera, indeed, in truth. 




rescindd, -ere, -scidi, -sciissum, 
[re- + scind5], 3, a., cjd off, 
cut loose, cut dow7i ; reuew, ex- 
pose ; anniil, 7'epeal. 

reseco, -are, -secui, -sectum, 
[re- + seco], i, a., cnt loose, cnt 
off ; check, stop. 

resero, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- + 
sero], I, a., tmlock, tinclose, open. 

resido, -sidere, -sedi, — , [re- + 
sido], 3, n., sit doivn, settle; 
sink ; grow calin , snbside. 

resisto, -sistere, -stiti, — , 3, n., 
stand hack ; remain standing, 
halt, stop, stand still ; resist, op- 

resolvo, -ere, -solvi, -solutum, 
[re- + solv5], 3, a., untie, un- 
bind, loose ; relax, enervate ; 
dissolve, melt. 

respicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 
[re- + speci5], 3, n. and a., 
look back, look back upon, gaze 
at, contemplate ; consider, re- 

respiro, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- 
+ spir5], I, a. and n., blow 
back, breathe out, exhale ; breathe, 
recover breath, be revived. 

respondeo, -ere, -di, -sp5nsum, 
[re + sponde5], 2, a. and n., 
answer, reply ; correspoud, agree. 

responsum, -i, [responde5], n,, 
answer, reply, response ; re- 
sp07ise of oracle. 

res piiblica, see res. 

restinguo, -stinguere, restinxi, 
restinctum, [re- + stingu5], 3, 
a., put out, quench, extinguish ; 
assuage, allay ; destroy. 

restituo, -ere, -ui, -iitum, [re- + 
statu5], 3, a., set up again, re- 
place, rebuild ; restore ; reni- 
edy ; reinstate ; save. 

resto, -stare, restiti, — , [re + 
st5], I, a., withstand, resist, op- 
posc ; be left, remain. 

retineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum, 
[re- + tene5], 2, a,, hold back, 
keep, detain, rctain, restrai?i ; 
preserve, maintain. 

retraho, -ere, -traxi, -tractum, 
[re- + trah5], 3, a., draxv back, 
call back, drag back ; remove, 

reus, -a, -um, adj., concerned in, 
party to an action; accused, ar- 
raigned. As subst., reus, -i, m., 
defendant, accused, prisoner. 

reverto, -ere, -ti, — , see re- 

revertor, -i, -versus sum, perf. 
usually reverti, [re- + vert5], 
3, dep,, n., turn back, return, 
come back ; revert, recur. 

re vera, see res. 

revoco, -are, -avi, -atum, [re- + 
voc5], I, a., call again, call 
back, recall ;-call,/}ff. 

rex, regis, m., arbitrary ruler, 
monarch, king. 

Rhea, -ae, Rhea, forename of 
Rhea Silvia, daughter of Nu- 
mitor, and mother of Romulus 
and Remus. 

rhetor, -oris, m., teacher of ora- 
tory, rhetorician, orator. 

Rhodanus, -i, m,, the Rhone, flovv- 
ing through southeastern Gaul 
into the Mediterranean. 




Rhodus, -1, f., J\/iodes, an im- 

portant island lying south of 

the western part of Asia Minor. 

It was famous for its schools of 

rhetoric, and for its prominence 

in naval affairs, 
rldeo, ridere, risi, risum, 2, n. 

and a., laugh, smile ; lattgh at, 

laugh over, mock, deride. 
rigo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

conduct, lead ; luet, nioisten, 

ripa, -ae, f., hank of a river, inar- 

gin ; sJiore of the sea. 
risus, -iis, [rideo], m., laughing, 

laughter ; object of laughter. 
rite, [old abl. = ritii, from ritus], 

adv., hccording to religious tisage, 

ivith proper ceremonies, solemnly, 

ritus, -iis, m., form of rehgious 

observance, ceremony, riie. 
rixa, -ae, f., quarrel, brawl, dis- 

pute, strife. 
robur, -oris, n., hard wood, oak; 

hardness, strength, vigor ; best 

Roma, -ae, f., Rome. 
Rom^jis, -a, -um, ^cX]., of Rome, 

Roman. As subst., Romanus, 

-i, m., a Roman. 
Romulus, -i, m., Romulus, the 

mythical founder and first king 

of Rome. See p. 2. 
Roscius, -i, m., Roscius, gentile 

name of Sextius Roscius of 

Ameria, defended by Cicero 

against a charge of murder. 
rostrum, -i, [r5d6], n., beak, 

bill ; ship''^ beak ; pl., the Rostra, 

the speaker's platform in the 
Forum. See n. to p. 44, 1. 11. 

Rubico, -onis, m., the Rubicon, 
a small river in northeastern 
Italy, which formed the boun- 
dary betvveen Italy and Cisal- 
pine Gaul. 

rudimentum, -i, n.,first attempt, 
beginning, cotnmencement. ru- 
dimentum ponere, to take first 
steps in. 

Rufinus, -i, m., Rufimis, family 
name of P. Cornelius Rufinus, 
a personal enemy of C. Fabri- 
cius, who, however, supported 
his appHcation for a second 
consulship in 277 B.C. 

ruina, -ae, [ruo], f., rushing 
doivn, falling ; ruin, catastro- 
phe., destruction ; fallen build- 
ing, ruin. 

rumpo, rumpere, riipi, ruptum, 
3, a., break, tear, rend ; violate, 

ru6, ruere, rui, rutum, 3, n. and 
2i., fall with violence,go to ruin ; 
cause to fall, overthrotv. 

rursus or riirsum, [= revorsus 
or revorsum], adv., turnedback, 
back ; on the contrary, again, 
anew, once viore. 

rus, ruris, n., the country ; lands, 
fields, land, estate. 

riisticor, -ari, -atus sum, [riisti- 
cus], I, dep., n., sojourn in the 
country, take a vacation, rusti- 

rusticus, -a, -um, [riis], adj., of 
the country, rustic, rural.^ coun- 





Sabinus, -a, -um, adj., of the Sa- 

bines, Sabine. As subst., Sa- 

bini, -orum, m., pl., the Sabines, 

dwelling in central Italy north 

of Latium. 
sacer, -cra, -crum, adj., dedi- 

cated, consecrated.^ sacred, de- 

voted ; forfeited, accnrsed. 
sacerdos, -otis, [sacer], m. and 

f., priest, priestess. 
sacrificium, -i, [sacrum, cf. fa- 

cio], n., sacrifce. 
sacrum, -i, [sacer], n., soinething 

sacred, holy thing; sacred vessel ; 

pl., divine zoorship, religious 

saeculum, -i, n., race ; genera- 

tion, age ; lifetime. 
saepe, comp. saepius, sup. sae- 

pissime, adv., ofteji, freqnently. 
saepio, -ire, saepsi, saeptum, 

[saepes], 4, a., siirround 7viih 

a hedge, hedge in, enclose ; for- 

tify, guard, protect. 
saevio, -ire, -ii, -itum, [saevus], 

4, n., beferce, rage, rave ; shoiu 

saevitia, -ae, [saevus], f., fury, 

fierceness, cruelty. 
saevus, -a, -um, adj., raging, 

viad, fierce, savage ; violent, 

cruel, harsh. 
sagmo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

fatten, cram, feast. 
sagulum, -i, n., small military 

cloak ; travelling-cloak. 
Saguntus, -i, f., or Saguntum, 

-1, n. 

Sao-uulum, a tov.-n ia the 

eastern part of Spain, near the 

coast, the capture of which by 

Hannibal led to the second 

Punic war. 
Salernitanus, -a, -um, adj., of 

Salernum, a town in Campania, 

the modern Salerno. 
Salii, -orum, [cf. salio], m., pl., 

the Salii, a college of dancing 

priests of Mars, founded by 

Numa. See n. to p. 5, 1. 18. 
Salinator, -oris, m., Salinator^ 

surname of ]\I. Livius Safina- 

tor. See Livius. 
salinum, -i, [sal, saW^, n., vessel 

for salt ; salt-ccllar. 
salto, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. of 

salio], I, n., dance. 
saltus, -us, [salio], m., nom., 

gen., and dat. sing. not in use, 

leap, bound. 
saltus, -us, m., forest, 'ivoodland, 

forest-pasture ; glen, glade. 
salubris, -e, [salus], ?^(^].,health- 

giving, healthful, xvholesome ; 

healthy, well; beneficial, salutary. 
saliis, -utis, f., soundness, health, 

vigor ; prosperity, safety. 
salutatio, -5nis, [saliito], f., 

greeting, salutation ; ceremonial 

saliitator, -oris, [saliito], m., 

saluto, -are, -avi, -atum, [sa- 

liis], I, a., greet, wish health, 

salute, hail ; call upon., visit. 
salveo, -ere, — , — , [salvus], 2, 

n., be well, be in good health. 

Imp, and inf. in greetings, salve, 

hail ; salvere iabeo, I bid hail. 




aalvus, -a, -um, adj., in gvod 

licalth, 7vcll, soiind, safc. 
Samnites, -ium, m., pl., Sam- 

nitcs, inhabitants of SaniniHin, a 

mountainous district in central 

Italy, east and southeast of La- 

sane, [sanus], adv., sobcrly, sen- 

sibly ; indecd, by all nieans, 

trnly ; to be siirc, ccrtainly. 
sanguis, -inis, m., blood, blood- 

sJicd ; race, stock, family. 
sapiens, -entis, adj., ivise, knoiv- 

ing, sensiblc, discrcet. As subst., 

m., discreet person, man of sense, 

Sardinia, -ae, f., Sardinia, a 

large island in the Mediterra- 

nean, west of the southern part 

of Italy. 
sarmentum, -i, n., tivig, fagot ; 

pl. , briis]iwood, fagots. 
satis, adj., n., indecl., enough, snf 
ficient, satisfactory. As subst., 

enongh, sufficiency. As adv., 

enough, stifficicntly, moderately, 

tolerably, somcivhat. 
saucius, -a, -um, adj., xvounded, 

hurt ; ill., sick. 
saxum, -i, n., large stone, boul- 

der, rock. 
scamnum, -i, n., bench, stool, step ; 

sceleratus, -a, -um, [cf. scelus], 

z.d^]., polluted, profaned, defiled ; 

impious, zvickcd, accursed. 
sceleste, [scelestus] , adv. , zvick- 

edly, ivipiously, abominably. 
scelestus, -a, -um, [scelus], adj., 

impious, wicked, infamous. As 

subst., m. and f., infimous per- 

son, ivretch, scotindrel. 
scelus, -eris, n., wicked deed, 

crime, sin, wickedness. 
schola, -ae, f., intermission of 

work, lcisure for learning, de- 

bate, lecture ; placc of learning, 

scindo, -ere, scidi, scissum, 3, 

a., c'ut, tear, rend, split ; part, 

scio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, 4, a., know, 

kno7v how ; imderstand, per- 

Scipio, -onis, m., [scipio, staff\ 

Scipio, the name of a very dis- 

tinguished family of the Corne- 

lian gens. In this book are 

mentioned : 

(i) P. Cornelius Scipio Africii- 
ntis ; see p. 34. 

(2) L. Cornelius Scipio Asidti- 
cus ; see p. 42. 

(3) P. Cornelius Scipio Ndsica 
Serdpio ; see Nasica. 

sciscitor, -ari, -atus sum, [sci- 

sco], I, dep., a., inform oieself; 

ask, inquire, examine. 
scissus, -a, -um, [part. of scindo], 

adj., rent, torn. 
scriba, -ae, [cf. scribo], m., 

scribe, clerk, secretary. 
scrinium, -i, n., case, chest, box, 

scriptor, -oris, [scribo], m., one 

who zvrites, scribe, copyist, clcrk ; 

author, narrator. 
Scultenna, -ae, f., the Scultenna, 

a river in Cisalpine Gaul, not 

far from Mutina. 




scutum, -i, n., shield ; defence, 

se, acc. and abl. of sui. 
se or sed, [abl. of sui], prep. 

used mostlyin composition, apa7-t, 

aivay from. 
secedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum, 

[se \ cedo], 3, n., go apart, 

separate, retire ; rebel, revolt, 

secerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretum, 

[se + cerno], 3, a., pnt apart, 

snnder, divide ; disjoin,.part. 
seco, -are, secui, sectum, i, a., 

cut, cut off, reap ; cut in tivo ; 

divide, separate. 
secreto, [secretus], adv., apart, 

in secret, privately. 
secretus, -a, -um, [part. of se- 

cern5], adj., severed, separated, 

apart ; hidden, concealed ; secret, 

sector, -ari, -atus sum, [freq. of 

sequor], i, dep., 'a., follozv 

eagerly, run after, pursue ; seek 

the society of ; search for. 
secundus, -a, -um, [sequor], 

2id]., folloiving, next, second ; sec- 

ondary, inferior ; favorahlc,for- 

securis, -is, f., axe, hatchet. 
secus, adv., othe?'zvise, differently. 
sed, conj., but, on ihe contrary ; 

but also, bjtt even. 
sedeo, -ere, sedi, sessum, 2, n., 

sit, remain sitting; preside, hold 

court, be encamped ; be estab- 

sedes, -is, f., seat, bench, chair, 

throne ; residence, abode. 

seditio, -onis, [sed -f eo], f., 

going aside, dissension, civil 

discord, rebellion ; strife, quar- 

sedulitas, -atis, [sedulus], f., 

assiduity, earnestness, persist- 

sedulo, [sedulus], adv., busily, 

industriously, eagerly, sediilously; 

segnis, -e, adj., sloiv, tardy, lin- 

gering ; sluggish, lazy. 
segniter, [segnis], adv., slug- 

gishly, lazi/y, spiritlessly. 
sella, -ae, [sedeo], f., seat, chair. 
semel, num. adv., once, once for 

semet, see sui. 
semper, adv., ahvays, continually, 

Sempronius, -i, m., Seviprmiius, 

gentile name of Ti. Sempronius 

Longus, defeated by Hannibal 

at the river Trebia in 218 B.C. 
senator, -oris, m., member of the 

senate, senator. See n. to p. 4, 

senatorius, -a, -um, [senator], 

adj., of a senator, senatorial. 
senatus, -ris, [senexj, m., coun- 

cil of elders, senate. 
Seneca, -ae, f., Seneca, family 

name of L. Annaeus Seneca, a 

celebrated Stoic philosopher and 

writer, tutor of the emperor 

senectiis, -iitis, [senex], f., old 

senex, -is, adj., old, aged. As 




senior, -oris, adj., comp. of se- 

nex. As subst., m., pl., eldcrs. 
senium, -i, [senex], n., old age^ 

sententia, -ae, [cf. sentio], f., 

way of thinkiiig, opinion, jndg- 

nient ; tJionght, pnrpose. 
sentio, -ire, sensi, sensum, 4, a., 

discern by scnse, feel ; hear, see, 

separatim, adv., asunder, apart, 

sepelio, -ire, -ivi, -pultum, 4, a., 

bury, inter ; ruin, overivhelm, 

septem, num. adj., indecl., seven. 
septeni, -ae, -a, [septem], num. 

adj., seven cach. 
Septimuleius, -i, m., L. Septiinu- 

leius, who sold the head of C. 

Gracchus to the consul Opimius. 
septimus, -a, -um, [septem], 

adj., seventh. 
septuagesimus, -a, -um, adj., 

sepultura, -ae, [sepelid], f., 

burial, fimeral, obsequies. 
sequor, -i, seciitus sum, 3, dep., 

a., follow, attend ; come after, 

come Jtext; pursue. 
Sergius, -a, the name of a Ro- 

man gens. In this book are 

mentioned : 

(i) M. Sergius Catifma, the 
great-grandfather of the con- 
spirator (2). See p. 79. 

(2) L. Sergius Catillna. See 
serio, [serius], adv., in earnest, 


serius, -a, -um, [for severius, 
from severus], d,^].,grave, earn- 
est, serious. As subst., seria, 
-orum, n., pl. , serious matters^ 
serious discourse. 

sermo, -onis, m., speech, talk, con- 
vcrsation ; discussion. 

sero, adv., comp. serius, late, at 
a late hour, too late. 

Sertorius, -i, m., gentile name 
of (9. Sertorius. See p. 21. 

servilis, -e, [servus], adj., of a 
slave, slavish, servile. 

servitus, -iitis, [servus], f., 
slavery, servitude. 

Servius, -i, m., Servius. See 

servo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 
make safe, save, preserve, guard, 

sese, acc. and abl. of sui. 

sestertius, -a, -um, \_— semis, 
tertius], adj., two and a half 
As subst., sestertius, -i, m., 
(sc. nummus), a sesterce, a 
small silver coin, originally 2\ 
asses., = ^y^Q cents. 

seu, see sive. 

severe, comp. severius, sup. se- 
verissime, [severus], adv., 
gravely, seriously, severely. 

severus, -a, -um, adj., serious, 
sober, grave, stern ; gloomy. 

sex, num. adj., indecl., six. 

sexaginta, num. adj., indecl., 

Sextilis, -e, [sextus], adj., of 
the sixth month, counting from 
March. The month was after- 
wards called Augustus, in honor 
of the emperor. 




Sextilius, -i, m., Sexfilius, gov- 

ernor of the province of Africa 

in B.C. 88; he expelled Marius 

from Africa. 
sextus, -a, -um, [sex], adj., sijcth. 
Sextus, -1, m., Sextus, a Roman 

sl, conj., if, since, when, zvhether ; 

woidd that. 
sibilus, -i, m., hissing, whistling. 
sic, adv., thus, in this way, so. 
sicco, -are, -avi, -atum, [siccus], 

I, a., tnake dry, dry ; exhaust. 
siccus, -a, -um, adj., dry. As 

subst., siccum, -i, n., dry land, 

a dry place. 
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily. 
Siculus, -a, -um, adj., Sicilian. 

As subst., Siculi, -orum, m., pl., 

the Sicilians. 
significo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[signum, cf. facio], i, a., make 

signs, shoiv, point out, indicate ; 

portend, ?nean, signify. 
signo, -are, -avi, -atum, [sig- 

num], I, a., set a inark on, 

mark, designate ; adorn ; point 

out, indicate. 
signum, -i, n., mark, sign ; mili- 

tary stajidard, ensigns. 
silens, -entis, [part. of sileo], 

adj., still, calm, quiet, silent. 
silentium, -i, [silens], n., a being 

still, stillness, silence ; repose, in- 

sileo, -ere, -ui, — , 2, n., be noise- 

less, be silent., keep quiet. 
silva, -ae, f., zvood, forest, wood- 

Silvia, -ae, f., Silvia. See Rhea. 

similis, -e, adj., like, resei7tbling, 

similitiido, -inis, [similis], f., 

likeness, resemblance, similitiide. 
simplex, -icis, adj., simple, single. 

plaiji, unmixed ; frank straight- 
forzvard, guileless, sincere. 
simul, adv., at the same time. 

simul atque (ac), as soon as. 
simulo, -are, -avi, -atum, [simi- 

•lis], I, a., ?nake like, imitate, 

copy ; represent, pretend, feign, 

simultas, -atis, [simul], f., hos- 

tile encounter ; rivalry, grudge, 

sine, prep. with abl. only, with- 

singularis, -e, [singuli], adj., one 

by one, one at a time, single, soli- 

tary ; remarkable, unparalleled. 
singuli, -ae, -a, adj., one at a 

time, single, individual, sepa- 

sinister, -tra, -trum, adj., left, on 

the left; in the language of the 

Roman 2i\xgms, favorable, auspi- 

cious ; of the Greek augurs, per- 

verse, unlucky. 
sinus, -us, m., bent surface, curve, 

hollow,fold ; fold of toga, boso7n ; 

shore of a bay. 
sisto, -ere, stiti, statum, 3, a., 

cause to sta7id, set,fix. 
situs, -a, -um, [part. of sino], 

adj., placed, set, lying, situated ; 

laid out. 
situs, -iis, m., situation, position, 

locatiojt, site ; idleness, slotk; 

rust. ?nold. 




sive or seu, conj., or if, ivhether. 
sive . . . sive, or seu . . . seu, 
whether . . . or, if . . . or if 

sdbrius, -a, -um, [se -f ebrius, 

druiik'], adj., sober ; moderaie, 

teniperate ; sensible, pleasant. 
socer, -eri, m., father-in-law. 
socialis, -e, [socius], 2id]., of coin- 

panionship, of allies, allied, con- 

societas, -atis, [socius], f., fel- 

lowship, association, society ; al- 

liance, confederacy. 
socio, -are, -avi, -atum, [socius], 

I, ?L.,join together, tinite, associ- 

ate ; hold in common, share. 
socius, -i, m., fellow, partner, 

companion, ally. 
s61, solis, m., the sun. 
soleo, -ere, solitus sum, 2, semi- 

dep., n., tise, be zvont., be accns- 

solitarius, -a, -um, [solus], adj., 

alone, isolated, lonely, solitary. 
solitiido, -inis, [solus], f., tone- 

liness, solitariness ; solittide, des- 

ert, wilderness. 
solitum, -i, [soleo], n., the ciis- 

tomary, what is tisnal. 
solitus, -a, -um, [part. of soleo], 

adj., wonted, accitstomed., usual, 

solium, -i, n., seat, throne ; rule. 
soUicito, -are, -avi, -atum, 

[sollicitus], I, a., disturb., stir, 

move, shake ; disturb ; rouse, ex- 

solum, adv., alone, only, merely. 

non solum . . . sed etiam, not 

only . . . but also. 

solus, -a, -um, adj., alone, only, 

single, sole ; solitary, forsaken. 
solvo, -ere, solvi, soliitum, [se-H 

luo], 3, a., loosen, unbind ; untie, 

let doivn ; rclease ; set sail ; di- 

vide ; pay. 
somnium, i, [somnus], n., 

drcam ; fancy. 
somnus, -i, m., sleep ; inactivity, 

sopio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, 4, a., de- 

prive of seiise, putto sleep ; pass., 

soror, -oris, f., sister. 
sororius, -a, -um, [soror], adj., 

of a sister, sister\s. 
sors, sortis, f., lot, fate, destiny, 

decision by lot. 
sortior, -iri, -itus sum, [sors], 

4, dep., n. and a., cast lots ; as- 

sign by lot, obtain by lot. 
spatium, -i, n., space, room, ex- 

tent, distance ; space of time. 
species, gen. wanting, acc. -em, 

abl. -e, f., sight, look, appear- 

aiice ; semblance, pretence, seem- 

spectaculum, -i, [specto], n., 

place in the theatre ; show, sight, 

spectacle ; public shotv. 
specto, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of speci5], I, a., look at, behold, 

watch, observe, see ; judge. 
speculator, -oris, [speculor], 

m., lookout, spy, scout. 
speculor, -ari, -atus sum, [spe- 

cula, 7c/rt/<f// tower\, i, dep., a., 

spy out, watch, observe, exainine. 
speculum, -i, n., reflector, looking- 

glass, mirror. 




sperno, -ere, sprevi, spretum, 

3, a., despise, conteinji, reject, 

spero, -are, -avi, -atum, [spes], 

I, a., hope, look for, expect. 
spes, -ei, f., Jiope, anticipation, 

spiritus, -us, [cf. spir5], m., 

breathing, breath ; spirit, haiigh- 

tiness, pride. 
splendor, -5ris, m., brightness, 

splendor ; magnijicence, excel- 

spolio, -are, -avi, -atum, [spo- 

lium], I, a., strip, bare ; rob, 

pillage, phinder. 
spolium, -i, n., skin, hide ; arins 

stripped from an enemy, booty, 

spondeo, -ere, spopondi, sp5n- 

sum, 2, a., proinise sacredly, 

give assicrance, voiv ; agree, 

sponsus, -i, [sponde5], m., be- 

trothed inan, bridegrooin. 
spons, spontis, [cf. sponde5], 

f., only abl. sing., usually with 

poss. pron.; sponte, of one^s 

o~iVn accord, voluntarily , sponta- 

spretus, see sperno. 
Spurinna, -ae, m., Vestritius 

Spurinna, the name of an augur 

who warned Juhus Caesar to 

beware the Ides of March. 
squama, -ae, f., scale of fish or 

statim, [cf. st5], adv., steadily, 
forthzvith, straightzuay, iminedi- 

ately, instantly. 

statua, -ae, [cf. sist5], f., image, 

statuo, -ere, -ui, -utum, 3, a., 

cause to stand, set up ; deter- 

mine, resolve ; determine on, 

statura, -ae, [cf. st5], f., height, 

size, stature. 
status, -us, [st5], m., station, po- 

sition, place ; posture, attitude ; 

condition, rank. 
stercus, -oris, m., dung, ordure, 

Sthenius, -i, m., Sthenius, name 

of a Sicilian chief pardoned by 

stimulus, -i, m,, prick,goad, sharp 

point ; spur, stimulus ; torment, 

stipendium, -1, w., paying of tax, 

impost, tribiite ; income, salary, 

pay. stipendium facere, to 

serve in the army. 
stirps, .-is, f., stock, trunk ; off- 

spring, progeny, son ; origin, 

sto, stare, steti, statum, i, n., 

stand, be tipright, be erect ; stand 
firm, abide, remain. 
strages, -is, f., overthrow, destruc- 

tion, ruin, defeat, massacre ; 

stragulum, -i, n., a spread, cover- 

ing, bed-spread. 
strenuus, -a, -um, adj., brisk, 

nimble., quick, active, vigorous. 
strepitus, -us, m., confused noise, 

din, clash, crash, applause. 
stridor, -5ris, m., harsh noise, 

hiss, rattle. 




stringo, -ere, strinxi, strictum, 

3, a., dra70 tight ; graze ; strip 
off ; of a svvord, draw. 

studeo, -ere, -ui, 


attention ; desire ; favor. 
studiose, [studiosus], adv., 

eagerly, zealonsly. 
studiosus, -a, -um, [studium], 

adj., eager, zealous, anxious, stu- 

dious ; attached, devoted. 
studium, -i, [studeo], n., appli- 

cation, zeal, desire, eagerness, 

endeavor ; study, pursuit; good- 

ivill, affection, kindness. 
stupens, -entis, [part. of stu- 

pe5], adj., setisetess, ainazed, 

dazed, confused. 
stupe5, -ere, -ui, — , 2, n., be 

struck senseless, be astounded^ be 

suadeo, -ere, suasi, suasum, 2, 

n. and a., advise, exhort, urge, 

sub, prep. with acc. and abl., 

under ; 

(i) With acc, after verbs of 
motion, under, below, towards, 
up to ; until ; after. 

(2) With abl., under, beneath, 
at the foot of; durijtg; sub- 
ject to. 

In composition, under, beneath ; 
souiewhat, a little ; secretly. 
subdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [sub 

-fdo], 3, a., put under, set to, 

apply ; yield, szipply ; std^stitute. 
subduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, 

[sub -f- duc5], 3, a., draw away, 

lead away, carry off, draw off, 

transfer ; steal, hide ; haul up. 

subeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 
[sub-f e5], irr., n., go under ; 
come up, ascend, approach ; en- 
countcr ; sidwiit to, yield to. 

subicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 
[sub + iaci5], 3, a., throiv un- 
der, set up, place under ; pre- 
sent ; make subject, std>mit. 

subigo, -igere, -egi, -actum, [sub 
+ ag5] , 3, a., drive up, bring 
tip ; cultivate, work ; conquer, 
subdue, stdfugate ; force, compel. 

subito, [subitus] , adv., suddenly, 
on a sudden, at once. 

subitus, -a, -um, adj., sudden, 
unexpected, surprising. 

sublicius, -a, -um, adj., resting 
on piles. p5ns sublicius, the 
pile bridge ; see n. to p. 10, 1. 11, 

sublimis, -e, adj., uplifted, lofty, 
exalted ; through the sky ; onhigh, 

submitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 
3, a., let down, lozver ; furnish, 
supply ; reduce, moderate ; of 
hair, iet grow. 

submoveo, -ere, -m5vi, -m5tum, 
[sub -f move5], 2, a., put out of 
the way, drive off, remove. 

suboles, -is, f., sprout, stock ; off- 
spring, issue ; race. 

subrideo, -ridere, -risi, — , [sub 
-f ride5], 2, n., smile. 

subsellium, -i, [sub -f sella], n., 
low bench, seat. 

subsidium, -i, n., troops in re- 
serve ; aid, help, assistance. 

subsisto, -ere, -stiti, — , [sub -f 
sist5], 3, n., take a stand, stand 
still ; remain, stand firin, oppose. 




substituo, -ere, -ui, -utum, [sub 
-f statuo], 3, z..,present, submit ; 

subtexo, -ere, -ui, — , [sub-f 
texo], 3, a., iveave zmder, sew 
on, compose ; work in, add. 

succedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, 
[sub-l- cedo], 3, a., go below, 
come under, enter ; folloiv, suc- 
ceed ; approach, draw near.^ ad- 
vance ; be successful. 

successor, -oris, [succedo], m., 
follower, successor. 

successus, -us, [cf. succed5], 
m., advajice ; good result, success. 

succlamo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, 
n., shout in answer, reply clain- 

suffectus, -a, -um, [part. of suf- 
ficio], adj., substituted. consul 
sufiectus, vice-cojisul, chosen to 
fill a vacancy caused by the 
death of one of the consuls. 

sufficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, 
[sub-f facio], 3, a. and n.,put 
under, dip, dye ; choose as sub- 
stitute ; be sufficient, avail, suf- 

suffigo, -figere, — , -fixum, [sub 
-f f[go], 3, a., fasten beneath, 
attach, affix. cruci suffigere, 
to crucify. 

suffoco, -are, -avi, — , [sub, 
faux], I, a., throttle, sziffocate, 

suffodio, -ere, -fodi, -fossum, 
[sub -f fodio], 3, a., dig under, 
undermine ; stab underneath. 

suffragator, -oris, [suffragor], 
m., favorer, supporter. 

suffragium, -i, [suffragor], n., 

voting-tablet, ballot, vote ; decis- 
ion, judgment, opinion ; pl., the 

Sulla, -ae, m., Sulla, name of a 
patrician family of the Cornelian 
gens, to which belonged L. Cor- 
nelius Sulla. See p. 54. 

Sullanus, -a, -um, adj., of Sulluy 
by Sulla. 

Sulpicius, -i, m., Sulpicius, gen- 
tile name of Ser. Sulpicius Ru- 
fus, tribune of the people in B.C' 
Z%, and one of the greatest ora- 
tors of his time. He was a par- 
tisan of Marius, and was put to 
death by SuUa. 

sui (gen.), dat. sibi, acc. and 
abl. se, strengthened form, se- 
met, reflex. pron., sing. and pl., 
himself herself itself themselves. 

sum, esse, fui, fut. part. futiirus, 
irr., n., be, exist, live ; be trtie, 
be the case, be so ; hq^ppefi., take 

summa, -ae, [summus, sc. res], 
f., top, summit ; chief place, su- 
premacy ; chief point, sum. 

sumo, -ere, sumpsi, siimptum, 
[sub -f emo], 3, a., take, take in 
hand ; assuj?ie ; claim ; take up^ 
enter upon, begin. 

sumptuarius, -a, -um, [siimp- 
tus], adj., of expense, relating to 
expense, su7nptuary . 

siimptus, -us, [sumo], m., out- 
lay, expense, cost, charge. 

supellex, -lectilis, f., domestic 
utensils, household stuff, furni- 




super, prep. with acc. and abl. : 
(i) With acc, over, above, iipon, 

(2) With abl., over, upon, be- 
yotid, in addition to. 

superadsto, -stare, -stiti, — , i, 
n., stand upon. 

superbe, [superbus], adv., 
haughtily, proudly, supercili- 

superbus, -a, -um, adj., haughty, 
proud, vain, arrogatit ; proud ; 

superincido, -ere, — , — , 3, n., 
only in pres. part., fall from 
above.1 fall down upon. 

superior, -ius, comp. of superus. 

supero, -are, -avi, -atum, [su- 
perus], I, a., go over, rise above, 
overtop ; pass over ; exceed ; be 
left over ; overcome, subdue, stir- 
pass, excel. 

supersum, -esse, -fui, irr., n., be 
over and above, be left, remain ; 
outlive, survive. 

superus, -a, -um, comp. supe- 
rior, [super], adj., above, upper, 
higher. As subst., superi, -orum, 
m., pl., the gods above, gods of 
heaven. Sup., supremus, -a, 
-um, highest^ topmost ; last ; 
summus, -a, -Mm, highest,great- 
est ; often highest part of top of 

supervenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 
[super-f- venio], 4, n., come in 
addition ; co?ne up, arrive ; come 
upon, light upon. 

supervivo, -vivere, -vixi, — , 
[super-h vivo], 3, n., outlive, 

supplex, -icis, [sub -f- plico], 

adj., kneeling in entreaty, beg- 
ging, suppliant. As subst., m., 
a suppliant. 

suppliciter, [supplex],adv., stip- 
pliantly, humbly. 

supplicium, -i, [supplex], n., 
kneeling, bozvingdown; entreaty, 
petition, supplicatioti ; punish- 
vient of death, because the crim- 
inal knelt, execution ; punish- 

supplico, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[supplex], I, a., kneel down, be- 
seech, implore, supplicate ; pray, 

surgo, surgere, surrexi or sub- 
rexi, — , [sub -f rego], 3, n., 
rise, get up, stand up ; arise, 

suscipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 
3, a., take, catch ; receive, ad- 
mit ; take upon oneself succeed 
to ; acknowledge, recognize. 

suspectus, -a, -um, [part. of 
suspicio], adj., subject to suspi- 
cion, mistrusted, suspected. 

suspicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 
[sub -f- specio], 3, a., look up- 
wards, look up at ; admire^ re- 
gard, esteem, honor. 

suspicio, -onis, [cf. verb sus- 
picio], f., mistrust, distrust, sus- 

sustineo, -ere, -ui, -tentum, [sub 
-f teneo], 2, a., hold up, keep 
up, support ; lift, carry ; holdin 
check, check, restrain ; support, 
fjiaintain ; bear, endure. 

sustuli, see toUd. 




sutor, -oris, m., shoe?naker, cob- 

suus, -a, -um, [sui], adj., of one- 
self, his oivn, her o%vn ; his, hers, 
its, their. As subst., sui, -5rum, 
m., pl., his follozvers, his friends ; 
their folloxvers, their friends. 

'Byphax, -acis, m., Syphax, a 
prince of Numidia, who at first 
sided with the Romans in the 
second Punic war, but subse- 
quently allied himself with the 

Syria, -ae, f., Syria, a large coun- 
try on the eastern shore of the 
Mediterranean, southeast of Asia 
Minor and north of Judaea. 


T., with proper names = Titus, a 

Roman forename. 
tabella, -ae, [dim. of tabula], 

f., small board, little picture ; 

ballot ; lettcr, epistle. 
tabernaculum, -i, [taberna], 

n., tent. 
tabula, -ae, f., board, plank ; 

writing-tablet ; record, list. 
taceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2, n., be 

silent,say nothing ; pass over in 

silence, leave unsaid. 
tacitus, -a, -um, [part. of taceo], 

2idi].,passed in silence, not spoken 

of; silent, secret ; still, quiet, 

taedium, -i, [taedet], n., iveari- 

ness, loathing, disgust. 
talentum, -i, n., half of a hun- 

drediveight, talent ; a stim of 

nioney (about ^1132 in gold), 

talis, -e, adj., such, of such a kind. 

talis . . . qualis, of such a kind 

. . . as. 
tam, adv., in such a degree, as 

mtich, so, so much. 
tamdiu, adv., so long,for so long 

a time. 
tamen, adv., notwithstanding, nev- 

ertheless, yet, however., still. 
Tanaquil, -ilis, f., Tanaquil. 
tandem, adv., at length, at last, 

finally ; in questions, pray. 
tantopere, adv. , so greatly. 
tantum, [tantus], adv., so much, 

so greatly ; only, merely. 
tantummodo, [tantum + modo], 

adv. , 07ily, fuerely. 
tantus, -a, -um, adj., of such size, 

so great, such. As subst., tan- 

tum, -i, n., so much ; in gen. of 

price, tanti, of so much value, 

zvorth so much. 
tardo, -are, -avi, -atum, [tar- 

dus], I, a., make slozv, delay, 

hinder, impede. 
Tarentinus, -a, -um, adj., of Ta- 

rentum, Tarentine. As subst., 

Tarentini, -5rum, m., pl., in- 

habitants of Tarentum, Taren- 

Tarentum, -i, n., Tarentum, a 

celebrated and powerful city of 

southern Italy, situated in Cala- 

bria, on the Gulf of Tarentum. 
Tarpeia, -ae, f., Tarpeia, name 

of a Roman maiden who opened 

the Roman citadel to the Sa- 




Tarquinius, -i, m., Tarqtiinius, 
Tarqiiin^ the name of a family 
in the early history of Rome. 
In this book are mentioned : 
(i) Tarquinius Prtscus, the 
fifth king of Rome. 

(2) Tarquinius Superbus, the 
seventh king of Rome. 

(3) Sextus Tarquinius, son of 
Tarquinius Superbus. 

(4) L. Tarquinitis Collatinus, 
cousin of (3) and husband of 

Tarquinii, -orum, m., pl., Tar- 

quinii, a town in southern Etru- 

ria, about forty-five miles north- 

west of Rome. 
Tatius, -i, m., Tatius, gentile 

name of Titus Tatius, leader of 

the Sabines in the time of Rom- 

tectum, -i, [tego], n., covered 

structure, shelter, house, abode ; 

covering, roof. 
tego, -ere, texi, tectum, 3, a., 

cover, cover over ; hide, conceal ; 

keepsecret; defend, guard. 
tegula, -ae, [tego], f., rooftile, 

telum, -i, n., missile iveapon, viis- 

sile ; dart, spear, javelin. 
temerarius, -a, -um, [temere], 

adj., rash, heedless, imprudent, 

temere, adv., by chance, without 

design ; rashly, heedlessly, thought- 

temeritas, -atis, [teraere], f., 

hap, chance ; accident, rashness, 


temperans, -antis, [part. of tem- 
per5], adj., observing modera- 
tion, sober, moderate. 

tempero, -are, -avi, -atum, [tem- 
pus], I, n. and a., observe proper 
measure, be moderate, restrain 
oneself; forbear, abstain ; rule, 
regulate, siaay. 

tempestas, -atis, [tempus], f., 
portion of time, point of time, 
tif7ie, season ; storm, tempest ; 
disturbance, calamity. 

templum, -i, n., open place for 
observation, consecrated place, 
sacred enclosure ; temple, shrine. 

tempus, -oris, n., time, season, 
interval ; occasion ; condition, 

tendo, -ere, tetendi, tentum or 
tensum, 3, a. and n., stretch, 
spread out ; lay a snare ; offer, 
present ; go, march ; strive ; ex- 
tend, reach. 

tenebrae, -arum, f., pl., dark- 
ness, gloom ; gloomy place ; lurk- 

tenebricosus, -a, -um, [tene- 
brae], adj., full of darkness, 
utterly obscure, dark, gloomy. 

teneo, -ere, -ui, — , 2, a., hold, 
grasp, hold fast ; take in, under- 
stand ; keep ; possess ; guard, 
zvatch, defend. 

tento or tempto, -are, -avi, 
-atum, [intens. of tendo], i, a., 
handle, touch, try, essay ; try to 
ivin over. 

tentorium, -i, n., tent. 

Terentius, -i, m., Terentius, gen- 
tile name of C. Terentius Varro. 




tergiversor, -ari, — , [tergum, 

vert5], I, dep., n., ttirn the back, 

decline, refuse ; ??iake diffictil- 

ties, shiiffie, evade. 
tergum, -i, n., back, rear. 
terni, -ae, -a, [cf. tres], adj., 

three each, three on each side, 

tero, -ere, trivi, tritum, 3, a., 

rub, wear azvay ; wear otit, tise 

up : waste, kill. 
terra, -ae, f., the earth, gromid ; 

land^ country, region. 
terreo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2, a., 

frighten, alarm, terrify ; deter 

by fear. 
terribilis, -e, [terreo], Q.<\].,fright- 

ful, dreadful, terrible. 
terror, -oris, [terre5], m., great 

fear, affright, panic, fear. 
tertius, -a, -um, [cf. tres], adj., 

testimonium, -i, [testis, a wit- 

ness'\, n., evidence, testiinony ; 

testor, -ari, -atus sum, [testis], 

I, dep., a., cause to testify, call 

as witness, iftvoke ; show, prove, 

Teutobochus, -i, m., Teutobo- 

chus, chief of the Teutones. 
Teutones, -um, or Teutoni, 

-5rum, m., pl., the Teutones, a 

Germanic people who, in com- 

pany with the Cimbri, invaded 

Italy, and were annihilated by 

Marius at Aquae Sextiae in loi 

thesaurus, -i, m., something laid 

up, treasure, hoard. 

Thessalia, -ae, f., Thessaly, a 

district in northeastern Greece. 
Tiberis, -is, m., the Tiber, the 

chief river of Latium, on which 

Rome is situated. 
Tiberius, -i, m., Tiberitis, a Ro- 

man forename. 
Ticinus, -i, m., the Ttcinus, a 

river in Cisalpine Gaul, flowing 

into the Po, the scene of the 

first victory of Hannibal in Italy. 
tigillum, -i, [dim. of tignum, 

beavi'], n., a small bar of wood, 

little beam. 
Tigranes, -is, m., Tigrdnes, a king 

of Armenia, son-in-law of Mith- 

timeo, -ere, -ui, — , 2, n. and a., 

fear, be afraid ; be afraid of 

timidus, -a, -um, [time5], adj., 

fearful, afraid, cojvardly, timid. 
tirocinium, -i, [tir5], n., sol- 

dier's first service ; inexperience. 
titulus, -i, m., stiperscription, in- 

scription, title ; title of honor, 

glory, name. 
Titus, -i, m., Titiis, a Roman 

toga, -ae, f., toga, gown. 
togatus, -a, -um, [toga], adj., 

wearing the toga, clad in the 

toga ; in the garb of peace, un- 

tolero, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

bear, endure, tolerate, sustain, 

suffer; stipport. 
toUo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum, 3, 

a., /2/?, take tip, raise; encourage; 

rear ; extol; remove, abolish. 




tonitras, -us, m., pl., tonitrus, 

m., and tonitrua, n., thiinder, 

tonsor, -oris, [tonded, clip'], m., 

shearer, clipper, hair-cutter, bar- 

Toraiiius, -i, m., T. Toranius, 

who betrayed his father to the 

second triumvirate in 43 B.c. 
torqueo, -ere, torsi, tortum, 2, 

a., turn, twist ; hurl ; torture, 

torve, [torvus], adv., sternly. 
torvus, -a, -um, adj., staring ; 

wild, stern,fierce. 
tot, adj., indecl,, so matiy, such a 

mimber of. As subst., m., so 

many men. 
totidem, [tot -f -dem], z.^\.,just 

so many, the same number of. 
totiens, [tot], adv., so often, so 

many tii/ies. 
totus, -a, -um, gen. tdtius, adj., 

all, all the, the whole, entire ; 

trado, -dere, -didi, -ditum, 

[trans + d5], 3, a., give up, 

hand over, surrender, betray ; 

hand doivn, transniit, report. 
traduco, -ere, -diixi, -ductum, 

[trans + duco], 3, a., lead 

across, carry over, transport ; 

expose, dishonor. 
traho, -ere, traxi, tractum, 3, 

a., draw, drag ; lead, carry ; 

deri7)e ; detai?i. 
traicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 

[trans + iacio], 3, a., throw 

across, transfer ; penetrate, 

transfix ; go over,pass over. 

trano, -are, -avi, -atum, [trans 

+ no], I, a., swim across. 

transcendo, -ere, -di, — , [trans 
+ scando], 3, a., cliijib over, 
pass over, cross, surmount ; vio- 

transeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 
[trans + eo], irr., a., cross over, 
pass by, pass ; be changed. iurn. 

transfero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, 
[trans + fero], irr,, a., bear 
across.1 transport ; transfer ; as- 
cribe, charge ; copy ; put off, de- 
lay, translate. 

transfigo, -figere, -fixi, -fixum, 
[trans + figo], 3, a., pierce 
through, trajtsfix, stab to the 

transgredior, -gredi, -gressus 
sum, [trans + gradior], 3, 
dep,, a., step across, step over, 

transigo, -igere, -egi, -actum, 
[trans + ag5], 3, a., drive 
through, stab, transfix ; finish, 
settle ; perform. 

transilio, -ire, -silui, — , [trans 
+ sali5], 4, a., leap across,jump 

transmarinus, -a, -um, [trans 
+ marinus], adj., beyond sea, 

transmitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 
[trans + mitt5], 3, a., send 
across, carry over, let pass ; go 
across, traverse ; entrust, com- 

transversus, -a, -um, [trans + 
versus], adj., turnedacross, lying 
across, crosstvise ; out of the way. 




Trasumenus, -i, m., Trasume- 
nus, a lake in Etruria, the scene 
of the defeat of Flaminius by 

Trebia, -ae, f., the Trebia, a river 
in Cisalpine Gaul, flowing into 
the Po. 

trecenti, -ae, -a, [tres -|- cen- 
tum], num. adj., three hundred. 

tredecim, [tres + decem], num. 
adj., indecl., thirteen. 

tremo, -ere, -ui, — , 3, a. and n., 
shake, quake, tre^nble ; tremble 

trepidatio, -onis, [trepidd], f., 
confused huriy, alarm, confu- 
sion, consternation, trepidation. 

trepido, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n., 
hurry with alarm, be in confu- 
sion ; tremble, waver. 

tres, tria, num. adj., three. 

tribunal, -alis, [tribiinus], n., 
raised platform for seats of mag- 
istrates, judgment-seat, tribunal. 

tribiinatus, -iis, [tribunus], m., 
offi.ce of tribune, tribuneship. 

tribunicius, -a, -um, [tribii- 
nus], adj., of a tribune, tribu- 

tribunus, -i, [tribus], m., head 
of a tribe, tribune. tribunus 
militaris, tribune ofthe soldiers, 
six to a legion. tribiinus ple- 
\i\S, tribune ofthe people. Trib- 
unes were first appointed in 494 
B.C., after the first secession to 
the Sacred Mount. At first there 
were but two; afterwards the 
number was increased to five, 
and finally to ten. They were 

originally appointed to afford 
protection to the common peo- 
ple ; and that they might be able 
to afford such protection, their 
persons were declared sacred 
and inviolable. They gradually 
acquired the right of vetoing any 
act which a magistrate might 
undertake during his term of 
office. They convoked the as- 
sembly of the tribes {comitia 
tributa), and usually presided 
over it. 

tribuo, -ere, -ui, -iitum, [tribus], 
3, a., assign ; grant, bestow ; 

tribus, -iis, [cf. tres], f., third 
part of the people ; tribe. 

tribiitum, -i, [tribus], n., stated 
payment, contribution, tribute. 

triennium, -i, [tres -\- annus; sc. 
spatium], n., period of three 
years, three years. 

trigeminus, -a, -um, [tres + 
geminus], adj., born three at a 
birth. As subst., trigemini, 
-orum, m., pl., triplets. 

triginta, num. adj., indecl., thirty. 

triumphalis, -e, [triumphus], 
adj., of a triumph, triumphal. 

triumpho, -are, -avi, -atum, 
[triumphus], i, n., march in 
tritimphal procession, celebrate a 
triumph, triumph. triumphare 
de aliquo, to celebrate a tritimph 
in consequence^ of a victory over 
any one. 

triumphus, -i, m., tritcmphal pro- 
cession, celebration of a victory 
by a triumphal entry into Rome. 




triumvir, -viri, [tres + vir], m., 

triumvir, one of three associ- 

ates in office, especially one of 

three dictators to reorganize the 

tropaeum, -i, n., memorial of 

victory, trophy. 
trucido, -are, -avi, -atum, [trux 

-|- caedo], i, a., cut to pieces, 

slaughter, butcher ; destroy, ruin. 
truncus, -i, m., stem, trunk of a 

tree; trunk, body. 
trux, trucis, adj., tvild, rough, 

harsh, savage,fierce. 
tueor, -eri, tutus sum, 2, dep., 

a. , look at, gaze at, consider ; de- 

fend, protect. 
TuUus, -i, m,, Ttdlus, forenanie 

of Tullus Hostilius, third king 

of Rome. 
TuUius, -i, m., Ttdlius, a Roman 

gentile name. In this book are 

mentioned : 

(i) Servius Tullius, the sixth 
king of Rome. See p. 12. 

(2) M. Tullius Cicer~o. See 
tum, adv., then, at that time, in 

those times ; in that case. 
tumultuor, -ari, -atus sum, [tu- 

multus], I, dep., n., make a 

disturbance, be in confusion. 
tumultus, -us, [cf. tumeo, .y7f^//], 

m., tiproar, confusion, tumult, 

tumulus, -i, [tumeo, swell\ m., 

heap of earth, mound, hillock, 

tunc, adv., then, at that ti?ne ; ac- 

cordingly, consequently. 

turba, -ae, f., tujnult, uproar, 

disturbance, co?nmotion ; crowd, 

turbo, -are, -avi, -atum, [turba], 

I, n. and a., make an jtproar, 

be in confusion : throzv into con- 

fusion, disturb, agitate. 
turbulentus, -a, -um, comp. tur- 

bulentior, sup. turbulentissi- 

mus, [turba], adj., full of 

commotion, disturbed ; stormy, 

confused, troubled. 
turdus, -i, m., thrush,fieldfare. 
turma, -ae, f., troop, crowd, 

throng, body, company, of cav- 

alry, squadron. 
turpis, -e, adj., ugly, unsightly, 

foul, filthy ; disgraceful, scan- 

turris, -is, f., tozver, castle, palace. 
tutela, -ae, [tueor], f., watching, 

keeping, defending, protection ; 

tiito, [tiitus], adv., safely, tvith- 

oid danger. 
tutor, -oris, [tueor] , m., watcher, 

protector ; guardiajt, tutor. 
tiitus, -a, -um, [part. of tueor], 

2id]., guarded^ safe, secure. 

uber, -eris, n., teat, dug, udder, 

ubi, adv. and conj., in ivhich 

place,where ; where ? As conj., 

ubique, [ubi + -que], adv., in 
\ any place, everyivhere. 




ulciscor, -i, ultus sum, 3, dep., j 
a., avenge oneself on^ punish ; 
take vengeance for, avenge. 

uUus, -a, -um, gen. ullius, adj., 
a7iy. As subst., ullus, -ius, m., 
any one, anybody. ullum, -ius, 
n., anything. 

ulterior, -ius, gen. -5ris, [cf. 
iiltra], adj., comp., farther, be- 
yond. Neu., ulterius, as adv., 
beyond, farther ; to a greater 
degree, more. Sup., ultimus, 
-a, -um, furthest, most distant, 
zittermost, last; utmost, greatest. 

ultimus, see iilterior. 

ultio, -onis, [ulciscor], f., aveng- 
ing, revenge. 

ultra, adv., on the other side, be- 
yond, besides. 

ultro, adv., to the farther side, be- 
yond, on the other side ; grattd- 
tously, voluntarily. 

umbra, -ae, f., shade, shadow ; 
image, semblance. 

umerus,-i, m..,upper arm, shoulder. 

umquam, adv., at any time, ever. 

iina, [iinus], adv., in the same 
place, at the same time, together. 

unde, adv., from zuhich place, 
ivhence; where; from whom,from 
which; where ? on which side ? 

iindecim, [iinus-l- decem], num. 
adj,, indecl., eleven. 

undique, adv., frotn all parts, 
froj7i every qicarter, on all sides. 

universus, -a, -um, [unus -f 
versus], adj., all together, all 
in one, tvhoie, entire ; general. 
As subst., iiniversi, -orum, m., 
pl., all men. 

unus, -a, -um, gen. iinius, adj., 

one, a single, only. 
unusquisque, iinaquaeque, 

unumquodque, [unus -{- quis- 

que], adj., each one, eveyy one. 
urbanus, -a, -um, [urbs], adj., 

of the city, in the city., in Rome. 

As subst., urbani, -5rum, m., 

pl., the citizens. 
urbs, urbis, f., a walled town, 

city ; often Rome. 
iirinator, -5ris, m., diver. 
iirna, -ae, [cf. iir5], f,, vessel of 

baked clay, waterfar, urn ; 

voting-urn^ ballot-box. 
usque, adv., all the ivay., right on, 

continmnisly, even. 
iisiirpo, -are, -avi, -atum, [usus 

-frapi5], i, a., seize for use, 

seize upon, make use of enjoy. 
usus, -us, [iitor], m., use, prac- 

tice, employment ; experience, 

training ; custom, practice ; 

profit, advantage. 
ut or uti, adv., of place, where ; 

of time, as soon as, when ; of 

manner, interrog., how ? in what 

manner ? relative, as, seeingthat. 
ut or utl, conj. with subj., of re- 

sult, that, so that ; of purpose, 

in order that, that ; of conces- 

sion, althotigh. 
iiter, -tris, m., bag of hide, leather 

bottle, skin. 
uter, utra, utrum, gen, utrius, 

adj., which of tivo, which ; zvhich- 

ever one ; either of the tivo. 
uterque, utraque, utrumque, 

gen. utriusque, adj., each, 

either, each one, both. 




utilis, -e, [utor], adj., useful, 

serviceable, helpfid ; profitable, 

utinam, adv., oh, that ! if only ! 

would that ! 
utique, adv., in any case, at any 

rate, certaitily ; especially. 
utor, uti, usus sum, 3, dep., n., 

used with abl., make use of em- 

ploy, ejijoy. 
utrimque, adv., on both sides, on 

either hand, on the one side and 

on the other. 
utrum, adv., ivhether. 
uxor, -oris, f., 7vife, spouse, con- 


vaco, -are, -avi, -atum, i, r\..,be 
empty, be void, be vacant, be 
without ; be free from labor, have 

vae, interj., ah! alas ! woe ! 

vafer, -fra, -frum, adj., sly, cun- 
ning, crafty, artful. 

vagitus, -iis, [vagio], m., crying, 

valeo, -ere, -ui, fut. part. valitii- 
rus, 2,VL.,be strong, have strength, 
be able ; be well ; have power, 
have influence,prevail ; as greet- 
ing, imp., vbXq, farezuell. 

Valerius, -i, m., Valerius. See 

valetiido, -inis, \y2X€o\,i.,habit, 
state of health, health ; good 
health ; bad health. 

validus, -a, -um, [cf. valeo] 
adj., strong, stotit, able ; power 
ful, mighty. 

valles or vallis, -is, f., valley, 

vallum, -i, n., line of palisades, 

intrenchmjnt ; wall, rampart, 
vanus, -a, -um, adj., containing 

nothing, empty, void ; ostenta- 

tious, vain ; false, untrustwor- 

varius, -a, -um, adj., variegated, 

parti-colored, mottled, diverse ; 

various, changeful ; inconstant, 
Varus, -i, m., Varus. See Quino- 

varix, -icis, m., dilated vein, 

Varro, -onis, m., Varro. See 

vas, vadis, m., bail, security, 

vas, vasis, n., vessel, dish, uten- 

sil ; pl., vasa, -orum, equip- 

ments, baggage. 
vasto, -are, -avi, -atum, [vas- 

tus], I, a., make empty, deprive 

of occupants, lay waste. 
vastus, -a, -um, adj., empiy, U7i- 

occupied, zuaste, desert , unculti- 

vated ; vast, immense, huge ; 

rough, riuie. 
vegetus, -a, -um, adj., enlivened, 

lively, vigorous, brisk. 
vehemens, -entis, adj., eager, 

violent, impetuous ; active, vig- 

vehementer, [vehemens], adv., 

eagerly, ardently, earnestly, ve- 

hemently ; exceedingly, very 





veho, -ere, vexi, vectum, 3, a., 

hear, carry, convey, draw. 
Veiens, -entis, adj., of Veil, a 

town of the Etruscans, about 

twelve miles north of Rome. 

As subst., m., pL, tke inhabitants 

of Vefi. 
vel, [old imp. of volo], conj., or 

ifyou will, or even, or. vel . . . 

vel, either . . . or. 
vel, [conj. vel], adv., or cven, 

even, certainly, indecd. 
velo, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

cover up, veil. 
velox, -ocis, adj., swift, quick, 

fleet, rapid. 
velut or veluti, adv., even as, 

just as ; just as if as if 
venabulum, -i, [venor], n., a 

k unting-spea r. 
venatio, -onis, [venor], f., hunt- 

ing; hunting spectacle. 
vendo, -dere, -didi, -ditum, 

[venum, sale + do], 3, a., sell. 
venenum, -i, w., poison. 
veneo, -ire, -ii, — , [venum, sale, 

+ eo], irr., n., go to sale, be sold. 
veneratio, -onis, [veneror], f., 

profoundest respect, reverence, 

veneror, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., 

a., re7)erence, zuorship, adore, 

venerate; entreat, supplicate. 
venia, -ae, f., indulgence, kind- 

ness, favor., forhearance, par- 

venio, -ire, veni, ventum, 4, a., 

come, go. 
venor, -ari, -atus sum, i, dep., n. 

and a , hunt, chase. 

ventito, -are, -avi, — , [freq. of 

veni5], i, n., come often, keep 

coining, resort. 
ventus, -i, m., wind. 
Venusia, -ae, f., Venusia, a town 

on the borders of Lucania and 

venustus, -a, -um, adj., char^n- 

ins^, agreeahle, beautiful ; grace- 

verber, -eris, n., lash, whip, 

scourge, rod ; lashing ; blow. 
verbum, -i, n., word, saying. 
vere, [verus], adv., tridy. 
verecundia, -ae, [cf. vereor], f., 

modesty, shame; respect. 
vereor, -eri, veritus sum, 2, dep., 

a., reverence, respect, stand in 

awe ; fear, be afraid. 
vero, [verus], adv. and conj., 

in truth, truly, indeed, however. 
verriica, -ae, f., tvart. 
versiculus, -i, [dim. of versus] , 

ni., little line, short verse. 
verso, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of verto], I, a., turn often ; 

vex, agitate ; think over, medi- 

tate ; pass., be, be situated, be 

busied ; occupy oneself, conduct 

versus, -iis, [verto], m., line, 

row, verse. 
verto, -ere, -ti, -sum, 3, a., turn, 

direct, change ; pass., be turned, 

turn about, return. 
verum, [verus], adv., truly, cer- 

tainly ; but. 
verus, -a, -um, adj., trtie, real, 

actual, genuine ; right, proper, 

reasonable. re vera, see res. 




Vesta, -ae, f., Vesta, goddess of 

the hearth and home ; also guar- 

dian of the city and honie-life 

of the Romans. 
vestibulum, -i, n., eiiclosed space 

before a house, fore-court, vesti- 

vestigium, -i, n., bottom of foot, 

solc ; foot ; footstep, foot-print ; 

trace, mark, vestigc. 
vestis, -is, f., covcring for the 

body, clothes, clothing; robe. 
veteranus, -a, -um, [vetus], 

adj., old, veteran. As subst., 

veterani, -orum, m., pl., vet- 

eran soldiers, veterans. 
veto, -are, -ui, -itum, i, a., not 

suffer, not permit, oppose., forbid, 

Veturia, -ae, f., Veturia, the 

mother of Coriolanus. 
vetus, -eris, adj., old, aged ; for- 

mer, of lofig standing, of a for- 

mer time. As subst., m., pl., 

men ofold^ ancestors. 
vexo, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of veho], I, a., shake, toss vio- 

lently ; harry, tvaste ; trouble, 

via, -ae, f., way, highway, road ; 

passage, march, journey. 
vicarius, -a, -um, {yiox^, change'], 

adj., supplying a place, substi- 

tuted, delegated. As subst., vi- 

carius, -i, m., std)stitute, dcle- 

vicesimus, -a, -um, [viginti], 

adj., twentieth. 
viciens, [cf. viginti], adv., 

twenty times. 

vicinus, -a, -um, [vicus], adj., 

of the neighborhood., near; neigh- 

boring, in the vicinity. 
victor, -oris, [vinco], m., con- 

queror, vanquisher, victor ; in 

apposition, with adj. {oxc&,victo- 

victoria, -ae, [victor], f., vic- 

tory, success. 
vicus, -i, m., roiv of houses, street, 

quarter; village. 
videlicet, [videre, licet], adv., 

one may see, yo2c see, clearly, 

plainly, of course ; in irony, of 

video, -ere, vidi, visum, 2, a., 

see, disccrn, go to see, visit ; 

pass., seem. 
vigil, vigilis, adj., aivake, on the 

watch, alert. As subst., m., 

zvatchman, sentinel. 
vigilantia, -ae, [cf. vigil], f., 

wakefulness, vigilance. 
vigilia, -ae, [vigil], f., watching, 

zvakefulness, sleeplcssness ; watch, 

a fourth part of the night. 
viginti, num. adj., indecl., tzventy. 
vilicus, -i, [villa], m., overseer 

of an estate, steward, bailiff. 
vHla, -ae, [dim. of vicus], f., 

country-house, far?n, villa. 
Viminalis, -e, adj., of osiers. 

Viminalis collis, the Viminal, 

one of the seven hills of Rome. 
vincio, -ire, vinxi, vinctum, 4, 

a., bi7id, bind fast ; fetter, con- 

fine, restrain. 
vinco, -ere, vici, victum, 3, a., 

conquer, overcome, defeat, sub- 

due ; prevail, have one^s way. 




vinculum, -i, [vincio], r\.,i7ieans 

of binduig, bond, fetier, rope ; 

^\.,fetlers, bonds, chains. 
vindico, -are, -avi, -atum, [vin- 

dex], I, a., assert claim to, de- 

mand formally, claim ; avenge, 

vinum, -i, n., wine. 
violentus, -a, -um, [cf. vis], adj., 
forcible, violent, impetuoiis, bois- 

violo, -are, -avi, -atum, [cf. vis], 

I , a., treat with violence., injure ; 

dishonor, outrage, violate. 
vir, viri, m., male person, man ; 

virgo, -inis, f., maid, maiden, 

virgin; young woman, girl. 
virilis, -e, [vir], of a man, 

manly^ of manhood, masculine, 

virile ; bold, spirited. 
viritim, [vir], adv., man by man, 

singly, individually. 
virtus, -utis, [vir], f., f?ianli- 

ness, manhood, strength, bravery, 

vis, — , acc. vim, abl. vi, f., 

strength, force, vigor, energy ; 

hostile force, violence ; qtiantity, 

nu77iber; pl., vires, -ium, e^iergy, 

viso, -ere, visi, visum, [freq. of 

video], 3, a., look at atte^itively, 

survey ; go to see. 
visus, -us, [video], m., look; ap- 

peara7ice, visio7t. 
vita, -ae, [cf. vivo], f., life; way 

of life ; existetice, being. 
vitio, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

make faulty, injure, spoil. 

vitium, -i, n., fault, defect, blem- 

ish, vice ; unfavorable sig7i ; of- 
feJice, crifne. 
vito, -are, -avi, -atum, i, a., 

shu/t., seek to escape, avoid. 
vituperatio, -onis, [vituperd], 

f., bla77ii7ig, ce7isuri7tg, ce7isure ; 

cause of bla7}ie, bla77ieworthy con- 

vitupero, -are, -avi, -atum, [vi- 

tium, cf. paro], i, a., i/iflict 

censure, bla77ie, censure, re- 

vivo, -ere, vixi, victum, 3, n., 

live, be alive, have life ; pass the 

ti77ie, dzvell. 
vivus, -a, -um, [cf. vivo], adj., 

alive, livifig, havitig life; of a 

river, ru7i7ii7ig; lively, vigorous, 

vix, adv., %vith difficulty, hardly, 

scarcely, barely. 
vociferor, -ari, -atus sum, [vox, 

cf. fero], i, dep., n., cry out, 

exclai77i, shout, vociferate. 
vocito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of voco], i, a. and n., callhabit- 

ually, 7ta77ie ; call loudly. 
voco, -are, -avi, -atum, [cf. 

vox], i, a., call, su7n77ion, in- 

voke ; call by 7ia77ie, 7ia77ie ; call 

together, bid, ifivite. 
volito, -are, -avi, -atum, [freq. 

of volo], I, VL.,flyto a7td frOjflit 

aboiit, 77iove,fly, hastett. 
volo, velle, volui, — , irr., n., 

zvill, wish, be 77ii7ided, deter/nine ; 

be willi7ig, co7ise7tt. 
V0I6, -are, -avi, -atum, i, n., 

fly ; 77iove siviftly,flee, hasten. 




Volscus, -a, -um, adj., of the 
Volsa, Volscian. As subst., 

Volsci, -orum, m., pL, the Vol- 

scians, an ancient people of 

Central Italy, southeast of Rome, 

included in Latium in its widest 

extent, with whom the Romans 

waged many wars in the early 

days of their history. 
volucer, -cris, -cre, adj.,y7i'?;/^, 

imngcd. As subst., f., (sc. avis), 

flying creature, bird. 
volumen, -inis, [cf. volvo], n., 

coil, zvhirl, fold ; roll ofwriting, 

book, voluvie. 
Volumnia, -ae, f., VoiHmnia,W\Q 

wife of Coriolanus. 
voluntarius, -a, -um, [volun- 

tas], adj., willing, of free will, 

volnntary. As subst., volun- 

tarii, -orum, m., pL, volunteers. 
voluntas, -atis, [cf. volo], f., 

will, freezvill ; wish, desire, in- 

voluptas, -atis, [cf, volo], f., 

pleasure, enjoyment ; desire,pas- 

votum, -i, [voveo], n., promise 

to a god, solemn pledge, vozv ; 

7vish, longing, prayer. 
voveo, -ere, vovi, votum, 2, n., 

vow, proniise solej7inly, dedicate, 

vox, vocis, f., voice, sound, tone, 

cry., call ; saying, zvord, speech. 
vulgaris, -e, [vulgus], adj., of 

the masses, general, tcsual, ordi- 

nary, cotnmon ; commonplace, 

vulgo, [vulgus], adv., commonly, 

generally, publicly. 
vulgus, -i, n., the ?nasses, multi- 

tude, people, public ; croivd, 

vulnero, -are, -avi, -atum, [vul- 

nus], I, 2i.,7vound, htirt, injure, 

vulnus, -eris, n., wound ; blow, 

misfortune, calamity. 
vultus, -eris, m., vulture. 
vultus, -iis, m., expression of 

countenance, visage, feature, 

look ; face. 


Xanthippus, -i, m., Xanthippus, 
a general of the Lacedaemoni- 
ans, who, as leader of the Car- 
thaginians, defeated Regulus. 

Xenophon, -ontis, m., Xenophon, 
an Athenian who conducted the 
Retreat of the Ten Thousand in 
400 B.c. He is celebrated also 
as a writer. 

Zama, -ae, f. , Zama, a town in 
Numidia, southwest of Carthage, 
the scene of the defeat of Han- 
nibal by Scipio Africanus. 

zona, -ae, {., girdle, belt ; money- 

Allyn &- Bacon .... Bosfon, 

Lindsay & RoUins. 

Easy Latin Lessons. 

i2mo. 370 pages. ^i.oo. 

Tke projninent features of the book are : 

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III. Only the Essentials of Latin Grammar 
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VI. A Complete View of all the forms of in- 
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Walter A. Edwards, Principal High School, 
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Easy Latin Lessons. 

Adopted for use at : 
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Frank P. Brent, Onancock Academy, Va. — The 
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those things that shonld be learned by a pupil during 
the first year in Latin. W^e are using it with marked 

Allyn (£r Bacon .... Boston, 

R. G. Huling, rriiiiipal of High School, New 
Bedford, J/ass. — In its original English form it was 
a delightful primer, and in many schools has relievcd 
the drudgery of elementary work in Latin. The 
changes introduced by Mr. Scudder are genuine ini- 
provements, making the book far belter for early 
translation than before. 

George W. Harper, Principal Woodzvard High 
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Latin Lessons and the Cassar. 

Scudder's Gradatim, 

An Easy Latin Reader for Beginncrs, 
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Adopted iii siich schools as 

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First Latin Book. 

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// contaDis : 

I. A Review of English Grammar. 

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// Jias 110 rival in the vital points of 
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Mr. Comstock has hit the nail on the head. He 
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Allyn &- Bacon Boston. 




With Introduction, 
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L C. Hull, Lauurenceville School, .V /• — Pro- 
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can meet the wants of good teachers. But his edi- 
tion of Ovid does more than this. We have all 
read the stereotyped testimonial which tells that the 
author has satisfied a long felt want. But a really 
good text-book should inspire as well as gratify an 
appctite. The book that merely chronicles the best 
system in vogue at the time of its publication, adds 
little to the history of teaching. This edition of 
Ovid must quicken the poetic sense of even the most 
prosaic teachers. I cannot help feeling that many a 
pupil will thank Professor Kelsey for having shown 
how the same themes that inspired Ovid still live in 
our own English classics. Hitherto we have had to 
send our boys to Bulfinch for such proofs. Now we 
have had given to us a manual of mythology, a 
scholarly edition, a Latin classic, and an abundance 
of poetic inspiration, all at once. Ovid did not write 
to exhibit the grammatical usages of his day, or to 
help make philologists ; and Professor Kelsey has 
not made the mistake of supposing that his verses 
are best used wheu they are made to serve such 

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With Introduction, Notes, 
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Idioms, and tvventy fuU- 
page Illustrations. 

i2mo, half leather. $1.250 

TJiroughont the book every effort Jias niade, by way of illnstration and 
conimenty to render tJie study of Caesar 
attractive andnsefnl^ — a mea?is ofcnltnre 
as ivell as of discipline. TJiat tJie resnlt 
Jias bce:i to prodnce tJie best-eqnippcd edi- 
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Dr. J. H. Hanson, Classical Institute, Waterville, 
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Richard M. Jones, Head-Master Wm. Penn 
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Dr. James M. Milne, Normal School, Oneonta, 
A^ Y. — I am delighted with it. Its accurate scholar. 
ship, its broad scope, its illustrations, the clearness 
of the text, all make it the ideal book. 

Allyn &- Bacon .... Boston, 







i3mo, 198 pages. 6oct3. 

iGmo. 284 pages. Cocts. 

Revised Editions ivith Maps and Plans. 

For these new editions the books have been 
entirely rewrittsn, the size being increased by 
about one half. The distinctive features are: 

I. The concise and readablc Form in which 
the leading facts are presented ; minor details 
and unimportant names are omitted. 

II. The Maps and Flans, drawn and en- 
graved specially for the books, containing all 
the data, and only the data, necessary for fol- 
lowing the story. 

III. The Index, serving also as a key to the 
pronunciation of proper names. 

IV. Recent Examinaticn Papers, used at 
Harvard, Yale, and by the Kegents of the Uni- 
versity of New York. 

Oue or both hooks are in use in tke High Schools at 
Portland, Bath, Waterville, Me. ; Nashua, N. II. ; 
Salem, Somerville, Taunton, Waltham, Mass. ; 
Utica, Ithaca, Lockport, Geneva, Warsaw, N. Y. ; 
Wooster, Ohio ; Ottawa, 111. ; Milwaultee, Wis,; 
Kansas City, Mo. ; Mankato, Minnesota; 

Atso at Phillips Exeter Academy, St. Paurs 
School, Concord ; Albany and Colgate Academies, 
Berkeley School, N. Y. ; Peddie In.^^titnte, N. J. ; 
Smith Acad., St. I.ouis ; University School, Chicago; 
A7id tlie preparatory depa7'tments of jnaiiy colleges. 

Date Due 

Oemco 293-5 


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